[Fis94] individuals are part of society.[Wit53] speech is a 'language-game'.
Blasphemy laws endanger free speech both in us and eu
Hypothesis: Free speech is endangered by blasphemy laws both in US and EU.
Free speechT. Jefferson: "Freedom of speechcannot be limited without being lost“.Lèse-majesté: Offence against the dignity ofa monarch or a state is extended to(religious) groups.• [Mil] s Harm principle: "If all mankind minus one were of oneopinion, and only one person were of the contrary opinion, mankindwould be no more justified in silencing that one person than he, if hehad the power, would be justified in silencing mankind.“• Harm is a restriction to this.• Offence is never harm.• [Fei84] s Offence Principle: “Offence is measured through the easewith which it can be avoided, the motives of the speaker, the numberof people offended, the intensity of the offense and the interest ofthe community.”
South Park caseYou can not show Mohammed,because this will lead to violence.No! You can not decide what can besubject to criticism and what can’t.Harm principleOffence principlexx• According to the Harm principle media can depict Mohammed since no direct harm iscaused. According to the Offence principle, the ‘ease of avoiding’ the offence is simplynot buying Danish newspapers.
• EU– “It has been insensitive. It has been disrespectful and it hasbeen wrong."Reactions of US, EU and OIC• Request by the Organisation of the IslamicConference (e.g., Saudi Arabia, Iran, Qatar):– Implementation of UN Resolution 16/18 whichprohibits the defamation of all prophets and faiths.– The European media has to adopt this code of ethics.• US"We all fully recognize and respect freedom ofthe press and expression but it must be coupledwith press responsibility.“
Who is the OIC?„Crime“ Punishment YearQatar 2012Saudi Arabia Driving a car (woman) 2011Iran Being gay 2009Twitter: “All Arabgovernments areindiscriminatethieves".Five year prison10 laches with awhip• Request by the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (e.g., Saudi Arabia, Iran, Qatar):– UN Resolution which should prohibit defamation of all prophets and faiths.– The European media has to adopt this code of ethics.
Offence Reaction Year Category„Piss christ“ Petitions, angry letters, prayers 1987„Paradise Faith“:Crucifixmasturbation2012Mohammed cartoons Both peaceful and violentprotests2006Difference in valuesDiscussion:• What effects will the blasphemy laws of the OIC have on Europe and the US?• How would you apply the Harm and Offence Principle to the Danish cartooncase?