-Constructed by class-room
Ex: quizzes, long tests, etc.
-constructed by text experts,
administered and scored under
-Compares an individual's performance to the
acceptable standard of performance
- Requires completely specified objectives.
- Diagnosis of individual skill deficiencies
- Evaluation and revision of instruction
- Compares an individual's performance
to the performance of others.
- Requires varying item difficulties.
Ex: College entrance exams
(Writing Objectives, Table of
Discussant: Michelle Rubiso
- A plan prepared by a classroom
teacher as a bases for a test
- A two-way chart which describes a
topics to be covered by a test and
the number of items or points which
will be associated with each topic.
Preparing Table of Specifications
Tables of specifications have
some commonalities. Among
them are course content,
behaviour, number of test items,
placement and percentage.
Selecting Appropriate Item Format
-Some item formats are less
appropriate than others for
measuring certain objectives.
“student will be able to organize
his ideas and write them in
logical and coherent fashion,”
“to obtain evidence of the pupils
factual recall of names, places,
dates, and events,”
Building Table of Specifications
- Preparing a list of instructional
- Outlining the course content,
- Preparing two-way chart.
CONTENT BASIC TERMS WEATHER
Air Pressure 1 1 1 3 3 9 15
Wind 1 1 1 10 2 15 25
Temperature 1 1 1 4 2 15
1 1 1 7 5 15 25
Clouds 2 2 2 6 12 20
Total number of
6 6 6 30 12 60
Percent of items 10 10 10 50 20 100
KNOWS UNDERSTANDS INTERPRETS
• The main stem should be clear.
• The question should not be trivial.
• Questions that tap only rote learning
and memory should be avoided.
• Questions should tap only one ability.
• Each question should have only one
answer, not several possible
• Alternatives should be as closely related to each other as
• Alternatives should be arranged in natural order.
• Alternatives should be arranged according to length: from
shortest to longest or vice versa.
• Alternatives should have grammatical parallelism.
• Arrangemant of correct answers should not follow any
RULES FOR CONTRUCTING ALTERNATIVE-
• Avoid specific determiners.
• Avoid a disproportionate number of either true or false
• Avoid the exact wording of the textbook.
• Avoid trick statement.
• Limit each statement to the exact point to be tested.
• Avoid double negatives.
• Avoid ambiguous statements
• Avoid unfamiliar, figurative, or literary language
• Avoid long statements, especially those involving complex
• Avoid quantitative language wherever possible.
• Commands cannot be “true” or “false”.
• Require the simplest possible method of indicating the
• Indicate by a short line by () where the response is to be
• Arrange the statements in groups.
RULES FOR CONSTRUCTING COMPLETION
• Avoid indefinite statements
• Avoid over mutilated statements
• Omit key words and phrases, rather than trivial details.
• Avoid lifting statements directly from the text.
• Make the blanks of uniform length.
• Avoid grammatical clues to correct the answer.
• Try to choose statements in which there is only one correct
response for the blanks.
• The required response should be a single word
or a brief phrase.
• Arrange the test so that the answers are in the
column at the right of the sentences.
• Avoid unordered series within an item.
• Prepare a scoring key that contains all
• Allow one point for each correctly filled blank.
SUGGESTIONS FOR CONSTRUCTING
• Be careful about what material is put into the question
column and what is put into the option column.
• Include only homogenous material in each matching
• Check each exercise carefully for unwarranted clues that
may indicate matching parts.
• Be sure that the students fully understand the bases on
which matching is to be done.
• Out items on the left and number them, put options
on the right and designate them by letters.
• Arrange items and options in systematic order.
• Place all the items and options for a matching type
exercise on a single page, if possible.
• Limit a matching exercise to not more than 10-15
- require examinees to recall
and supply the answer
Ex. essay tests
USES OF ESSAY TESTS
• Assess the ability to recall, organize,
and integrate ideas.
• Assess the ability to express oneself in
• Assess student understanding of
ADVANTAGES OF USING ESSAY
• Allows the student to express himself in
his own words.
• Measures complex learning outcomes.
• Promotes the development of problem-
ADVANTAGES OF USING ESSAY QUESTIONS
• Easy and economical to administer.
• Encourages good study habits in students.
• Does not encourage guessing and cheating
TYPES OF ESSAY QUESTIONS
1. Restricted-Response Essay Questions
• Limits both the content and response
• Useful for measuring learning outcomes
requiring interpretation and application of
data in a specific area.
Describe two situations that demonstrate
the application of law and demand. Do not
use those examples discussed in the
ADVANTAGES OF RESTRICTED RESPONSE
• Restricted response question is
• Measure specific learning
• Provide for more ease of
LIMITATIONS OF RESTRICTED RESPONSE
• Restricts the scope of the topic to
be discussed and indicating the
nature of the desired response
TYPES OF ESSAY QUESTIONS
2. Extended Response Essay
- Used to select information that they
think is pertinent, to organize the answer
in accordance with their best judgment,
and to integrate and evaluate ideas as
they think suitable.
EXAMPLE OF EXTENDED RESPONSE ESSAY
Imagine that you and a friend found a
magic wand. Write a story about an
adventure that you and your friend
had with the magic wand.
ADVANTAGES OF EXTENDED
• Measures learning outcomes at the
higher cognitive levels
• Expose the individual differences in
attitudes, values and creative ability
LIMITATIONS OF EXTENDED
•Insufficient for measuring
knowledge of factual materials
•Scoring is usually difficult and
Restricted-Response Essay Question Ability to:
explain cause-effect relationships
describe applications of principles
present relevant arguments
formulate tenable hypotheses
formulate valid conclusions
state necessary assumptions
describe the limitations of data
explain methods and procedures
Extended- Response Essays Ability to-
Produce, organize and express ideas
Integrate learning in different areas
Create original forms (e.g., designing an
summarize (writing a summary of story)
construct creative stories
explain concepts and principles
persuade a reader
GENERAL AND SPECIFIC GUIDELINES IN
1. Restrict the use of essay questions
to those learning outcomes that
cannot be satisfactorily measured by
2. Construct question that will
call forth the skills specified in
the learning standards.
Write a two page statement defending the
importance of conserving our natural
resources? (Your answer will be evaluated in
terms of its organization,
comprehensiveness, and relevance of the
3. Phrase the question so that the
student’s task is clearly indicated.
• Make it as specific as Possible
Poor: Why do birds migrate?
Better: State three hypotheses that might
explain why birds migrate south in the fall.
Indicate the most probable one and give
reasons for your selection.
Poor: Compare the Democratic and
Better: Compare the current
policies of the Democratic and
Republican parties with regard to
the role of government in private
business. Support your statements
with examples when possible. (Your
answer should be confined to two
pages. It will be evaluated in
terms of the appropriateness of the
facts and examples presented and
4. Indicate an approximate time and
limit for each question.
• As each question is constructed,
teacher should estimate the
approximate time needed for a
5. Avoid the use of optional questions
• The use of optional questions might
test the validity of the test results in
the other way.
SCORING ESSAY QUESTIONS
Tips to remember…
• Use clear specifications of
• Inform students of scoring
• Use an initial review to find
“anchor” responses for
• Use descriptive rather than
judgmental scores or levels
(“writing is clear and thoughts
are complete” vs. “excellent”)
SCORING FOR RESTRICTED RESPONSE ESSAY
• In most instances, the
teacher should write an
example of an expected
• For example, if the student
is asked to describe three
factors that contributed to
the start of the Civil War,
the teacher would construct a
list of acceptable reasons
and give the student 1 point
for each of up to three
reasons given from the list
SCORING FOR EXTENDED-RESPONSE ESSAY
Analytic Scoring Rubrics
• Consist of a rubric broken
down into key dimensions
that will be evaluated
• Enables teacher to focus on
one characteristic of a
response at a time
• Provides maximum feedback
Holistic Scoring Rubrics
• Yield a single overall score
taking into account the
• Can be used to grade essays
• Does not provide as much
specific feedback as analytic
• Should not consist of scores
alone, but rather contain
scores accompanied by
statements of the
characteristics of the
• Example Table 10.3 and 10.4
SUGGESTIONS FOR SCORING ESSAY
• Prepare an outline of the expected
answer in advance and use a clear
• Use the scoring rubric that is most
• Decide how to handle factors that
are irrelevant to the learning
outcomes being measured
• Evaluate all responses to one
question before going on to
the next one
• When possible, evaluate
answers without looking at
the student’s name
• If especially important
decisions are to be based on
the results, obtain two or
more independent ratings
• Look out for bluffing! Page
ASSESSMENTS & RUBRICS |
CRESST - CRESST OFFICIAL SITE
process of examining the pupils’
responses to each test item.
Specifically, what one looks for is the difficulty and
discriminating ability of the item as well as the
effectiveness of each alternative.
U-L Index Method (Stocklein, 1957)
Steps in using this method:
1. Score the papers and rank them from highest to lowest
according to the total score.
2. Separate the top 27% and the bottom 27% of the papers.
3. Tally the responses made to each test item by each
individual in the upper 27% group.
4. Tally the responses to each test item by each individual in the
lower 27% group.
U-L INDEX METHOD (STOCKLEIN, 1957)
5. Compute the percentage of the upper group that got the
item right and call it “U”.
6. Compute the percentage of the lower group that got the
item right and call it “L”.
7. Average U and L percentage and the result is the difficulty
index of the item.
8. Subtract the L percentage from the U percentage and the
result is the discrimination index.
.00 - .20 Very Difficult
.21 - .80 Moderately Difficult
.81 – 1.00 Very Easy
DIFFICULTY INDEX AND DISCRIMINATION INDEX
Difficulty Index- we mean the percentage of
the pupils who got the item right. It can also be
interrupted as how easy or how difficult an item
Discrimination index- separates the bright
pupils from the poor ones. Thus, a good test
item separates the bright from the poor pupils.
B. Second Tryout
After analyzing the results of the first tryout, test
items are usually revised for improvement. After
revising those items which need revision, another
tryout is necessary.
The revised form of the test is
administered to a new set of samples. The same
conditions as in the first tryout are followed.
C. THIRD OR FINAL TRYOUT
After two revisions, the test is
considered ready to be in its final form.
The test is now in good terms of the
difficulty and the discrimination indices.
The test is ready to be tested for
reliability and validity.
ESTABLISHING THE TEST
• Validity can be best defined as the
degree to which a test is capable of
achieving certain aims. It is
sometimes defined as truthfulness.
KINDS OF VALIDITY
Validity Construct Validity
Related to how adequately the
content of the test samples the
domain about which inferences
are to be made
Pertains to the empirical
technique of studying the
relationship between the test
and some independent
external measures (criteria).
The degree to which the test
scores can be accounted for
by certain explanatory
constructs in a psychological