Sam's Copy

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Sam's Copy

  1. 1. CHLOROPHYTA<br />
  2. 2. Characteristics<br />NUCLEUS<br /><ul><li>Uninucleate
  3. 3. Multinucleate
  4. 4. Cells are eukaryotic</li></ul>COLOUR<br /><ul><li>Green
  5. 5. Some may be red or orange</li></ul>FLAGELLATION<br /><ul><li>Vegetative and reproductive cells are motile
  6. 6. 2 or multiples of 2 flagella equal in length
  7. 7. No mastigonemes</li></ul>MORPHOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Unicellular flagellates
  8. 8. Colonial flagellates
  9. 9. Non-motile unicells
  10. 10. Non-motile colonies
  11. 11. Branched or unbranched filaments
  12. 12. Parenchymatous or siphonousthalli</li></ul>REPRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>vegetative: cell division, autocolony formation, fragmentation
  13. 13. asexual: zoospores or autospores
  14. 14. Sexual: isogamous, anisogamous or oogamous
  15. 15. Resting stages: eukaryotic akinetes, may form thick walls and become resting spores</li></ul>LIFE HISTORY<br /><ul><li>Zygotic
  16. 16. Sporic
  17. 17. Gametic</li></ul>CHLOROPLAST<br /><ul><li>2 membrane envelopes
  18. 18. No PER
  19. 19. Thylakoids in stacks of several to many
  20. 20. DNA scattered
  21. 21. Starch is stored within the chloroplast
  22. 22. Conspicuous chloroplasts</li></ul>EYESPOT<br />- Within the chloroplast but not associated with the flagella<br />
  23. 23. Acrosiphonia sp. <br />Ploidy: N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic<br />
  24. 24. Codium fragile<br /><ul><li>Coenocytic
  25. 25. Dichotomously branched
  26. 26. multinucleate</li></ul>Ploidy: 2n<br />Life History: Gametic<br />
  27. 27. Codium Sporangia <br />
  28. 28. Codium Utricle<br />
  29. 29. Prasiola sp. <br />
  30. 30. Ulvalinza<br /><ul><li>Parenchymatous blade</li></li></ul><li>Ulvaintestinalis Tubular blade formation<br />
  31. 31. UlvalactucaParenchymatous blade formation<br />
  32. 32. Example of a Chlorophyte<br />
  33. 33. Example of a Chlorophyte 2<br />
  34. 34. Example of a Chlorophyte 3<br />
  35. 35. Example of a Chlorophyte 4: Volvox sexual reproduction<br />
  36. 36. Example of a Chlorophyte 5<br />
  37. 37. Example of a Chlorophyte 6<br />
  38. 38. Example of a Chlorophyte 7<br />oogonia<br />Antheridium<br />
  39. 39. Chloroplast of a desmid<br /><ul><li>Note the pronounced stacking of the thylakoids
  40. 40. The 2 membranes of the chloroplast envelope and the scattered light areas containing fibrils of DNA
  41. 41. green algal chloroplasts are similar in many respects to those of high plants</li></li></ul><li>Chlamydomonas<br />Upper: diagrammatic<br />Lower: electron micrograph<br />
  42. 42. Section through the eyespot of Chlamydomonas<br /><ul><li>These eyespots may be one or several layers thick
  43. 43. they are located within the chloroplast but not close to the flagella
  44. 44. the eyespot operates by intercepting (shading) and/or reflecting (increasing the illumination) light onto the photoreceptor pigment, which is localized in either the plasma or chloroplast membranes over the eyespot
  45. 45. note the stacking of the thylakoids</li></li></ul><li>Portions of sections through chloroplasts of the Chlorophyta<br /><ul><li>This is the only algal phylum in which starch is stored in the chloroplast
  46. 46. It may be in a sheath surrounding the pyrenoid and/or in other parts of the chloroplast</li></li></ul><li>Chloroplast of a ‘higher plant’<br /><ul><li>Compare to previous slide
  47. 47. note the arrangements of the thylakoids into grana stacks (dark areas) which are connected by stroma lamellae
  48. 48. the scattered areas containing chloroplast DNA (in between the grana stacks) (NA)
  49. 49. RUBISCO in higher plants is found in the stroma of the chloroplast (S)</li></li></ul><li>RHODOPHYTA<br />
  50. 50. Characteristics<br />NUCLEUS<br /><ul><li>Very small nuclei
  51. 51. Often multinucleate</li></ul>COLOUR<br /><ul><li>Pink, Red, Purple, Black, Bluegreen, Brownish</li></ul>FLAGELLATION<br /><ul><li>None</li></ul>MORPHOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Simple microscopic unicells</li></ul>- Branched filaments<br />- Corticated filaments<br />Corticating cells surround in clusters the main filament<br />- pseudofilaments<br />- Polysiphonousfilaments<br />Polysiphonous cells arrange themselves like flower petals around the main axial cell by pitplugs<br />- Parenchymatousthalli<br />- Large complex pseudoparenchymatousthalli<br />Uniaxialpseudoparenchyma: 1 main filament with many coming off the sides<br />Multiaxialpseudoparenchyma: many main filaments together with many coming off the sides<br />REPRODUCTION<br />- Cell division:<br />Unicells undergo simple cell division<br />Filaments undergo cell division and elongation which can be apical and/or intercalarly<br />- Sexual Reproduction:<br />Oogamous by fusion of spermatia (non motile male sex cell) with a carpogonium (female reproductive organ)<br />CHLOROPLASTS<br />- Chlorophyll a<br />- Unstackedthylakoids<br />- 2 membranes around the chloroplast<br />- Starch is the storage product<br />- Stellateor discoid chloroplast shapes<br />- Phycobilisomespresent<br />- Pyrenoids(centers of carbon dioxide fixation within the chloroplasts) store RUBISCO<br /><ul><li>Chloroplast DNA Is scattered in nucleoids</li></ul>EYESPOTS<br /><ul><li>None</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics Part 2<br />LIFE HISTORY<br />Sporic meiosis with an alternation of isomorphic or heteromorphic generations<br />Red algae:<br />Male gametophytes (n) produce spermatia (non motile male sex cells)<br />Female gametophytes produce carpogonia (egg cells) that are retained on the female gametophyte plant<br />After fertilization the zygote (2n) stays on the female gametophyte and develops into a carposporophyte (2n)<br />This carposporophyte produces carpospores (2n) that are released and become tetrasporophytes<br />Each tetrasporophyte produces tetrasporangia where meiotic divisions result in tetraspores (n)<br /> <br />Polysiphonia: Isomorphic<br />Tetrasporophyte (2n)(small plant) is forming tetrasporangia (round balls)<br />These tetrasporangia divide into four parts  four spores (n) are then formed<br />From these spores, male and female gametophytes form<br />Tetrasporophytes and gametophytes look identical<br />The spermatangia (male reproductive organs) are formed at the top of the branches of the gametophyte (look like small cucumbers) are crowded with spermatia (non motile male sex cells)<br />Spermatia can melt together with the carpogonium (female reproductive organ also know as the oogonium)<br />Nucleus of the male cell moves through the tube of the trichogyne (hair like receptive protuberance of the carpogonium) to the egg cell and a zygote is formed that develops into a cystocarp (fruiting structure with a special protective envelope produced after fertilization)<br />In the cystocarp, carpospores are formed (2n) which escape through a hole and the top and can grow into a tetrosporophyte<br /> <br />Porphyra: Heteromorphic<br />Conspicuous blades are gametophytes (n) that bear either spermatia or carpogonia or both<br />Fertilization occurs in the situ on the female gametophyte<br />The zygote remains in the female gametophyte blade and divides to form many carpospores (2n)<br />The carpospores are released and germinate to produce the “Conchocelis” stage (2n)<br />This stage burrows into shells (i.e. oysters and clams) and produces spores called conchospores<br />Conchospores form new thallus<br /> <br />Mastocarpus: Heteromorphic<br />Female gametophyte (n) produce carpogonium (trichogyne + egg)<br />Male gametophyte produce spermatia (n)<br />Spermatia and carpogonia fuse to form carposporophyte (2n)<br />Carposporophyte forms carpospores (2n)<br />Carpospores are released and form tetrasporophyte (2n) <br />Tetrasporophyte form tetrasporangia and meitotically divide to form tetraspores (n) which then go back to forming the male and female gametophytes<br />
  52. 52. Mastocarpuspapillatus/Petrocelis<br />Mastocarpus – N (gametophyte)<br />Life History: sporicheteromorphic life history<br />Petrocelis – 2N (tetrasporophyte)<br />- Dark purple to nearly black<br />
  53. 53. Mastocarpus Life Cycle<br />
  54. 54. Mastocarpus<br />
  55. 55. Petrocelis phase<br />
  56. 56. Chondracanthusexasperatus<br />
  57. 57. Mazzaellasplendens<br /><ul><li>If there are cystocarps (N) present containing carpospores (2N) then it is a gametophyte (N)
  58. 58. if these are not present then its a tetrasporophyte (2N)</li></ul>- Life history: Sporicheteromorphic<br />
  59. 59. Sparlingiapertusa<br />Ploidy: if there are bumps then it’s a gametophyte (N) with cystocarps; if not, then it’s a tetrosporophyte (2N)<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic<br />
  60. 60. Polysiphoniapacifica<br />
  61. 61. Hildenbrandia<br /><ul><li>Thinnest of the crusts
  62. 62. bright orange/red in colour</li></li></ul><li>Gracilariapacifica<br />Ploidy: if there are bumps then it’s a gametophyte (N) with cystocarps; if not, then it’s a tetrosporophyte (2N)<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic<br />
  63. 63. Polyneuralatissima<br />Ploidy: if there are bumps then it’s a gametophyte (N) with cystocarps; if not, then it’s a tetrosporophyte (2N)<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic<br />
  64. 64. Grateloupiadoryphora<br />
  65. 65. Porphyrafallax<br />Ploidy: N<br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic<br />- Conchocelis stage is 2N<br />
  66. 66. Example of a Rhodophyte: Polysiphonia<br />
  67. 67. Example of a Rhodophyte 2: Porphyra<br />
  68. 68. Example of a Rhodophyte 3: Hollenbergia<br />
  69. 69. Conchocelis phase of Porphyra<br />
  70. 70. PHAEOPHYTA<br />
  71. 71. CHARACTERISTICS<br />NUCLEUS <br /><ul><li>Uninucleate
  72. 72. Eukaryotic</li></ul>COLOUR<br /><ul><li>Brown</li></ul>FLAGELLATION<br /><ul><li>Two heterokont flagella (only reproductive cells)
  73. 73. Long flagellum has 2 rows of mastigonemes
  74. 74. Shorter flagellum is smooth and directed backward
  75. 75. Has a light receptor
  76. 76. Attached laterally</li></ul>MORPHOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Multicellular
  77. 77. Sometimes very large
  78. 78. Unbranched filaments
  79. 79. Parenchymatous
  80. 80. Pseudoparenchymatous is rare
  81. 81. Have a meristoderm:
  82. 82. small surface cells with chloroplasts and capable of division
  83. 83. cortex:
  84. 84. general larger cells lacking chloroplasts which do not divide
  85. 85. Medulla:
  86. 86. trumpet hypae cells form</li></ul>REPRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>vegetative: formation of propagules or by fragmentation,
  87. 87. Asexual: by zoospores formed in plurilocular sporangia
  88. 88. Sexual: fusion of isogamous, oogamous</li></ul> LIFE HISTORY<br /><ul><li>Gametic:
  89. 89. gametes range from oogamous to isogamous
  90. 90. Sporic</li></ul>EYESPOT<br /><ul><li>In spores or gametes within the chloroplast and associated with a flagellum
  91. 91. Present and acts as shading or light reflector</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics Cont’d<br />CHLOROPLAST<br /><ul><li>One to many smooth chloroplasts
  92. 92. Storage product is stored outside the chloroplast
  93. 93. 4 membranes surround the chloroplast
  94. 94. 2 membrane envelope and PER
  95. 95. Thylakoids are in stacks of 3
  96. 96. Girdle lamella is present</li></ul>OTHER<br /><ul><li>DNA is ring shaped
  97. 97. RUBISCO in the pyrenoids
  98. 98. Cell wall always present – made of cellulose, alginic acid and polysaccharides
  99. 99. Sieve elements: perforated cross walls in large kelps for conduction of photosynthate</li></li></ul><li>Fucales: Sargassummuticum<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a diploid zygote that grows into the adult plant<br />Other: has short stubby receptacles that bear oogonial and antheridial conceptacles <br />
  100. 100. Fucales: Fucusgardneri<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a 2N zygote that grows into the adult plant<br />Other: parenchymatousthalli with apical meristems<br />Anatomy: meristoderm, cortex and medulla present<br />- Receptacles (ends of blades) contain pores (small depressions) under which are conceptacles (spaces) within which are oogonia, antheridia or both<br />
  101. 101. Fucus Life Cycle<br />
  102. 102. Chloroplast of Fucus<br />
  103. 103. Fucales: Pelvetiopsislimitata<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a diploid zygote that grows into the adult plant<br />
  104. 104. Melanosiphonintestinalis<br />
  105. 105. Ralfsia<br />- Dark brown or yellowish brown<br />
  106. 106. Scytosiphonales: Petalonia fascia<br />Ploidy: N(crusts are diploid sporophytes)<br />Life History: Sporic<br />Other: Growth is diffuse<br />
  107. 107. Scytosiphonales: Scytosiphonlomentaria<br />Ploidy: N (crusts are diploid sporophytes)<br />Life History: Sporic<br />Other: growth is diffuse<br />
  108. 108. Laminariales: Saccharinalatissima<br />Ploidy: 2N <br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic, with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  109. 109. Laminariales: Nereocystisluetkeana<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  110. 110. Sieve elements of Nereocystis<br /><ul><li>Sieve elements are elongated cells located with in the medulla
  111. 111. their cross-walls have fields of pored with plasmodesmata
  112. 112. used for translocation of photosynthate</li></li></ul><li>Laminariales: Macrocystispyrifera<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  113. 113. Laminariales: Saccharinasessilis<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  114. 114. Laminariales: Alaria sp. <br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  115. 115. Laminariales: Costariacostata<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  116. 116. Laminariales: Egregiamenziesii<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  117. 117. Laminariales Reproduction<br />
  118. 118. Desmarestiales: Desmarestiaacuelata<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />Other: trichothallicmeristem (at the base of hair) which produces a pseudoparenchymatousuniaxialthallus<br />** only pseudoparenchymatous brown<br />
  119. 119. Desmarestiales: Desmarestia sp. <br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />Other: trichothallicmeristem (at the base of hair) which produces a pseudoparenchymatousuniaxialthallus<br />** only pseudoparenchymatous brown<br />
  120. 120. Plurilocular: found in Ectocarpales<br /><ul><li>Pluriloculargametangia that release hundreds of isogametes
  121. 121. each gametophyte (plant) are N and produce gametes by mitosis</li></li></ul><li>Unilocular: found in Ectocarpales<br /><ul><li>Unilocular sporangia with 2N cells that undergo meiosis to produce unicellular N zoospores
  122. 122. borne on the diploid plant
  123. 123. this thallus is called the sporophyte
  124. 124. the meitotically produced zoospores grow by mitosis into gametophytes</li></li></ul><li>Location of chloroplast DNA in the Phaeophyta<br />Left: is a perpendicular section through a disc-shaped chloroplast, showing sections of the ring nucleoid beneath the girdle lamella, at both ends<br />Right: is a section parallel to the face of the same chloroplast, showing the entire ring of DNA<br />
  125. 125. Diagram of a brown algal cell<br />
  126. 126. Pyrenoids of a brown algal cell<br />
  127. 127. Spermatangia<br />
  128. 128. Polysiphonous<br />
  129. 129. Heterocysts<br />
  130. 130.
  131. 131. Pennate<br />Centric<br />
  132. 132. Girdle VIew<br />Valve View<br />
  133. 133. Geminata<br />
  134. 134. Diatom Silica wall formation<br />
  135. 135. VolvoxGonidium<br />
  136. 136. Oogonia<br />Antheridia<br />
  137. 137. Heterocyst & Akinete<br />heterocyst<br />akinete<br />
  138. 138. CRYPTOPHYTA<br />
  139. 139. Characteristics<br />NUCLEUS<br /><ul><li>Eukaryotic
  140. 140. Uninucleate</li></ul>COLOUR<br /><ul><li>Red
  141. 141. Tan
  142. 142. Blue-green
  143. 143. olive</li></ul>FLAGELLATION<br /><ul><li>2 similar flagella both with mastigonemes
  144. 144. Flagella are apical or lateral and originating within a groove</li></ul>MORPHOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Unicellular</li></ul>REPRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>Vegetative: by cell division
  145. 145. Sexual: not well known</li></ul>LIFE HISTORY<br /><ul><li>Not well known</li></ul>CHLOROPLAST<br /><ul><li>1 to 2 smooth chloroplasts
  146. 146. Thylakoids usually in stacks of 2
  147. 147. Chlorophylls a and c
  148. 148. Phycobilins present
  149. 149. Chloroplast DNA in scattered nucleoids
  150. 150. 4 membranes around chloroplast
  151. 151. Eyespots when present are within the chloroplast but not associated with the flagella</li></ul>OTHER<br /><ul><li>Have protein plates that act as an anchoring system and is internal to the plasma membrane
  152. 152. Ejectosomes line the gullet
  153. 153. Storage product is starch and is stored outside the chloroplast envelope, inside the PER</li></li></ul><li>Example of a Cryptophyte<br />Plastids<br />ejectosomes<br />Flagella<br />
  154. 154. A Cryptophyte eyespot<br /><ul><li>These eyespots may be one or several layers thick
  155. 155. they are located with in the chloroplast but not close to the flagella
  156. 156. the eyespot operates by either intercepting light (shading) or reflecting light (increasing the illumination) onto the photoreceptor pigment
  157. 157. which is probably localized in either the plasma membrane or chloroplast membranes over the eyespot</li></li></ul><li>Electron micrograph of a cryptophyte<br /><ul><li>The large ejectosomes seen here line the wall of the gullet
  158. 158. Part of a smaller ejectosome is visible just beneath the plasmalemma on the lower left side of the cell</li></li></ul><li>Diagram of a longitudinal section of a cryptophyte<br />
  159. 159. DINOPHYTA<br />
  160. 160. Characteristics<br />NUCLEUS<br /><ul><li>Nucleus with condensed chromatin at interphase</li></ul>COLOUR<br /><ul><li>Brownish
  161. 161. Golden-brown
  162. 162. Red-brown
  163. 163. Can be colourless</li></ul>FLAGELLATION<br /><ul><li>2 highly heteromorphic flagella originating near each other
  164. 164. One is flattened and wraps around the cell
  165. 165. Other flagellum trails behind</li></ul>MORPHOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Unicellular</li></ul>REPRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>Vegetative: cell division
  166. 166. Sexual: by fusion of isogamous or anisogamous gametes</li></ul>LIFE HISTORY<br /><ul><li>Zygotic</li></ul>CHLOROPLAST<br /><ul><li>3, 4 or 5 membranes around the chloroplast
  167. 167. Chlorophylls a and c
  168. 168. No phycobilins
  169. 169. Thylakoids in stacks of 3
  170. 170. Scattered DNA</li></ul>EYESPOT<br /><ul><li>Present or not</li></ul>OTHER<br /><ul><li>Storage product is outside the chloroplast and may form a cap over the pyrenoid
  171. 171. Cell wall internal if present
  172. 172. Has a girdle
  173. 173. Has a sulcus
  174. 174. Hypotheca is located posterior on area that has the sulcus
  175. 175. Epitheca is apical
  176. 176. Covered by a theca subdivided into plates with or without cellulose  horns or spines may form</li></li></ul><li>Example of a Dinoflagellate<br />Horns off the theca<br />girdle<br />theca<br />Trailing flagellum<br />
  177. 177. Example of a Dinoflagellate 2<br />Displace girdle<br />sulcus<br />
  178. 178. Example of a Dinoflagellate 3<br />Ventral View: sulcus and girdle<br />Is flattened therefore has jerky swimming motion<br />Dorsal View: girdle only<br />
  179. 179.
  180. 180. Interphase nucleus and chromosomes of a dinoflagellate<br /><ul><li>The chromosomes lack histones, are permanently condensed and have a characteristic banded appearance
  181. 181. There is a large nucleolus within the nucleus</li></li></ul><li>EUGLENOPHYTA<br />
  182. 182. Characteristics<br />NUCLEUS<br /><ul><li>Uninucleate
  183. 183. Eukaryotic
  184. 184. Chromosomes are condensed during interphase</li></ul>COLOUR<br /><ul><li>Bright green
  185. 185. Colourless</li></ul>FLAGELLATION<br /><ul><li>2 heteromorphic flagella originating with in a reservoir (gullet?)
  186. 186. Usually only one is emergent
  187. 187. Some species do possess 2 or 4 emergent flagella</li></ul>MORPHOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Unicellular</li></ul>REPRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>vegetative: cell division</li></ul>CHLOROPLAST<br /><ul><li>Chlorophylls a and b
  188. 188. No phycobilins
  189. 189. Store paramylon which is similar to starch
  190. 190. 3 membranes around the chloroplast
  191. 191. Thylakoids in stacks of 3
  192. 192. Smooth and variable in shape and number</li></ul>EYESPOT<br /><ul><li>Present usually in photosynthetic form
  193. 193. It is large, anterior, near the reservoir
  194. 194. Not located in the chloroplast
  195. 195. Associated with flagellar swelling</li></ul>OTHER<br /><ul><li>Cell wall consists of interlocking protein strips
  196. 196. Can rapidly change shape (known as metaboly)  only in some species</li></li></ul><li>Example of an Euglenophyte<br />Paramylon bodies<br />Colourless (due to lack of chloroplasts); Exhibit a large range of shape changes (metaboly)<br />
  197. 197. Example of an Euglenophyte 2<br />
  198. 198. Example of an Euglenophyte 3<br />Show no metaboly<br />
  199. 199. Euglena longitudinal section<br />- Note the distinctive outer covering, the pellicle<br />
  200. 200. Interphase nuclei of a green alga and a euglenophyte<br /><ul><li>Note the condense chromosomes of the euglenophyte</li></li></ul><li>Euglena<br />- Diagrammatic longitudinal section<br />
  201. 201. Eyespot of a euglenophyte<br /><ul><li>The eyespot is composed of loosely packed globules lying outside the chloroplast, next to the reservoir, opposite of the flagellar swelling
  202. 202. the swelling is usually on the longer, emergent flagellum and is thought to be the site of the photoreceptor pigment</li></li></ul><li>Sections through parts of chloroplasts from 3 algal groups<br />-upper photo: chrysochromulina (haptophyte)<br /><ul><li>PER surrounds chloroplast
  203. 203. chloroplast envelope has 2 membranes
  204. 204. Middle photo: dinobryon (chrysophyte)
  205. 205. has a girdle lamella
  206. 206. PER surrounds chloroplast
  207. 207. chrloroplast envelope has 2 membranes
  208. 208. lower photo: trachelomonas (euglenophyte)
  209. 209. chloroplast envelope has 3 membranes
  210. 210. All three groups share stacking of thylakoids in three</li></li></ul><li>HAPTOPHYTA<br />
  211. 211. Characteristics<br />NUCLEUS<br /><ul><li>Uninucleate
  212. 212. Small eurkaryotic</li></ul>COLOUR<br /><ul><li>Golden brown </li></ul>FLAGELLATION<br /><ul><li>2 equal flagella with a third flagellum-like appendage between them  haptonema
  213. 213. Originate near each other at the apical end of the cell</li></ul>MORPHOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Unicellular</li></ul>REPRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>vegetative: cell division
  214. 214. Sexual: not well known</li></ul>LIFE HISTORY<br /><ul><li>Not well known</li></ul>CHLOROPLAST<br /><ul><li>Chlorophylls a and c
  215. 215. No phycobilins
  216. 216. 4 membranes around the chloroplast
  217. 217. 1 or 2 chloroplasts present
  218. 218. Thylakoids in stacks of 3
  219. 219. 2 membrane PER
  220. 220. No girdle lamella</li></ul>EYESPOT<br /><ul><li>Found in some members
  221. 221. Located within the chloroplast</li></ul>OTHER<br /><ul><li>Cell coverings has organic scales
  222. 222. Some species have calcified scales (coccoliths)</li></li></ul><li>Example of a Haptophyte<br />Haptonema<br />**The haptonema functions as a food gathering device and in others as a sensory or attachment mechanism  may be coiled or fully extended<br />
  223. 223. Outer view of a haptophyte<br />- The cell surface is completely encased in coccoliths , special organic scales encrusted with calcium carbonate<br />
  224. 224. Electron micrograph of Chrysochromulina<br />- This photograph shows the two flagella and a haptonema, the latter lightly coiled at the tip<br />
  225. 225. Several cross-sections through a haptonema<br />- Note the outer sheath of three concentric membranes and the inner circle of 6 or 7 microtubules<br />
  226. 226. Sections through parts of chloroplasts from 3 algal groups<br />-upper photo: chrysochromulina (haptophyte)<br /><ul><li>PER surrounds chloroplast
  227. 227. chloroplast envelope has 2 membranes
  228. 228. Middle photo: dinobryon (chrysophyte)
  229. 229. has a girdle lamella
  230. 230. PER surrounds chloroplast
  231. 231. chrloroplast envelope has 2 membranes
  232. 232. lower photo: trachelomonas (euglenophyte)
  233. 233. chloroplast envelope has 3 membranes
  234. 234. All three groups share stacking of thylakoids in three</li>

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