Types of Tests


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Types of Tests, Traditonal Pen and Paper Tests, Different Test Formats,Guidelines in constructing test items

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Types of Tests

  1. 1. Traditional Pen and Paper Tests Prepared by: Group 3
  2. 2. WHAT IS A TEST? • A set of written or spoken questions used for finding out how much someone knows about a topic (Macmillian Dictionary)
  3. 3. TYPE OF TESTS Discussant: Loreto M. Isip Jr. and Maria Hervie S. Autor
  4. 4. EDUCATIONAL TESTS -Primary function is the measurement of results or effects of instruction. Ex. Achievement Tests.
  5. 5. PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS -Measures the tangible aspects of behaviour such as attitudes, interests, emotional adjustment, intelligence and ability. • Ex. Personality Tests
  6. 6. MASTERY TESTS -Achievement tests which measure the degree to which an individual has mastered certain instructional objectives or specific learning outcomes.
  7. 7. SURVEY TESTS -Measure a student’s general level of the achievement regarding a broad range of learning outcomes.
  8. 8. INDIVIDUAL TESTS -Administered on a one-to-one basis using questioning Ex. Individual Intelligence tests
  9. 9. GROUP TESTS -Administered to groups of individuals
  10. 10. POWER TESTS • Items are arranged in increasing order of difficulty • Measures the individual’s ability to answer more and more difficult item within a given field.
  11. 11. SPEED TESTS -The speed and accuracy with which the pupil is able to respond to the items are then measured.
  12. 12. VERBAL TESTS -Makes use of words -Mental test consists of items measuring vocabulary, verbal reasoning, comprehension etc. Examples: Verbal reasoning test, aptitude test etc.
  13. 13. Who is the thief in the famous Indian play “The Little Clay Cart”? • A. Charudatta • B. Vasantasena • C. Mendria • D. Sharvilaka
  14. 14. You got it right! D. Sharvilaka
  15. 15. NONVERBAL TESTS -Paper and pencil tests or oral tests -May involve drawings or physical objects Example: Non-verbal reasoning test
  17. 17. INFORMAL TESTS -Constructed by class-room teachers Ex: quizzes, long tests, etc.
  18. 18. STANDARDIZED TEST -constructed by text experts, administered and scored under standard conditions Ex: NCEE, NAT
  19. 19. CRITERION-REFERENCED TEST -Compares an individual's performance to the acceptable standard of performance - Requires completely specified objectives. Applications - Diagnosis of individual skill deficiencies - Evaluation and revision of instruction
  20. 20. NORM-REFERENCED TEST - Compares an individual's performance to the performance of others. - Requires varying item difficulties. Ex: College entrance exams
  21. 21. PLANNING (Writing Objectives, Table of Specifications) Discussant: Michelle Rubiso
  23. 23. Definition - A plan prepared by a classroom teacher as a bases for a test construction. - A two-way chart which describes a topics to be covered by a test and the number of items or points which will be associated with each topic.
  24. 24. Preparing Table of Specifications Tables of specifications have some commonalities. Among them are course content, behaviour, number of test items, placement and percentage.
  25. 25. Selecting Appropriate Item Format -Some item formats are less appropriate than others for measuring certain objectives.
  26. 26. Example #1: “student will be able to organize his ideas and write them in logical and coherent fashion,”
  27. 27. Example #2: “to obtain evidence of the pupils factual recall of names, places, dates, and events,”
  28. 28. Building Table of Specifications - Preparing a list of instructional objectives - Outlining the course content, - Preparing two-way chart.
  29. 29. OBJECTIVES CONTENT BASIC TERMS WEATHER SYMBOLS SPECIFIC FACTS INFLUENCE OF EACH FACTOR ON WEATHER FORMATION WEATHER MAPS TOTAL NUMBERS OF ITEMS PERCENT OF ITEMS Air Pressure 1 1 1 3 3 9 15 Wind 1 1 1 10 2 15 25 Temperature 1 1 1 4 2 15 Humidity and precipitation 1 1 1 7 5 15 25 Clouds 2 2 2 6 12 20 Total number of items 6 6 6 30 12 60 Percent of items 10 10 10 50 20 100 KNOWS UNDERSTANDS INTERPRETS
  30. 30. REFERENCES • https://www.google.com.ph/search?q=blooms+taxonomy&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=5 VeuU6zqCZDwoATxz4LQCg&ved=0CAYQ_AUoAQ&biw=1440&bih=775#q=blooms+taxonomy +revision&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=N0V5IEkfhQeDfM%253A%3BDmhJKtP8LsC7f M%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fclickerquestions.pbworks.com%252Fw%252Ff%252FBloomin g%252520Peacock.png%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fclickerquestions.pbworks.com%252Fw %252Fpage%252F31115153%252FWriting-questions-based-on-Bloom's- taxonomy%3B742%3B497 • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloom's_taxonomy • http://teaching.uncc.edu/learning-resources/articles-books/best-practice/goals- objectives/writing-objectives • - See more at: http://teaching.uncc.edu/learning-resources/articles-books/best-practice/goals- objectives/writing-objectives#sthash.M2LNJ04F.dpuf • http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/?q=assessment/quality_test_construction/teacher_tools /table_of_specifications
  32. 32. A. CONSTRUCTING/IMPROVING MAIN STEM • The main stem of the test item may be constructed in question form, completion form or direction form.
  33. 33. QUESTION FORM Which is the same as four hundred seventy? a. b. c.
  34. 34. COMPLETION FORM Four hundred seventy is the same as_____. a. b. c.
  35. 35. DIRECTION FORM Add: 22 + 43 a. b. c.
  36. 36. • The main stem should be clear. • The question should not be trivial. • Questions that tap only rote learning and memory should be avoided. • Questions should tap only one ability. • Each question should have only one answer, not several possible answers.
  37. 37. B. CONSTRUCTING/IMPROVING ALTERNATIVES • Alternatives should be as closely related to each other as possible. • Alternatives should be arranged in natural order. • Alternatives should be arranged according to length: from shortest to longest or vice versa. • Alternatives should have grammatical parallelism. • Arrangemant of correct answers should not follow any pattern.
  38. 38. RULES FOR CONTRUCTING ALTERNATIVE- RESPONSE ITEMS • Avoid specific determiners. • Avoid a disproportionate number of either true or false statements. • Avoid the exact wording of the textbook. • Avoid trick statement. • Limit each statement to the exact point to be tested. • Avoid double negatives.
  39. 39. • Avoid ambiguous statements • Avoid unfamiliar, figurative, or literary language • Avoid long statements, especially those involving complex sentence structures. • Avoid quantitative language wherever possible. • Commands cannot be “true” or “false”. • Require the simplest possible method of indicating the response. • Indicate by a short line by () where the response is to be recorded. • Arrange the statements in groups.
  40. 40. RULES FOR CONSTRUCTING COMPLETION ITEMS • Avoid indefinite statements • Avoid over mutilated statements • Omit key words and phrases, rather than trivial details. • Avoid lifting statements directly from the text. • Make the blanks of uniform length. • Avoid grammatical clues to correct the answer. • Try to choose statements in which there is only one correct response for the blanks.
  41. 41. • The required response should be a single word or a brief phrase. • Arrange the test so that the answers are in the column at the right of the sentences. • Avoid unordered series within an item. • Prepare a scoring key that contains all acceptable answers. • Allow one point for each correctly filled blank.
  42. 42. SUGGESTIONS FOR CONSTRUCTING MATCHING EXERCISES • Be careful about what material is put into the question column and what is put into the option column. • Include only homogenous material in each matching exercise. • Check each exercise carefully for unwarranted clues that may indicate matching parts. • Be sure that the students fully understand the bases on which matching is to be done.
  43. 43. • Out items on the left and number them, put options on the right and designate them by letters. • Arrange items and options in systematic order. • Place all the items and options for a matching type exercise on a single page, if possible. • Limit a matching exercise to not more than 10-15 items.
  44. 44. SUPPLY TESTS - require examinees to recall and supply the answer Ex. essay tests
  45. 45. USES OF ESSAY TESTS • Assess the ability to recall, organize, and integrate ideas. • Assess the ability to express oneself in writing. • Assess student understanding of subject matter.
  46. 46. ADVANTAGES OF USING ESSAY QUESTIONS • Allows the student to express himself in his own words. • Measures complex learning outcomes. • Promotes the development of problem- solving skills.
  47. 47. ADVANTAGES OF USING ESSAY QUESTIONS • Easy and economical to administer. • Encourages good study habits in students. • Does not encourage guessing and cheating during testing.
  48. 48. TYPES OF ESSAY QUESTIONS 1. Restricted-Response Essay Questions • Limits both the content and response • Useful for measuring learning outcomes requiring interpretation and application of data in a specific area.
  49. 49. Example Describe two situations that demonstrate the application of law and demand. Do not use those examples discussed in the class.
  50. 50. ADVANTAGES OF RESTRICTED RESPONSE QUESTIONS • Restricted response question is more structured. • Measure specific learning outcomes. • Provide for more ease of assessment.
  51. 51. LIMITATIONS OF RESTRICTED RESPONSE QUESTIONS • Restricts the scope of the topic to be discussed and indicating the nature of the desired response
  52. 52. TYPES OF ESSAY QUESTIONS 2. Extended Response Essay Questions - Used to select information that they think is pertinent, to organize the answer in accordance with their best judgment, and to integrate and evaluate ideas as they think suitable.
  53. 53. EXAMPLE OF EXTENDED RESPONSE ESSAY QUESTIONS Imagine that you and a friend found a magic wand. Write a story about an adventure that you and your friend had with the magic wand. • .
  54. 54. ADVANTAGES OF EXTENDED RESPONSE QUESTIONS • Measures learning outcomes at the higher cognitive levels • Expose the individual differences in attitudes, values and creative ability
  55. 55. LIMITATIONS OF EXTENDED RESPONSE QUESTIONS •Insufficient for measuring knowledge of factual materials •Scoring is usually difficult and unreliable
  56. 56. Restricted-Response Essay Question Ability to:  explain cause-effect relationships  describe applications of principles  present relevant arguments  formulate tenable hypotheses  formulate valid conclusions  state necessary assumptions  describe the limitations of data  explain methods and procedures Extended- Response Essays Ability to-  Produce, organize and express ideas  Integrate learning in different areas  Create original forms (e.g., designing an experiment  summarize (writing a summary of story)  construct creative stories  explain concepts and principles  persuade a reader
  57. 57. GENERAL AND SPECIFIC GUIDELINES IN CONSTRUCTING TESTS 1. Restrict the use of essay questions to those learning outcomes that cannot be satisfactorily measured by objective items.
  58. 58. 2. Construct question that will call forth the skills specified in the learning standards.
  59. 59. Example: Write a two page statement defending the importance of conserving our natural resources? (Your answer will be evaluated in terms of its organization, comprehensiveness, and relevance of the arguments presented.)
  60. 60. 3. Phrase the question so that the student’s task is clearly indicated. • Make it as specific as Possible
  61. 61. Example Poor: Why do birds migrate? Better: State three hypotheses that might explain why birds migrate south in the fall. Indicate the most probable one and give reasons for your selection.
  62. 62. Example: Poor: Compare the Democratic and Republican parties. Better: Compare the current policies of the Democratic and Republican parties with regard to the role of government in private business. Support your statements with examples when possible. (Your answer should be confined to two pages. It will be evaluated in terms of the appropriateness of the facts and examples presented and
  63. 63. 4. Indicate an approximate time and limit for each question. • As each question is constructed, teacher should estimate the approximate time needed for a satisfactory response.
  64. 64. 5. Avoid the use of optional questions • The use of optional questions might test the validity of the test results in the other way.
  65. 65. SCORING ESSAY QUESTIONS Tips to remember… • Use clear specifications of scoring criteria • Inform students of scoring criteria • Use an initial review to find “anchor” responses for comparison • Use descriptive rather than judgmental scores or levels (“writing is clear and thoughts are complete” vs. “excellent”)
  66. 66. SCORING FOR RESTRICTED RESPONSE ESSAY QUESTIONS • In most instances, the teacher should write an example of an expected response • For example, if the student is asked to describe three factors that contributed to the start of the Civil War, the teacher would construct a list of acceptable reasons and give the student 1 point for each of up to three reasons given from the list
  67. 67. SCORING FOR EXTENDED-RESPONSE ESSAY QUESTIONS Analytic Scoring Rubrics • Consist of a rubric broken down into key dimensions that will be evaluated • Enables teacher to focus on one characteristic of a response at a time • Provides maximum feedback for students
  68. 68. Holistic Scoring Rubrics • Yield a single overall score taking into account the entire response • Can be used to grade essays more quickly • Does not provide as much specific feedback as analytic rubric • Should not consist of scores alone, but rather contain scores accompanied by statements of the characteristics of the response • Example Table 10.3 and 10.4
  69. 69. SUGGESTIONS FOR SCORING ESSAY QUESTIONS • Prepare an outline of the expected answer in advance and use a clear scoring rubric • Use the scoring rubric that is most appropriate • Decide how to handle factors that are irrelevant to the learning outcomes being measured
  70. 70. • Evaluate all responses to one question before going on to the next one • When possible, evaluate answers without looking at the student’s name • If especially important decisions are to be based on the results, obtain two or more independent ratings • Look out for bluffing! Page 247
  71. 71. ASSESSMENTS & RUBRICS | CRESST - CRESST OFFICIAL SITE • http://www.cse.ucla.edu/products/te achers/highschool_scoringmanual.p df • http://www.cse.ucla.edu/products/as sessments.php#
  73. 73. First Tryout Third Tryout Second Tryout
  74. 74. A.First Tryout Item Analysis- process of examining the pupils’ responses to each test item. Specifically, what one looks for is the difficulty and discriminating ability of the item as well as the effectiveness of each alternative.
  75. 75. U-L Index Method (Stocklein, 1957) Steps in using this method: 1. Score the papers and rank them from highest to lowest according to the total score. 2. Separate the top 27% and the bottom 27% of the papers. 3. Tally the responses made to each test item by each individual in the upper 27% group. 4. Tally the responses to each test item by each individual in the lower 27% group.
  76. 76. U-L INDEX METHOD (STOCKLEIN, 1957) 5. Compute the percentage of the upper group that got the item right and call it “U”. 6. Compute the percentage of the lower group that got the item right and call it “L”. 7. Average U and L percentage and the result is the difficulty index of the item. 8. Subtract the L percentage from the U percentage and the result is the discrimination index.
  77. 77. .00 - .20 Very Difficult .21 - .80 Moderately Difficult .81 – 1.00 Very Easy
  78. 78. DIFFICULTY INDEX AND DISCRIMINATION INDEX Difficulty Index- we mean the percentage of the pupils who got the item right. It can also be interrupted as how easy or how difficult an item is. Discrimination index- separates the bright pupils from the poor ones. Thus, a good test item separates the bright from the poor pupils.
  79. 79. B. Second Tryout After analyzing the results of the first tryout, test items are usually revised for improvement. After revising those items which need revision, another tryout is necessary. The revised form of the test is administered to a new set of samples. The same conditions as in the first tryout are followed.
  80. 80. C. THIRD OR FINAL TRYOUT After two revisions, the test is considered ready to be in its final form. The test is now in good terms of the difficulty and the discrimination indices. The test is ready to be tested for reliability and validity.
  81. 81. ESTABLISHING THE TEST VALIDITY • Validity can be best defined as the degree to which a test is capable of achieving certain aims. It is sometimes defined as truthfulness.
  82. 82. KINDS OF VALIDITY Content Validity Criterion- Related Validity Construct Validity Related to how adequately the content of the test samples the domain about which inferences are to be made Pertains to the empirical technique of studying the relationship between the test and some independent external measures (criteria). The degree to which the test scores can be accounted for by certain explanatory constructs in a psychological theory
  83. 83. .