Antonie van LeeuwenhoekBorn October 24, 1632Delft, NetherlandsDied August 26, 1723 (aged 90)Delft, Netherlands Residence NetherlandsNationality DutchFields Microscopist and Biologist Known for Discovery of protozoaFirst red blood cell descriptionVan Leeuwenhoeks interest in microscopes and a familiarity with glass processing led to one of themost significant, and simultaneously well-hidden, technical insights in the history of science. By placingthe middle of a small rod of soda lime glass in a hot flame, Van Leeuwenhoek could pull the hot sectionapart to create two long whiskers of glass. Then, by reinserting the end of one whisker into the flame, hecould create a very small, high-quality glass sphere. These spheres became the lenses of hismicroscopes, with the smallest spheres providing the highest magnifications. An experiencedbusinessman, Leeuwenhoek realized that if his simple method for creating the critically important lenswas revealed, the scientific community of his time would likely disregard or even forget his role inmicroscopy. He therefore allowed others to believe that he was laboriously spending most of his nightsand free time grinding increasingly tiny lenses to use in microscopes, even though this belief conflictedboth with his construction of hundreds of microscopes and his habit of building a new microscopewhenever he chanced upon an interesting specimen that he wanted to preserve.
William HarveyBorn 1 April 1578FolkestoneDied 3 June 1657 (aged 79)RoehamptonNationality EnglishFields Medicine Anatomy Doctoral advisor Hieronymus FabriciusKnown for Systemic circulation
Harvey continued to participate in the Lumleian lectures while also taking care of his patients atSt. Bartholomews Hospital; he thus soon attained an important and fairly lucrative practice,which climaxed with his appointment as Physician Extraordinary to King James I on 3 February1618. He seems to have similarly served various aristocrats, including Lord Chancellor Bacon.In 1628 he published in Frankfurt his completed treatise on the circulation of the blood, the DeMotu Cordis. As a result of negative comments by other physicians Harvey "fell mightily in hispractice", but continued advancing his career. He was re-elected Censor of the College ofPhysicians in 1629, having been elected for the first time in 1613 and the second time in 1625.Eventually, Harvey was also elected Treasurer of the College.Louis PasteurBorn December 27, 1822Dole, Jura, Franche-Comté, FranceDied September 28, 1895 (aged 72)Marnes-la-Coquette, Hauts-de-Seine, FranceResidence FranceNationality FrenchFields Chemistry Microbiology Institutions Dijon Lycée University of Strasbourg Université Lille Nord deFrance École Normale SupérieureAlma mater École Normale Supérieure
Notable students Charles FriedelLouis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822, in Dole in the Jura region of France, into the family of apoor tanner. Louis grew up in the town of Arbois. This fact probably instilled in the younger Pasteurthe strong patriotism that later was a defining element of his character. Louis Pasteur was an averagestudent in his early years, but he was gifted in drawing and painting. His pastels and portraits of hisparents and friends, made when he was 15, were later kept in the museum of the Pasteur Institute inParis. He earned his bachelor of arts degree (1840) and bachelor of science degree (1842) at the ÉcoleNormale Supérieure. After serving briefly as professor of physics at Dijon Lycée in 1848, he becameprofessor of chemistry at the University of Strasbourg, where he met and courted Marie Laurent,daughter of the universitys rector, in 1849. They were married on May 29, 1849, and together had fivechildren, only two of whom survived to adulthood; the other three died of typhoid. These personaltragedies inspired Pasteur to try to find cures for diseases such as typhoid.AristotleBorn 384 BCStageira, ChalcidiceDied 322 BC (age 61 or 62)EuboeaNationality Greek
Era Ancient philosophyRegion Western philosophySchool Peripatetic schoolAristotelianismMain interests Physics, Metaphysics, Poetry, Theatre, Music, Rhetoric, Politics, Government, Ethics,Biology, ZoologyNotable ideas Golden mean, Reason, Logic, Syllogism, PassionAristotle "says that on the subject of reasoning he had nothing else on an earlier date to speak of".However, Plato reports that syntax was devised before him, by Prodicus of Ceos, who was concerned bythe correct use of words. Logic seems to have emerged from dialectics; the earlier philosophers madefrequent use of concepts like reductio ad absurdum in their discussions, but never truly understood thelogical implications. Even Plato had difficulties with logic; although he had a reasonable conception of adeductive system, he could never actually construct one and relied instead on his dialectic. Platobelieved that deduction would simply follow from premises, hence he focused on maintaining solidpremises so that the conclusion would logically follow. Consequently, Plato realized that a method forobtaining conclusions would be most beneficial. He never succeeded in devising such a method, but hisbest attempt was published in his book Sophist, where he introduced his division method.Ronald Ross
Born 13 May 1857Almora, IndiaDied 16 September 1932 (aged 75)London, England, United KingdomNationality BritishFields MedicineAlma mater St. Fratbore HospitalKnown for Malaria parasite discoveryNotable awards Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1902)Ross studied malaria between 1882 and 1899. He worked on malaria at the Presidency GeneralHospital, Calcutta. Ross built a bungalow with a laboratory at Mahanad village, where he used to stayfrom time to time collecting mosquitoes in Mahanad and adjoining villages and conducting research. In1883, Ross was posted as the Acting Garrison Surgeon at Bangalore during which time he noticed thepossibility of controlling mosquitoes by controlling their access to water.In 1897, Ross was posted in Ooty and fell ill with malaria. After this he was transferred to Secunderabad,where Osmania University and its medical school is located. He discovered the presence of the malarial
parasite within a specific species of mosquito, of the genus Anopheles. He initially called them dapple-wings.He was able to find the malaria parasite in a mosquito that he artificially fed on a malaria patientnamed Hussain Khan.In 1902, Ross was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his remarkable work on malaria. His Indianassistant Kishori Mohan Bandyopadhyay was awarded a gold medal.In 1899, Ross went back to Britain and joined Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine as a professor of tropical medicine. In 1901 Ross was elected a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons and also a Fellow of the Royal Society, of whichhe became Vice-President from 1911 to 1913. In 1902 he was appointed a Companion of the MostHonourable Order of Bath by King Edward VII, and discovered how malaria was transmitted. In 1911 hewas elevated to the rank of Knight Commander of the same Order.During his active career Ross advocated the task of prevention of malaria in different countries. Hecarried out surveys and initiated schemes in many places, including West Africa, the SuezCanal zone, Greece, Mauritius, Cyprus, and in the areas affected by the First World War. He also initiatedorganisations, which have proved to be well established, for the prevention of malaria within the plantingindustries of India and Ceylon. He made many contributions to the epidemiology of malaria and tomethods of its survey and assessment, but perhaps his greatest was the development of mathematicalmodels for the study of its epidemiology, initiated in his report on Mauritius in 1908, elaborated in hisPrevention of malaria in 1911 and further elaborated in a more generalised form in scientific paperspublished by the Royal Society in 1915 and 1916. These papers represented a profound mathematicalinterest which was not confined to epidemiology, but led him to make material contributions to both pureand applied mathematics.Through these works Ross continued his great contribution in the form of the discovery of thetransmission of malaria by the mosquito, but he also found time and mental energy for many otherpursuits, being a poet, playwright, writer and painter. Particularly, his poetic works gained him wideacclamation which was independent of his medical and mathematical standing.Honors and awardsRoss received many honours in addition to the Nobel Prize, and was given Honorary Membership oflearned societies of most countries of Europe, and of many other continents. He got an honorary M.D.degree in Stockholm in 1910 at the centenary celebration of the Caroline Institute and his 1923autobiography Memoirs, Etc. was awarded that years James Tait Black Memorial Prize. Whilst hisvivacity and single-minded search for truth caused friction with some people, he enjoyed a vast circle offriends in Europe, Asia and the United States who respected him for his personality as well as for hisgenius.In India Ross is remembered with great respect. Because of his relentless work on malaria, the deadlyepidemic which used to claim thousands of lives every year could be successfully controlled. There areroads named after him in many Indian towns and cities. In Calcutta the road linking Presidency GeneralHospital with Kidderpore Road has been renamed after him as Sir Ronald Ross Sarani. Earlier this roadwas known as Hospital Road. In his memory, the regional infectious disease hospital at Hyderabad wasnamed after him as Sir Ronald Ross Institute of Tropical and Communicable Diseases in recognition ofhis services in the field of tropical diseases. The building where he worked and actually discovered the
malarial parasite, located in Secunderabad near the old Begumpet airport, is a heritage site and the roadleading up to the building is named Sir Ronald Ross Road.In Ludhiana, Christian Medical College has named its Hostel as "Ross Hostel". The young doctors oftencall themselves "Rossians". The University of Surrey, UK, has named a road after him in its Manor Park Residences.Ronald Ross primary school near Wimbledon Common is named after him. The schools coat of arms includes a mosquito in one quarter.Sir Ronald Ross Institute of Parasitology is established in memory of Ronald Ross in Hyderabad, under Osmania University.James Dewey WatsonBorn April 6, 1928 (age 84)Chicago, United StatesNationality AmericanFields GeneticsInstitutions Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Harvard University University of Cambridge National Institutes of HealthAlma mater University of Chicago Indiana UniversityKnown for DNA structure
Molecular biologyNotable awards Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine (1962) Copley Medal (1993)James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist, and zoologist,best known as a co-discoverer of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick. Watson, Crick,and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine"for their discoveriesconcerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in livingmaterial".Yellapragada Subbarao Born 12 January 1895 Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh,India Died 9 August 1948 (aged 53) Nationality Indian Fields Medicine Institutions Lederle Laboratories, a division of American Cyanamid(Acquired by Wyeth in 1994, now Pfizer)
Alma mater Madras Medical College Harvard University Known for Discovery of the role ofPhosphocreatine and Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) in muscular activity Synthesis of Folic Acid Synthesis of Methotrexate Discovery of Diethylcarbamazine M. S. Swaminathan M. S. SwaminathanBorn 7 August 1925 (age 86) Kumbakonam, Tamil NaduResidence Chennai, Tamil NaduNationality India
Fields Agricultural scienceInstitutions MS Swaminathan Research FoundationAlma mater Maharajas College Tamil Nadu Agricultural University University of Cambridge University of Wisconsin-MadisonKnown for High-yielding varieties of wheatin IndiaInfluences Dr. Norman BorlaugNotable Padma Shri (1967)awards Padma Bhushan (1972) Padma Vibhushan (1989) World Food Prize (1987) Har Gobind Khorana
Born January 9, 1922 Raipur, Punjab, British Raj (now part of Pakistan)Died November 9, 2011 (aged 89) Concord, Massachusetts, U.S.Residence India, United States, United KingdomNationality AmericanFields Molecular BiologyInstitutions MIT (1970–2007) University of Wisconsin, Madison (1960–70) University of British Columbia(1952–60) Cambridge University (1950–52) Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (1948–49)Alma mater University of the Punjab University of LiverpoolKnown for First to demonstrate the role ofNucleotides in protein synthesisNotable Nobel Prize in Medicine (1968),Gairdnerawards Foundation International Award, Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize, Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research, Padma Vibhushan Birbal Sahni
Birbal SahniBorn 1891 Behra, Saharanpur District, West PunjabDied 1949 LucknowCitizenship IndiaNationality IndianFields PaleobotanyInstitutions LucknowAlma mater Government College University, Lahore, Emmanuel College, CambridgeDoctoral advisor Professor Seward
Other Goebel academic advisors Known for Bennettitalean plant, Homoxylon - a new type of petrified woodHonorsSahni was recognized by several academies and institutions in India and abroad for his research. He waselected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London (FRS) in 1936, the highest British scientific honor,awarded for the first time to an Indian botanist. He was elected Vice-President, Palaeobotany section, ofthe 5th and 6th International Botanical Congresses of 1930 and 1935, respectively; General President ofthe Indian Science Congress for 1940; President, National Academy of Sciences, India, 1937–1939 and1943-1944. In 1948 he was elected an Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts andSciences. Another high honor which came to him was his election as an Honorary President ofthe International Botanical Congress, Stockholm in 1950, but he died before he could serve.After his demise, Sahnis samadhi was placed within the Institute of Paleobotany as a reminder of hisgroundbreaking work.Sir.T.S. VENKATARAMANSir.T.S. VENKATARAMAN: Venkataraman was the head of the imperial cane breeding stationat Coimbatore. He produced hybrid variety of sugar cane by crossing sugar cane with jowar. This sugarcane produced a lot of sugar. The Queen of England gave him in 1942Honors and Awards Recipient of College of Engineering Excellence in Teaching Award-TDEC (1999)
Christian R. and Mary F. Lindback Excellence in Teaching Award (1993) Laura S. Campbell Excellence in teaching award (1985)Panchanan MaheshwariBorn In November 190 in Jaipur (Rajasthan). During his college days, he was inspired bu Dr. W Dudgen,American missionary teacher, to devlop interest in botany and especiallly morphology. he pursued hispostgraduate university education in botany at Allahabad University.He worked on ebryological aspects, especially the embryo sac of many plants belonging to more than1000 families. He popularised the use of embryological characters in taxonomy. He estalished thedepartment of Botany, University of Delhi as an important center of reseaech in embryology and tissueculture. The department was recognised by University Grand Commmision as center of advanced studyin Botany. Panchanann Maheshwari was assisted by his wife in preparation of slides in addition to herhousehold duties. Way back in 1950 he talked of contacts between embryology, physiology andgenetics. He also emphasised the need of initiation of work on artificial culture of immature embryos.These days tissue culture has become a landmark in science. His work on test tube fertilisation and intra-ovarian pollination won worldwide acclaim. The book considered "magnum opus",the Introduction tothe Embryology of Angiosperms was completed by him in 1950. He also founded an internationalresearch journal Phytomorphology and popular magazine The Botanica in 1950. Volume on recentadvances in embryology of angiosperms (1963), edited by Maheshwari, became a refferal forresearchers in embryology.he dovoted his life to science. Many of his wellwishers and studnts felt pride in naming their newfindings after him, such as Panchanania jaipurensis (fungus), Oldenlandia maheshwarii(Rubiaceaemember).he was honoured with fellowship of Royal society of London (FRS), Indian national Science Academy andseveral other insitutions of excellence. His interest in science also made a significant contribution toschool education in the form of textbooks of Biology for secondary schools published by NCERT in 1964
Salim AliBorn November 12, 1896Mumbai, British IndiaDied July 27, 1987 (aged 90)Mumbai, IndiaNationality IndiaFields ornithologynatural historyInfluences Erwin StresemannNotable awards Padma Vibhushan (1976)Sálim Moizuddin Abdul Ali [saːl əliː (November 12, 1896 – July 27, 1987) was an Indian ornithologist ɪm ]and naturalist. Known as the "birdman of India", Salim Ali was among the first Indians to conductsystematic bird surveys across India and his bird books helped develop ornithology. He became the keyfigure behind the Bombay Natural History Society after 1947 and used his personal influence to garnergovernment support for the organization, create the Bharatpur bird sanctuary (Keoladeo National Park)and prevent the destruction of what is now the Silent Valley National Park. He was awarded Indiassecond highest civilian honour, the Padma Vibhushan in 1976.