EMG photos


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EMG photos

  1. 1. Diagram of a longitudinal section of a cryptophyte<br />
  2. 2. Sieve elements of Nereocystis<br />
  3. 3. Diagram of a brown algal cell<br />
  4. 4. Pyrenoids of a brown algal cell<br />
  5. 5. Chloroplast of Fucus<br />
  6. 6. Electron micrograph of a cryptophyte<br /><ul><li>The large ejectosomes seen here line the wall of the gullet
  7. 7. Part of a smaller ejectosome is visible just beneath the plasmalemma on the lower left side of the cell</li></li></ul><li>A Cryptophyte eyespot<br /><ul><li>These eyespots may be one or several layers thick
  8. 8. they are located with in the chloroplast but not close to the flagella
  9. 9. the eyespot operates by either intercepting light (shading) or reflecting light (increasing the illumination) onto the photoreceptor pigment
  10. 10. which is probably localized in either the plasma membrane or chloroplast membranes over the eyespot</li></li></ul><li>Interphase nucleus and chromosomes of a dinoflagellate<br /><ul><li>The chromosomes lack histones, are permanently condensed and have a characteristic banded appearance
  11. 11. There is a large nucleolus within the nucleus</li></li></ul><li>Interphase nuclei of a green alga and a euglenophyte<br /><ul><li>Note the condense chromosomes of the euglenophyte</li></li></ul><li>Eyespot of a euglenophyte<br /><ul><li>The eyespot is composed of loosely packed globules lying outside the chloroplast, next to the reservoir, opposite of the flagellar swelling
  12. 12. the swelling is usually on the longer, emergent flagellum and is thought to be the site of the photoreceptor pigment</li></li></ul><li>Euglena<br />- Diagrammatic longitudinal section<br />
  13. 13. Euglena longitudinal section<br />- Note the distinctive outer covering, the pellicle<br />
  14. 14. Outer view of a haptophyte<br />- The cell surface is completely encased in coccoliths , special organic scales encrusted with calcium carbonate<br />
  15. 15. Electron micrograph of Chrysochromulina<br />- This photograph shows the two flagella and a haptonema, the latter lightly coiled at the tip<br />
  16. 16. Several cross-sections through a haptonema<br />- Note the outer sheath of three concentric membranes and the inner circle of 6 or 7 microtubules<br />
  17. 17. Sections through parts of chloroplasts from 3 algal groups<br />-upper photo: chrysochromulina (haptophyte)<br /><ul><li>PER surrounds chloroplast
  18. 18. chloroplast envelope has 2 membranes
  19. 19. Middle photo: dinobryon (chrysophyte)
  20. 20. has a girdle lamella
  21. 21. PER surrounds chloroplast
  22. 22. chrloroplast envelope has 2 membranes
  23. 23. lower photo: trachelomonas (euglenophyte)
  24. 24. chloroplast envelope has 3 membranes
  25. 25. All three groups share stacking of thylakoids in three</li></li></ul><li>Chlamydomonas<br />Upper: diagrammatic<br />Lower: electron micrograph<br />
  26. 26. Chloroplast of a desmid<br /><ul><li>Note the pronounced stacking of the thylakoids
  27. 27. The 2 membranes of the chloroplast envelope and the scattered light areas containing fibrils of DNA
  28. 28. green algal chloroplasts are similar in many respects to those of high plants</li></li></ul><li>Chloroplast of a ‘higher plant’<br /><ul><li>Compare to previous slide
  29. 29. note the arrangements of the thylakoids into grana stacks (dark areas) which are connected by stroma lamellae
  30. 30. the scattered areas containing chloroplast DNA (in between the grana stacks) (NA)
  31. 31. RUBISCO in higher plants is found in the stroma of the chloroplast (S)</li></li></ul><li>Portions of sections through chloroplasts of the Chlorophyta<br /><ul><li>This is the only algal phylum in which starch is stored in the chloroplast
  32. 32. It may be in a sheath surrounding the pyrenoid and/or in other parts of the chloroplast</li></li></ul><li>Section through the eyespot of Chlamydomonas<br /><ul><li>These eyespots may be one or several layers thick
  33. 33. they are located within the chloroplast but not close to the flagella
  34. 34. the eyespot operates by intercepting (shading) and/or reflecting (increasing the illumination) light onto the photoreceptor pigment, which is localized in either the plasma or chloroplast membranes over the eyespot
  35. 35. note the stacking of the thylakoids</li></li></ul><li>Location of chloroplast DNA in the Phaeophyta<br />Left: is a perpendicular section through a disc-shaped chloroplast, showing sections of the ring nucleoid beneath the girdle lamella, at both ends<br />Right: is a section parallel to the face of the same chloroplast, showing the entire ring of DNA<br />