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CHLOROPHYTA<br />
Acrosiphonia sp. <br />Chlorophyta<br />N<br />Sporic<br />
Codium fragile<br />Chlorophyta<br />2n			Gametic<br />
Codium Sporangia <br />
Codium Utricle<br />
Prasiola sp. <br />Chlorophyta<br />*<br />
Ulvalinza<br />Chlorophyta<br />*<br />
Ulvaintestinalis<br />Chlorophyta<br />*	Tubular blade formation<br />
Ulvalactuca<br />Chlorophyta<br />*			Parenchymatous blade formation<br />
RHODOPHYTA<br />
Mastocarpuspapillatus/Petrocelis<br />Masto = n --------------<br />Petro = 2n<br />Sporic<br />
Chondracanthusexasperatus<br />Rhodophyta<br />*<br />Sporic<br />
Mazzaellasplendens<br />Rhodophyta<br />can only tell if there are cystocarps (2n +n) on the gametophyte (n) otherwise it ...
Sparlingiapertusa<br />Rhodophyta<br />if with bumps then gametophyte (n) with cytocarps (2n+n) otherwise it is the tetros...
Polysiphoniapacifica<br />Rhodophyta<br />*<br />Sporic<br />
Hildenbrandia<br />Rhodophyta<br />*<br />Sporic<br />
Gracilariapacifica<br />Rhodophyta<br />*same as mazaella & sparlingia<br />Sporic<br />
Polyneuralatissima<br />Rhodophyta<br />*same as mazaella & sparlingia<br />Sporic<br />
Grateloupiadoryphora<br />Rhodophyta<br />*<br />Sporic<br />
Porphyrafallax<br />Rhodophyta<br />n<br />Sporic<br />
PHAEOPHYTA<br />
CHARACTERISTICS<br />NUCLEUS			<br /><ul><li>Uninucleate
Eukaryotic</li></ul>COLOUR<br /><ul><li>Brown</li></ul>FLAGELLATION<br /><ul><li>Two heterokont flagella (only reproductiv...
Long flagellum has 2 rows of mastigonemes
Shorter flagellum is smooth and directed backward
Has a light receptor
Attached laterally</li></ul>MORPHOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Multicellular
Sometimes very large
Unbranched filaments
Parenchymatous
Pseudoparenchymatous is rare
Have a meristoderm:
small surface cells with chloroplasts and capable of division
cortex:
general larger cells  lacking chloroplasts which do not divide
Medulla:
trumpet hypae cells form</li></ul>REPRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>vegetative: formation of propagules or by fragmentation,
Asexual: by zoospores formed in plurilocular sporangia
Sexual: fusion of  isogamous, oogamous</li></ul> LIFE HISTORY<br /><ul><li>Gametic:
gametes range from oogamous to isogamous
Sporic</li></ul>EYESPOT<br /><ul><li>In spores or gametes within the chloroplast and associated with a flagellum
Present  and acts as shading or light reflector</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics Cont’d<br />CHLOROPLAST<br /><ul><li>One...
Storage product is stored outside the chloroplast
4 membranes surround the chloroplast
2 membrane envelope and PER
Thylakoids are in stacks of 3
Girdle lamella is present</li></ul>OTHER<br /><ul><li>DNA is ring shaped
RUBISCO in the pyrenoids
Cell wall always present – made of cellulose, alginic acid and polysaccharides
Sieve elements: perforated cross walls in large kelps for conduction of photosynthate</li></li></ul><li>Fucales: Sargassum...
Fucales: Fucusgardneri<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a 2N zygote th...
Fucus Life Cycle<br />
Fucales: Pelvetiopsislimitata<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a diplo...
Ralfsia<br />*<br />
Scytosiphonales: Petalonia fascia<br />Ploidy: N(crusts are diploid sporophytes)<br />Life History: Sporic<br />Other: Gro...
Scytosiphonales: Scytosiphonlomentaria<br />Ploidy: N (crusts are diploid sporophytes)<br />Life History: Sporic<br />Othe...
Laminariales: Saccharinalatissima<br />Ploidy: 2N <br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic, with microscopic filamentous ga...
Laminariales: Nereocystisluetkeana<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with  microscopic filamentous ga...
Sieve elements of Nereocystis<br /><ul><li>Sieve elements are elongated cells  located with in the medulla
 their cross-walls have fields of pored with plasmodesmata
 used for translocation of photosynthate</li></li></ul><li>Laminariales: Macrocystispyrifera<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life His...
Laminariales: Saccharinasessilis<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gamet...
Laminariales: Alaria sp. <br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes...
Laminariales: Costariacostata<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametoph...
Laminariales: Egregiamenziesii<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametop...
Laminariales Reproduction<br />
Desmarestiales: Desmarestiaacuelata<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous ga...
Desmarestiales: Desmarestia sp. <br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gamet...
Plurilocular: found in Ectocarpales<br /><ul><li>Pluriloculargametangia that release hundreds of isogametes
 each gametophyte (plant) are N and produce gametes by mitosis</li></li></ul><li>Unilocular: found in Ectocarpales<br /><u...
 borne on the diploid plant
 this thallus is called the sporophyte
 the meitotically produced zoospores grow by mitosis into gametophytes</li></li></ul><li>Diagram of a brown algal cell<br />
Pyrenoids of a brown algal cell<br />
Chloroplast of Fucus<br />
Spermatangia<br />
Polysiphonous<br />
Heterocysts<br />
Pennate<br />Centric<br />
Girdle VIew<br />Valve View<br />
Geminata<br />
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Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto

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Added: Crypto, Dino, Eugleno and Hapto

  1. 1. CHLOROPHYTA<br />
  2. 2. Acrosiphonia sp. <br />Chlorophyta<br />N<br />Sporic<br />
  3. 3. Codium fragile<br />Chlorophyta<br />2n Gametic<br />
  4. 4. Codium Sporangia <br />
  5. 5. Codium Utricle<br />
  6. 6. Prasiola sp. <br />Chlorophyta<br />*<br />
  7. 7. Ulvalinza<br />Chlorophyta<br />*<br />
  8. 8. Ulvaintestinalis<br />Chlorophyta<br />* Tubular blade formation<br />
  9. 9. Ulvalactuca<br />Chlorophyta<br />* Parenchymatous blade formation<br />
  10. 10. RHODOPHYTA<br />
  11. 11. Mastocarpuspapillatus/Petrocelis<br />Masto = n --------------<br />Petro = 2n<br />Sporic<br />
  12. 12. Chondracanthusexasperatus<br />Rhodophyta<br />*<br />Sporic<br />
  13. 13. Mazzaellasplendens<br />Rhodophyta<br />can only tell if there are cystocarps (2n +n) on the gametophyte (n) otherwise it is a tetrasporophyte (2n) <br />Sporic<br />
  14. 14. Sparlingiapertusa<br />Rhodophyta<br />if with bumps then gametophyte (n) with cytocarps (2n+n) otherwise it is the tetrosporophyte (2n) (Swiss cheese algae) <br />Sporic<br />
  15. 15. Polysiphoniapacifica<br />Rhodophyta<br />*<br />Sporic<br />
  16. 16. Hildenbrandia<br />Rhodophyta<br />*<br />Sporic<br />
  17. 17. Gracilariapacifica<br />Rhodophyta<br />*same as mazaella & sparlingia<br />Sporic<br />
  18. 18. Polyneuralatissima<br />Rhodophyta<br />*same as mazaella & sparlingia<br />Sporic<br />
  19. 19. Grateloupiadoryphora<br />Rhodophyta<br />*<br />Sporic<br />
  20. 20. Porphyrafallax<br />Rhodophyta<br />n<br />Sporic<br />
  21. 21. PHAEOPHYTA<br />
  22. 22. CHARACTERISTICS<br />NUCLEUS <br /><ul><li>Uninucleate
  23. 23. Eukaryotic</li></ul>COLOUR<br /><ul><li>Brown</li></ul>FLAGELLATION<br /><ul><li>Two heterokont flagella (only reproductive cells)
  24. 24. Long flagellum has 2 rows of mastigonemes
  25. 25. Shorter flagellum is smooth and directed backward
  26. 26. Has a light receptor
  27. 27. Attached laterally</li></ul>MORPHOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Multicellular
  28. 28. Sometimes very large
  29. 29. Unbranched filaments
  30. 30. Parenchymatous
  31. 31. Pseudoparenchymatous is rare
  32. 32. Have a meristoderm:
  33. 33. small surface cells with chloroplasts and capable of division
  34. 34. cortex:
  35. 35. general larger cells lacking chloroplasts which do not divide
  36. 36. Medulla:
  37. 37. trumpet hypae cells form</li></ul>REPRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>vegetative: formation of propagules or by fragmentation,
  38. 38. Asexual: by zoospores formed in plurilocular sporangia
  39. 39. Sexual: fusion of isogamous, oogamous</li></ul> LIFE HISTORY<br /><ul><li>Gametic:
  40. 40. gametes range from oogamous to isogamous
  41. 41. Sporic</li></ul>EYESPOT<br /><ul><li>In spores or gametes within the chloroplast and associated with a flagellum
  42. 42. Present and acts as shading or light reflector</li></li></ul><li>Characteristics Cont’d<br />CHLOROPLAST<br /><ul><li>One to many smooth chloroplasts
  43. 43. Storage product is stored outside the chloroplast
  44. 44. 4 membranes surround the chloroplast
  45. 45. 2 membrane envelope and PER
  46. 46. Thylakoids are in stacks of 3
  47. 47. Girdle lamella is present</li></ul>OTHER<br /><ul><li>DNA is ring shaped
  48. 48. RUBISCO in the pyrenoids
  49. 49. Cell wall always present – made of cellulose, alginic acid and polysaccharides
  50. 50. Sieve elements: perforated cross walls in large kelps for conduction of photosynthate</li></li></ul><li>Fucales: Sargassummuticum<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a diploid zygote that grows into the adult plant<br />Other: has short stubby receptacles that bear oogonial and antheridial conceptacles <br />
  51. 51. Fucales: Fucusgardneri<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a 2N zygote that grows into the adult plant<br />Other: parenchymatousthalli with apical meristems<br />Anatomy: meristoderm, cortex and medulla present<br />- Receptacles (ends of blades) contain pores (small depressions) under which are conceptacles (spaces) within which are oogonia, antheridia or both<br />
  52. 52. Fucus Life Cycle<br />
  53. 53. Fucales: Pelvetiopsislimitata<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Gametic meiosis forms gametes which fuse to form a diploid zygote that grows into the adult plant<br />
  54. 54.
  55. 55. Ralfsia<br />*<br />
  56. 56. Scytosiphonales: Petalonia fascia<br />Ploidy: N(crusts are diploid sporophytes)<br />Life History: Sporic<br />Other: Growth is diffuse<br />
  57. 57. Scytosiphonales: Scytosiphonlomentaria<br />Ploidy: N (crusts are diploid sporophytes)<br />Life History: Sporic<br />Other: growth is diffuse<br />
  58. 58. Laminariales: Saccharinalatissima<br />Ploidy: 2N <br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic, with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  59. 59. Laminariales: Nereocystisluetkeana<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  60. 60. Sieve elements of Nereocystis<br /><ul><li>Sieve elements are elongated cells located with in the medulla
  61. 61. their cross-walls have fields of pored with plasmodesmata
  62. 62. used for translocation of photosynthate</li></li></ul><li>Laminariales: Macrocystispyrifera<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  63. 63. Laminariales: Saccharinasessilis<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  64. 64. Laminariales: Alaria sp. <br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  65. 65. Laminariales: Costariacostata<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  66. 66. Laminariales: Egregiamenziesii<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: Sporicheteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />
  67. 67. Laminariales Reproduction<br />
  68. 68. Desmarestiales: Desmarestiaacuelata<br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />Other: trichothallicmeristem (at the base of hair) which produces a pseudoparenchymatousuniaxialthallus<br />** only pseudoparenchymatous brown<br />
  69. 69. Desmarestiales: Desmarestia sp. <br />Ploidy: 2N<br />Life History: SporicHeteromorphic with microscopic filamentous gametophytes<br />Other: trichothallicmeristem (at the base of hair) which produces a pseudoparenchymatousuniaxialthallus<br />** only pseudoparenchymatous brown<br />
  70. 70. Plurilocular: found in Ectocarpales<br /><ul><li>Pluriloculargametangia that release hundreds of isogametes
  71. 71. each gametophyte (plant) are N and produce gametes by mitosis</li></li></ul><li>Unilocular: found in Ectocarpales<br /><ul><li>Unilocular sporangia with 2N cells that undergo meiosis to produce unicellular N zoospores
  72. 72. borne on the diploid plant
  73. 73. this thallus is called the sporophyte
  74. 74. the meitotically produced zoospores grow by mitosis into gametophytes</li></li></ul><li>Diagram of a brown algal cell<br />
  75. 75. Pyrenoids of a brown algal cell<br />
  76. 76. Chloroplast of Fucus<br />
  77. 77. Spermatangia<br />
  78. 78. Polysiphonous<br />
  79. 79. Heterocysts<br />
  80. 80.
  81. 81. Pennate<br />Centric<br />
  82. 82. Girdle VIew<br />Valve View<br />
  83. 83. Geminata<br />
  84. 84. Diatom Silica wall formation<br />
  85. 85. VolvoxGonidium<br />
  86. 86. Oogonia<br />Antheridia<br />
  87. 87. Heterocyst & Akinete<br />heterocyst<br />akinete<br />
  88. 88. CRYPTOPHYTA<br />
  89. 89. Characteristics<br />NUCLEUS<br /><ul><li>Eukaryotic
  90. 90. Uninucleate</li></ul>COLOUR<br /><ul><li>Red
  91. 91. Tan
  92. 92. Blue-green
  93. 93. olive</li></ul>FLAGELLATION<br /><ul><li>2 similar flagella both with mastigonemes
  94. 94. Flagella are apical or lateral and originating within a groove</li></ul>MORPHOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Unicellular</li></ul>REPRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>Vegetative: by cell division
  95. 95. Sexual: not well known</li></ul>LIFE HISTORY<br /><ul><li>Not well known</li></ul>CHLOROPLAST<br /><ul><li>1 to 2 smooth chloroplasts
  96. 96. Thylakoids usually in stacks of 2
  97. 97. Chlorophylls a and c
  98. 98. Phycobilins present
  99. 99. Chloroplast DNA in scattered nucleoids
  100. 100. 4 membranes around chloroplast
  101. 101. Eyespots when present are within the chloroplast but not associated with the flagella</li></ul>OTHER<br /><ul><li>Have protein plates that act as an anchoring system and is internal to the plasma membrane
  102. 102. Ejectosomes line the gullet
  103. 103. Storage product is starch and is stored outside the chloroplast envelope, inside the PER</li></li></ul><li>Example of a Cryptophyte<br />Plastids<br />ejectosomes<br />Flagella<br />
  104. 104. A Cryptophyte eyespot<br /><ul><li>These eyespots may be one or several layers thick
  105. 105. they are located with in the chloroplast but not close to the flagella
  106. 106. the eyespot operates by either intercepting light (shading) or reflecting light (increasing the illumination) onto the photoreceptor pigment
  107. 107. which is probably localized in either the plasma membrane or chloroplast membranes over the eyespot</li></li></ul><li>Electron micrograph of a cryptophyte<br /><ul><li>The large ejectosomes seen here line the wall of the gullet
  108. 108. Part of a smaller ejectosome is visible just beneath the plasmalemma on the lower left side of the cell</li></li></ul><li>Diagram of a longitudinal section of a cryptophyte<br />
  109. 109. DINOPHYTA<br />
  110. 110. Characteristics<br />NUCLEUS<br /><ul><li>Nucleus with condensed chromatin at interphase</li></ul>COLOUR<br /><ul><li>Brownish
  111. 111. Golden-brown
  112. 112. Red-brown
  113. 113. Can be colourless</li></ul>FLAGELLATION<br /><ul><li>2 highly heteromorphic flagella originating near each other
  114. 114. One is flattened and wraps around the cell
  115. 115. Other flagellum trails behind</li></ul>MORPHOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Unicellular</li></ul>REPRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>Vegetative: cell division
  116. 116. Sexual: by fusion of isogamous or anisogamous gametes</li></ul>LIFE HISTORY<br /><ul><li>Zygotic</li></ul>CHLOROPLAST<br /><ul><li>3, 4 or 5 membranes around the chloroplast
  117. 117. Chlorophylls a and c
  118. 118. No phycobilins
  119. 119. Thylakoids in stacks of 3
  120. 120. Scattered DNA</li></ul>EYESPOT<br /><ul><li>Present or not</li></ul>OTHER<br /><ul><li>Storage product is outside the chloroplast and may form a cap over the pyrenoid
  121. 121. Cell wall internal if present
  122. 122. Has a girdle
  123. 123. Has a sulcus
  124. 124. Hypotheca is located posterior on area that has the sulcus
  125. 125. Epitheca is apical
  126. 126. Covered by a theca subdivided into plates with or without cellulose  horns or spines may form</li></li></ul><li>Example of a Dinoflagellate<br />Horns off the theca<br />girdle<br />theca<br />Trailing flagellum<br />
  127. 127. Example of a Dinoflagellate 2<br />Displace girdle<br />sulcus<br />
  128. 128. Example of a Dinoflagellate 3<br />Ventral View: sulcus and girdle<br />Is flattened therefore has jerky swimming motion<br />Dorsal View: girdle only<br />
  129. 129.
  130. 130. Interphase nucleus and chromosomes of a dinoflagellate<br /><ul><li>The chromosomes lack histones, are permanently condensed and have a characteristic banded appearance
  131. 131. There is a large nucleolus within the nucleus</li></li></ul><li>EUGLENOPHYTA<br />
  132. 132. Characteristics<br />NUCLEUS<br /><ul><li>Uninucleate
  133. 133. Eukaryotic
  134. 134. Chromosomes are condensed during interphase</li></ul>COLOUR<br /><ul><li>Bright green
  135. 135. Colourless</li></ul>FLAGELLATION<br /><ul><li>2 heteromorphic flagella originating with in a reservoir (gullet?)
  136. 136. Usually only one is emergent
  137. 137. Some species do possess 2 or 4 emergent flagella</li></ul>MORPHOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Unicellular</li></ul>REPRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>vegetative: cell division</li></ul>CHLOROPLAST<br /><ul><li>Chlorophylls a and b
  138. 138. No phycobilins
  139. 139. Store paramylon which is similar to starch
  140. 140. 3 membranes around the chloroplast
  141. 141. Thylakoids in stacks of 3
  142. 142. Smooth and variable in shape and number</li></ul>EYESPOT<br /><ul><li>Present usually in photosynthetic form
  143. 143. It is large, anterior, near the reservoir
  144. 144. Not located in the chloroplast
  145. 145. Associated with flagellar swelling</li></ul>OTHER<br /><ul><li>Cell wall consists of interlocking protein strips
  146. 146. Can rapidly change shape (known as metaboly)  only in some species</li></li></ul><li>Example of an Euglenophyte<br />Paramylon bodies<br />Colourless (due to lack of chloroplasts); Exhibit a large range of shape changes (metaboly)<br />
  147. 147. Example of an Euglenophyte 2<br />
  148. 148. Example of an Euglenophyte 3<br />Show no metaboly<br />
  149. 149. Euglena longitudinal section<br />- Note the distinctive outer covering, the pellicle<br />
  150. 150. Interphase nuclei of a green alga and a euglenophyte<br /><ul><li>Note the condense chromosomes of the euglenophyte</li></li></ul><li>Euglena<br />- Diagrammatic longitudinal section<br />
  151. 151. Eyespot of a euglenophyte<br /><ul><li>The eyespot is composed of loosely packed globules lying outside the chloroplast, next to the reservoir, opposite of the flagellar swelling
  152. 152. the swelling is usually on the longer, emergent flagellum and is thought to be the site of the photoreceptor pigment</li></li></ul><li>HAPTOPHYTA<br />
  153. 153. Characteristics<br />NUCLEUS<br /><ul><li>Uninucleate
  154. 154. Small eurkaryotic</li></ul>COLOUR<br /><ul><li>Golden brown </li></ul>FLAGELLATION<br /><ul><li>2 equal flagella with a third flagellum-like appendage between them  haptonema
  155. 155. Originate near each other at the apical end of the cell</li></ul>MORPHOLOGY<br /><ul><li>Unicellular</li></ul>REPRODUCTION<br /><ul><li>vegetative: cell division
  156. 156. Sexual: not well known</li></ul>LIFE HISTORY<br /><ul><li>Not well known</li></ul>CHLOROPLAST<br /><ul><li>Chlorophylls a and c
  157. 157. No phycobilins
  158. 158. 4 membranes around the chloroplast
  159. 159. 1 or 2 chloroplasts present
  160. 160. Thylakoids in stacks of 3
  161. 161. 2 membrane PER
  162. 162. No girdle lamella</li></ul>EYESPOT<br /><ul><li>Found in some members
  163. 163. Located within the chloroplast</li></ul>OTHER<br /><ul><li>Cell coverings has organic scales
  164. 164. Some species have calcified scales (coccoliths)</li></li></ul><li>Example of a Haptophyte<br />Haptonema<br />**The haptonema functions as a food gathering device and in others as a sensory or attachment mechanism  may be coiled or fully extended<br />

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