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Browns updated

  1. 1. CHLOROPHYTA<br />
  2. 2. Acrosiphonia sp. <br />Chlorophyta<br />N<br />Sporic<br />
  3. 3. Codium fragile<br />Chlorophyta<br />2n Gametic<br />
  4. 4. Codium Sporangia <br />
  5. 5. Codium Utricle<br />
  6. 6. Prasiola sp. <br />Chlorophyta<br />*<br />
  7. 7. Ulvalinza<br />Chlorophyta<br />*<br />
  8. 8. Ulvaintestinalis<br />Chlorophyta<br />* Tubular blade formation<br />
  9. 9. Ulvalactuca<br />Chlorophyta<br />* Parenchymatous blade formation<br />
  10. 10. RHODOPHYTA<br />
  11. 11. Mastocarpuspapillatus/Petrocelis<br />Masto = n --------------<br />Petro = 2n<br />Sporic<br />
  12. 12. Chondracanthusexasperatus<br />Rhodophyta<br />*<br />Sporic<br />
  13. 13. Mazzaellasplendens<br />Rhodophyta<br />can only tell if there are cystocarps (2n +n) on the gametophyte (n) otherwise it is a tetrasporophyte (2n) <br />Sporic<br />
  14. 14. Sparlingiapertusa<br />Rhodophyta<br />if with bumps then gametophyte (n) with cytocarps (2n+n) otherwise it is the tetrosporophyte (2n) (Swiss cheese algae) <br />Sporic<br />
  15. 15. Polysiphoniapacifica<br />Rhodophyta<br />*<br />Sporic<br />
  16. 16. Hildenbrandia<br />Rhodophyta<br />*<br />Sporic<br />
  17. 17. Gracilariapacifica<br />Rhodophyta<br />*same as mazaella & sparlingia<br />Sporic<br />
  18. 18. Polyneuralatissima<br />Rhodophyta<br />*same as mazaella & sparlingia<br />Sporic<br />
  19. 19. Grateloupiadoryphora<br />Rhodophyta<br />*<br />Sporic<br />
  20. 20. Porphyrafallax<br />Rhodophyta<br />n<br />Sporic<br />
  21. 21. PHAEOPHYTA<br />
  22. 22. CHARACTERISTICS<br />NUCLEUS <br /><ul><li>Uninucleate
  23. 23. Eukaryotic</li></ul>COLOUR<br /><ul><li>Brown</li></ul>FLAGELLATION<br /><ul><li>Two heterokont flagella (only reproductive cells)
  24. 24. Long flagellum has 2 rows of mastigonemes
  25. 25. Shorter flagellum is smooth and directed backward
  26. 26. Has a light receptor
  27. 27. Attached laterally</li></ul>MORPHOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Multicellular
  28. 28. Sometimes very large
  29. 29. Unbranched filaments
  30. 30. Parenchymatous
  31. 31. Pseudoparenchymatous is rare
  32. 32. Have a meristoderm:
  33. 33. small surface cells with chloroplasts and capable of division
  34. 34. cortex:
  35. 35. general larger cells lacking chloroplasts which do not divide
  36. 36. Medulla:
  37. 37. trumpet hypae cells form</li></ul>REPRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>vegetative: formation of propagules or by fragmentation,
  38. 38. Asexual: by zoospores formed in plurilocular sporangia
  39. 39. Sexual: fusion of isogamous, oogamous</li></ul> LIFE HISTORY<br /><ul><li>Gametic:
  40. 40. gametes range from oogamous to isogamous
  41. 41. Sporic</li></ul>EYESPOT<br /><ul><li>In spores or gametes within the chloroplast and associated with a flagellum
  42. 42. Present and acts as shading or light reflector</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics Cont’d<br />CHLOROPLAST<br /><ul><li>One to many smooth chloroplasts
  43. 43. Storage product is stored outside the chloroplast
  44. 44. 4 membranes surround the chloroplast
  45. 45. 2 membrane envelope and PER
  46. 46. Thylakoids are in stacks of 3
  47. 47. Girdle lamella is present</li></ul>OTHER<br /><ul><li>DNA is ring shaped
  48. 48. RUBISCO in the pyrenoids
  49. 49. Cell wall always present– made of cellulose, alginic acid and polysaccharides
  50. 50. Sieve elements: perforated cross walls in large kelps for conduction of photosynthate</li></li></ul><li>Fucales: Sargassummuticum<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a diploid zygote that grows into the adult plant<br />Other: has short stubby receptacles that bear oogonial and antheridial conceptacles <br />
  51. 51. Fucales: Fucusgardneri<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a 2N zygote that grows into the adult plant<br />Other: parenchymatousthalli with apical meristems<br />Anatomy: meristoderm, cortex and medulla present<br />- Receptacles (ends of blades) contain pores (small depressions) under which are conceptacles (spaces) within which are oogonia, antheridia or both<br />
  52. 52. Fucus Life Cycle<br />
  53. 53.
  54. 54. Fucales: Pelvetiopsislimitata<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a diploid zygote that grows into the adult plant<br />
  55. 55.
  56. 56. Ralfsia<br />*<br />
  57. 57. Scytosiphonales: Petaloniafascia<br />Ploidy: N(crusts are diploid sporophytes)<br />Life History: Sporic<br />Other: Growth is diffuse<br />
  58. 58. Scytosiphonales: Scytosiphonlomentaria<br />Ploidy: N (crusts are diploid sporophytes)<br />Life History: Sporic<br />Other: growth is diffuse<br />
  59. 59. Laminariales: Saccharinalatissima<br />Ploidy: 2N <br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic, with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  60. 60. Laminariales: Nereocystisluetkeana<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  61. 61. Sieve elements of Nereocystis<br /><ul><li>Sieve elements are elongated cells located with in the medulla
  62. 62. their cross-walls have fields of pored with plasmodesmata
  63. 63. used for translocation of photosynthate</li></li></ul><li>Laminariales: Macrocystispyrifera<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  64. 64. Laminariales: Saccharinasessilis<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphicwith microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  65. 65. Laminariales: Alariasp. <br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  66. 66. Laminariales: Costariacostata<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  67. 67. Laminariales: Egregiamenziesii<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  68. 68. Laminariales Reproduction<br />
  69. 69. Desmarestiales: Desmarestiaacuelata<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />Other: trichothallicmeristem (at the base of hair) which produces a pseudoparenchymatousuniaxialthallus<br />** only pseudoparenchymatous brown<br />
  70. 70. Desmarestiales: Desmarestiasp. <br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />Other: trichothallicmeristem (at the base of hair) which produces a pseudoparenchymatousuniaxialthallus<br />** only pseudoparenchymatous brown<br />
  71. 71. Plurilocular: found in Ectocarpales<br /><ul><li>Pluriloculargametangia that release hundreds of isogametes
  72. 72. each gametophyte (plant) are N and produce gametes by mitosis</li></li></ul><li>Unilocular: found in Ectocarpales<br /><ul><li>Unilocular sporangia with 2N cells that undergo meiosis to produce unicellular N zoospores
  73. 73. borne on the diploid plant
  74. 74. this thallus is called the sporophyte
  75. 75. the meitotically produced zoospores grow by mitosis into gametophytes</li></li></ul><li>Diagram of a longitudinal section of a cryptophyte<br />
  76. 76. Diagram of a brown algal cell<br />
  77. 77. Pyrenoids of a brown algal cell<br />
  78. 78. Chloroplast of Fucus<br />
  79. 79. Electron micrograph of a cryptophyte<br /><ul><li>The large ejectosomes seen here line the wall of the gullet
  80. 80. Part of a smaller ejectosome is visible just beneath the plasmalemma on the lower left side of the cell</li></li></ul><li>A Cryptophyte eyespot<br /><ul><li>These eyespots may be one or several layers thick
  81. 81. they are located with in the chloroplast but not close to the flagella
  82. 82. the eyespot operates by either intercepting light (shading) or reflecting light (increasing the illumination) onto the photoreceptor pigment
  83. 83. which is probably localized in either the plasma membrane or chloroplast membranes over the eyespot</li></li></ul><li>Interphase nucleus and chromosomes of a dinoflagellate<br /><ul><li>The chromosomes lack histones, are permanently condensed and have a characteristic banded appearance
  84. 84. There is a large nucleolus within the nucleus</li></li></ul><li>Interphase nuclei of a green alga and a euglenophyte<br /><ul><li>Note the condense chromosomes of the euglenophyte</li></li></ul><li>Eyespot of a euglenophyte<br /><ul><li>The eyespot is composed of loosely packed globules lying outside the chloroplast, next to the reservoir, opposite of the flagellar swelling
  85. 85. the swelling is usually on the longer, emergent flagellum and is thought to be the site of the photoreceptor pigment</li></li></ul><li>Euglena<br />- Diagrammatic longitudinal section<br />
  86. 86. Euglena longitudinal section<br />- Note the distinctive outer covering, the pellicle<br />
  87. 87. Spermatangia<br />
  88. 88. Polysiphonous<br />
  89. 89. Heterocysts<br />
  90. 90.
  91. 91. Pennate<br />Centric<br />
  92. 92. Girdle VIew<br />Valve View<br />
  93. 93. Geminata<br />
  94. 94. Diatom Silica wall formation<br />
  95. 95. VolvoxGonidium<br />
  96. 96. Oogonia<br />Antheridia<br />
  97. 97. PlurilocularSpornagia<br />
  98. 98. Haptonema<br />
  99. 99. Heterocyst & Akinete<br />heterocyst<br />akinete<br />

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