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209. modal verbs in modern english theory and exercises

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209. modal verbs in modern english theory and exercises

  1. 1. МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования «Иркутский государственный лингвистический университет» MODAL VERBS IN MODERN ENGLISH: THEORY AND EXERCISES Методические рекомендации по учебной дисциплине «Практический курс английского языка» IV семестр Иркутск 2012 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  2. 2. УДК 811.111 ББК 81.432.1-923 М78 MODAL VERBS IN MODERN ENGLISH: THEORY AND EXERCISES: Методические рекомендации / Сост. Е.А. Юрковская. – Иркутск: ИГЛУ, 2012. – 52 c. В первой части рекомендаций систематизируются основные значения английских модальных глаголов, анализируется их речевое употребление, использование в косвенной речи, приводится список русско-английских соответствий в выражении различных видов модальности, а также рассматривается смежная грамматическая тема – употребление различных форма инфинитива после модальных глаголов. Вторая часть рекомендаций представлена системой тренировочных, условно-речевых и контролирующих упражнений на закрепление данного материала. Упражнения снабжены ключами для самопроверки. Основная цель рекомендаций – ознакомить с особенностями употребления модальных глаголов в современном английском языке, развить навыки правильного употребления модальных глаголов в устной и письменной речи, предупредить типичные ошибки в их использовании. Методические рекомендации предназначены для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов гуманитарных специальностей языковых вузов, изучающих английский язык. УДК 811.111 ББК 81.432.1-923 © Иркутский государственный лингвистический университет, 2012 г. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  3. 3. ВВЕДЕНИЕ Настоящее пособие предназначено для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов гуманитарных специальностей языковых вузов, изучающих английский язык. Основная цель пособия – ознакомить с особенностями употребления модальных глаголов в современном английском языке, развить навыки правильного употребления английских модальных глаголов в устной и письменной речи, предупредить типичные ошибки в их использовании. Пособие состоит из 7 частей (sections). 1. Основные значения модальных глаголов в английском языке. 2. Английские модальные глаголы в коммуникации. 3. Употребление различных форм инфинитива после модальных глаголов. 4. Модальные глаголы в косвенной речи. 5. Русско-английские соответствия в употреблении модальных глаголов. 6. Упражнения на тренировку модальных глаголов. 7. Ключи к упражнениям. Пособие обеспечивает дифференцированный подход к обучению английским модальным глаголам - от проведения аудиторных и факультативных занятий различной степени сложности до организации самостоятельной работы студентов. В первой части содержится материал для углубленного изучения английского языка, предназначенный, в первую очередь, для аудиторной работы и факультативных занятий студентов гуманитарных специальностей языковых и неязыковых вузов. В ней представлен подробный список основных значений английских модальных глаголов, снабженный примерами из аутентичных учебников грамматики. С целью облегчить восприятие материала некоторые значения модальных глаголов сопоставляются в таблицах (напр. Must vs Have to vs Be to), а также анализируются значения устойчивых речевых образцов с модальными глаголами (напр. should have done, needn’t have done, etc) и типичные ошибки в употреблении модальных глаголов. Вторая часть пособия является базовой для развития коммуникативных навыков студентов. Материал подается по принципу «от модального значения к языковому способу его выражения». Глаголы, выражающие сходные модальности, разводятся по степени Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  4. 4. формальности / неформальности ситуации общения и другим коммуникативным аспектам. Языковой материал второй части - аутентичные образцы высказываний с модальными глаголами. Третья и четвертая части предлагают дополнительный материал, связанный с употреблением модальных глаголов в английском языке, изучение которого необходимо проводить комплексно с изучением модальных глаголов. Пятая часть предназначена, в первую очередь, для самостоятельной работы студентов. Она легка для восприятия, так как базируется на родном русском языке и предлагает список английских эквивалентов модальным значениям, выражаемым в русском языке. Данная часть представляется особенно полезной для выполнения переводных упражнений. Шестая и седьмая части – упражнения на тренировку модальных глаголов и ключи к ним – предназначены для практического закрепления материала, изложенного в данном пособии. Последовательность, в которой предлагается выполнить упражнения, соответствует порядку, в котором подается теоретический материал пособия. Ключи к упражнениям делают возможным осуществлять самоконтроль усвоения материала. Практическая часть завершается вопросами для контроля знаний основных значений модальных глаголов и тестом на проверку умения правильно употреблять полученные знания в английской устной и письменной речи. По результатам проверки теста студент может оценить уровень своих знаний по изученной теме согласно шкале, предлагаемой в пособии. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  5. 5. CONTENTS 1. SECTION 1. Meanings………………………………………. 1.1. Modal Verbs……………………………………………….. 1.2. Can…………………………………………………………. 1.3. May………………………………………………………… 1.4. Must………………………………………………………... 1.5. Need……………………………………………………….. 1.6. Have to…………………………………………………….. 1.7. Be to………………………………………………………... 1.8. Should / Ought to…………………………………………... 1.9. Will………………………………………………………… 1.10. Shall………………………………………………………... 1.11. Dare………………………………………………………… 2. SECTION 2. Modal Verbs in Communication……………….. 3. SECTION 3. Infinitives after Modal Verbs………………….. 4. SECTION 4. Modal Verbs in Reported Speech……………… 5. SECTION 5. Russian-English Correspondences……………. 6. SECTION 6. Exercises……………………………………… 7. SECTION 7. Keys to Exercises…………………………….. 8. References………………………………………………….. 6 6 6 10 12 14 15 16 18 19 21 22 23 25 27 28 32 47 52 Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  6. 6. SECTION 1 MEANINGS MODAL VERBS 1. do not denote actions; 2. are used to show the speaker’s attitude to the action expressed by the infinitive that follows the modal verb; He can’t be still working = I doubt it (that he is still working). 3. are called defective because a. they are followed by bare infinitives, except for ought to, have to, be to and sometimes need (to), dare (to); You could rent a car. They might be having dinner. b. they form their negatives and questions without the auxiliary verb ‘do’, except for have to and sometimes need (to), dare (to). You can’t go in there. May I come in? c. They do not inflect, i.e. they do not take –s in the third person or –ing, -ed. d. They have no infinitives. Other expressions must be used instead. (can) Will you be able to help me? (must) I’m going to have to leave. CAN negative form: cannot / can’t past form: could, could not / couldn’t Sometimes you have to use be able to instead of can: I haven’t been able to sleep recently (can has no Present Perfect). Tom might not be able to come tomorrow (can has no infinitive). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  7. 7. We use can 1. to say that someone has the ability (physical or mental) to do something (= be able to do; know how to do). In this meaning it is followed only by simple infinitives and has a past form (could) and a future form (‘ll be able): I can swim for hours (= I am able to swim for hours). I can drive (= I know how to drive). I’ll be able to swim for hours in two months. I could swim for hours when I was young (= I was able to swim for hours). Note 1. In past-time contexts you need to differentiate between could and was/were able to: could do smth. someone had the general ability to do smth. (мог, умел): Jack was an excellent tennis player. He could beat anybody. (=was/were able to do smth.) was/were able to do smth. someone managed to do smth on one particular occasion (смог): But once he had a difficult game against John. John played very well but in the end Jack was able to beat him (= managed to beat him in this particular situation) couldn’t is possible in all situations (не мог, не умел, не смог): He couldn’t beat anybody. He couldn’t beat Alf. 2. to say that something is possible (due to circumstances, rules, laws or theoretically), it’s a fact: You can use countable nouns in the plural (= It is grammatically correct to do it). You can see the forest through the other window (= It is possible for you to do it). Note 1. could do smth. either refers the action to the past: We lived in a nice house and could see the sea from its windows. or expresses unreality with reference to the present or future (мог бы): You could see the house from here if it were not so dark (= As it is dark, you cannot see the house). Note 2. could have done smth. indicates that a possible action was not carried out: He could have won the competition but unfortunately fell ill the day before (= There was such a possibility but the illness prevented him from winning). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  8. 8. Note 3. could not have done smth. means that someone wouldn’t have been able to do smth even if he had tried: The football match was cancelled last week. Tom couldn’t have played anyway as he was ill. 3. to ask for permission. It implies either a request: Can I use your car? / Can you lend me your car? Could I use your car? (more polite) Could you tell me the right time? Typical responses: Certainly. Yes, certainly. Of course. Yes, of course, I can. Sure. (informal) Oh no, you can’t, I’m afraid. or an offer: Can I help you, ma’am? (= I offer my help) Typical responses: Certainly. Yes, certainly. Of course. Yes, of course. Sure. (informal) Oh no, thank you. 4. to give permission/prohibition: You can use my car (Mind: no could in present-time contexts). He said I could use his car. May I speak to the Dean? – No, I’m afraid, you can’t. You can’t smoke in this room (= It’s not allowed to smoke here). 5. to express supposition (only could). He could have come. (= I suppose that he has come, but I’m not sure). = Возможно/ может быть/ я предполагаю, что он пришел. He could be sleeping, I don’t know exactly. 6. to express doubt, astonishment in interrogative sentences; negative logical assumptions in negative sentences. It can be followed by different infinitive forms: Can he really be ill? = Неужели он действительно болен? Could he really be ill? (less categorical). Can/could he really have said it? (refers to the past) = Неужели он это сказал? Can/could she be still sleeping? = Неужели она все еще спит? Can/could he have failed to notice anything?/ Can/could he have noticed nothing? = Неужели он ничего не заметил? Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  9. 9. It can’t/ couldn’t be true. = Вряд ли это правда, это не может быть правдой. He can't/couldn't have been waiting for us all this time. = Вряд ли он ждал нас все это время. He can’t/couldn’t have failed to notice it. = Вряд ли он этого не заметил. They can’t dislike you. = Ты не можешь им не нравиться. Typical mistakes 1. Неужели она ничего не знает? Can she not know anything?* Correct: Can/could she know nothing? 2. Ты не можешь не нравиться его матери. His mother can’t not like you.* Correct: His mother can’t/couldn’t dislike you? 3. Неужели она это сделала? Could she do this? * Correct: Can/could she have done this? 4. Неужели она этого не сделала? Can she not have done this?* Couldn't she do this?* Correct: Can/could she have failed to do this? 7. to make suggestions (mostly could; can is informal): You could try phoning her at the office. We could go to the cinema. 8. to ask emotionally-coloured special questions (to express puzzlement, impatience, etc.): What can/could he mean? = Что он, собственно, имеет в виду?/ Что бы это означало? What can/could he be doing? How can you say such things? Who can tell? = Кто может знать? 9. before verbs of sense perception (usually not translated; not be able to): Can you see her? = Ты ее видишь? I can hear somebody whistling. = Я слышу, как кто-то свистит. MAY negative form: may not past form: might, might not / mightn’t We use may Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  10. 10. 1. to ask for and give / refuse permission: May I come in? I’ll begin if I may. Might I join you? (more polite than may even shy). He told me that I might smoke in the room (in past-time contexts). You may smoke in here. You may not smoke in here. Compare with can/ could: May I do smth.? formal = Do you permit me to do it?: May I come in? (= I’ll come in only if you allow me to do it?) You may do smth. = I give you my permission to do it. You may not do smth. = I don’t allow you to do it. Can I do smth.? a. informal: Can I use your pen? = Ручку возьму? b. is it possible according to some rules, laws, etc.: Can I drink this water? – Yes. It’s drinking water. You can do smth. a. = I have nothing against it. Do if you want to. b. it is not prohibited: You can drive a car in Britain if you are over 17. You cannot do smth. a. refusal: You can’t go out so late. b. it’s prohibited: You can’t drive a car in Britain if you are under 17. Could I do smth.? more polite than can (implies request): Could I ask you a personal question? ------------ ------------ 2. to express supposition. It is used both in affirmative and negative sentences; with different infinitive forms (= Can 5). Might expresses even more uncertainty: He may/might come soon (= I suppose that he’ll come soon, but I’m not sure). = Возможно/ может быть/ я предполагаю, что он скоро придет. He may/might be sleeping, I don’t know exactly. Compare: may not and can’t: Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  11. 11. He may not be sleeping (= I’m not sure whether he’s sleeping or not). He can’t be sleeping (=I’m sure he’s not sleeping). Note 1. May is not used in questions. Might / could or even can are used instead: Who can / could / might these flowers be from? Typical mistake 1. Он может скоро прийти. He can come soon.* Correct: He may/might/could come soon. 3. to express possibility due to circumstances (= Can 2). It is followed by simple infinitives and is used only in affirmative sentences: In this museum you may see some interesting things (= you can see…). He said I might see a lot of interesting things there (reported speech). Come what may = Будь, что будет. Note 1. Can in this meaning is used in any sentence: Can you meet him here? (= Is it possible that you’ll meet him here?) You can’t meet Jim at the office today. Today’s his day-off. Note 2. might have done indicates that a possible past action was not carried out due to circumstances (= could have done also see Can 2. Note 2): He might (could) have fallen ill if he had not taken the medicine. 4. to express disapproval, reproach (only might): might do: the situation can still be changed: You might carry my bag (the bag I’m carrying now). It’s too heavy for a woman. = Мог бы и помочь мне нести мою сумку. might have done: nothing can be changed now: You might have helped me yesterday. 5. to make suggestions: may/might as well: let’s do it but only because there’s nothing better to do or there’s no reason why we shouldn’t do it (Compare with Can 7.): We may (might) as well go to this party. We’ve nothing else to do. = Мы вполне можем пойти на эту вечеринку. 6.in wishes: Long may he live. = Желаем ему долгих лет жизни. May you be very happy. = Желаю Вам счастья. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  12. 12. MUST negative form: must not / mustn’t in past reported speech: had to but not in orders and positive logical assumptions: He said he had to be in a hurry (He was obliged to). BUT: He said that I must do it immediately (He ordered me to do it). He said it must have been difficult for Mary to get the job. (He was sure of it). We use must 1. to express positive logical assumptions. It is used only in affirmative sentences; with different infinitive forms: He looks so pale. He must be ill (= I’m sure he’s ill. I can see it). = Должно быть, вероятно, очевидно, я уверен, что он болен. Ybbbour examinations are next week. You must be studying a lot at the moment. It must have been raining all the night. There’re big puddles in the garden. Compare with may (See May 2.): He hasn’t come yet. But it’s high time he came. He may be ill (I’m not sure). Note 1. Must is not used with the reference to the future. Someone’ll probably/ evidently do; someone is sure / bound to do can be used instead: He’ll probably come tomorrow. He promised he would come on Sunday. He’s sure to come back. All his things are here. Note 2. Must in this meaning is not used in negative sentences with the particle ‘not’. Still other ways of expressing negation are acceptable: You must have misunderstood me. I didn’t mean that. = Вероятно, вы меня не поняли. She must have never read the book. = Я уверена, что она не читала эту книгу. Nobody must have told him about it. = Должно быть, ему об этом не сказали. Note 3. To make a logical assumption which is negative, we use cannot/ could not (less categorical) which can be followed by different infinitive forms (See Can 6): Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  13. 13. You can’t/ couldn’t be hungry already. We had breakfast half an hour ago and you said you were full up (= I’m sure that it’s impossible for you to get hungry so soon). Compare: Я предполагаю и уверен, что это так (approx. 95% sure) Я предполагаю, но не уверен, что это так (approx. 50% sure) Я предполагаю и уверен, что это не так (approx. 95% sure) Я предполагаю, но не уверен, что это не так (approx. 50% sure) must may/ might / could + different infinitive forms can’t / couldn’t may not Должно быть, она опоздала на поезд. = She must have missed the train. А, может быть, она опоздала на поезд. = She may / might / could have missed the train. Она не могла опоздать на поезд (я уверен, что она не опоздала) = She can’t / couldn’t have missed the train. Возможно, она не опоздала на поезд. = She may not miss the train. Typical mistakes 1.Она должно быть очень страдает. She must suffer a lot.* Correct: She must be suffering a lot. 2.Он, должно быть, ничего не знает. He mustn’t know anything.* Correct: He must know nothing. 3. Она, должно быть, не записала ваш адрес. She must not have written your address.* Correct: She can't have written / must have failed to write down your address. 4.Она, скорее всего, придет через десять минут. She must come in ten minutes.* Correct: She’ll probably come in ten minutes. 2. to express a rule or regulation about things which are absolutely necessary to do or not to do (also in formal written notices): When you drive you must stop at a red light and mustn’t overtake on a bend. This door must not be left open (a formal written notice). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  14. 14. 3. to express obligation from the speaker’s point of view. In affirmative sentences it implies order: You must talk to your daughter about her future (The speaker personally feels that it’s necessary to do, it implies order). Must he do it? (= Do you personally think it’s necessary for him to do it?) I must work hard to pass the exam (I personally think it’s necessary for me). 4. to express prohibition (in negative sentences): You mustn’t tell anyone what I said (= It’s necessary that you do not tell anyone). Note 1. Must is not used to express absence of necessity. Someone need not/ doesn’t need to/ doesn’t have to do can be used instead (see Need 1, Have to 1): You don’t need to tell anyone the news. I’ve just done it myself. Compare with can, may (see Can. 4, May. 1): You must not do smth. from the speaker’s point of view it’s necessary: You must not be late for the interview. It’s your only opportunity to get the job. You cannot do smth. it’s prohibited due to generally accepted rules: You cannot be late for classes. You may not do smth. the speaker doesn’t allow smth.: You may not be late for dinner today. Do not ask me about it. 5. to give emphatic advice (the meaning of obligation is weakened): You must come and see us when you are in London. You mustn’t miss the film. It’s very good. 6. in set-phrases: I must be going/ be off. = Мне пора. I must tell you that… You must admit. NEED can be used as a defective verb (esp. in negative sentences): You needn’t do it. and as a regular verb (esp. in American English): Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  15. 15. You don’t need to do it. We use need: 1. to express necessity (the meaning is rare) / absence of necessity You needn’t hurry. You’ve got plenty of time. (= It’s not necessary for you to hurry.) Compare with mustn’t (see Must 4): You mustn’t hurry. (= It’s necessary that you don’t hurry. I order you not to hurry.) Note 1. needn’t have done means that someone did something not knowing that it wasn’t necessary, it was a waste of time / effort: Tom wanted to catch a train. He left home late, so he hurried to the station. But the train was also late – it didn’t leave until 20 minutes after Tom arrived at the station. So Tom needn’t have hurried but he did it as he didn’t know that the train would be late. (= Том спешил зря.) Note 2. didn’t need to is different from needn’t have done, it means that an action was unnecessary and it was known at the time of the action: I didn’t need to go there but I decided to go anyway. (= Мне не нужно было идти туда.) 2. to express permission not to do something (the speaker gives authority for the non-performance of the action) (compare with Can 4, May 1): Shall I type this letter now? – No, you needn’t. You can do it later. HAVE TO is not defective. It has all analytical forms and verbals: Having to work alone, he wanted all his time for his research. Why do I have to do everything by myself? He didn’t have to work alone. Everybody was ready to give him a helping hand. We use have to 1. to express obligation or necessity due to circumstances: She has to wear glasses for reading (= It’s necessary to her to wear glasses because without glasses she can’t read. She’s short-sighted). Note 1. have got to do is used to talk about a specific occasion: Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  16. 16. I’ve got to hurry up. Mary is waiting for me. Compare with must (see Must 3): She must wear glasses (I personally think so. Otherwise she might ruin her eyesight completely). 2. to express absence of necessity (in negative sentences) (= Need 1): Jill used to wear glasses. But after the operation she doesn’t have to (OR doesn’t need to) wear glasses any longer. John watered the flowers. That’s why Jane didn’t have to (OR didn’t need to) do it. Compare with needn’t do (see Need 2): You needn’t go there. I’ll manage everything without your help (the speaker gives authority for the non-performance of the action) You don’t have to go to school today. It’s Sunday (the absence of necessity is based on external circumstances). Compare didn’t have to and needn’t have done (see Need 1. Note 1): Jane was going to water the flowers but suddenly it started to rain. That’s why she didn’t have to water the flowers. Jane needn’t have watered the flowers because it started to rain soon after (Jane watered the flowers but it was a waste of time and effort). BE TO is not defective We use be to: 1. to express obligation resulting from a previously arranged plan or agreement (in affirmative and interrogative sentences). It may express the idea that someone else demands it: Who was to speak at the meeting? I am to be at the airport at 9.00. (My boss has told me to go there, so I can’t avoid it.) Note 1. was/ were to have done means that the plan was not fulfilled or the arrangement was broken: We were to have met him at the station but came late. He had already gone away by taxi. Compare with was/ were to do: Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  17. 17. We were to meet him at the station. (It’s not clear whether we met him or not). Compare with must, have to (see Must 3, Have to 1): must do smth. obligation from the speaker’s point of view: We must wait for them, I think (= I personally think it’s necessary). have to do smth. obligation imposed by circumstances: We had to wait for them at the entrance as they had the tickets. (We couldn’t enter without them) be to do smth. obligation resulting from an arrangement: We are to wait for them at the entrance (We’ve agreed to meet there/ we’ve been told to do it.). 2. in orders or instructions (often official) to express an arrangement made by one person for another: This door is to remain locked at all times (=must: a notice on a door). You are to go straight to your room (= Ты иди в свою комнату: a parent is scolding a child). 3. to talk about something that is thought of as unavoidable, destined to happen: He didn’t know at that time that he was never to see his native place again (= …было не суждено…). 4. to express possibility (Also see Can 2, May 3) when it is a. followed by passive infinitives: Where is he to be found? (= А где его можно найти?). Nothing was to be done under the circumstances. b. followed by active infinitives in questions with How?: How am I to know that you are telling the truth? (= Откуда мне знать (есть ли вероятность того), что Вы говорите правду?) 5. in emotional questions: What am I to do? (= Что мне делать, Как мне быть?) What’s to become of me? (= Что со мной будет?) Where am I to go? (= Куда же мне идти?) Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  18. 18. SHOULD/OUGHT TO negative form: should not/ shouldn’t; ought not to / oughtn’t to should is a completely defective verb ought to is partly defective, it is followed by the Infinitive with the particle ‘to’ We use should, ought to 1. to give advice. Should is more common, ought to - a little more emphatic as it emphasizes moral obligation or duty: It’s late. You should go to bed. (=It would be a good thing to do). Tom shouldn’t drive. He’s too tired. (= I don’t think it’s a right thing for him to do). Should I talk to him? (Do you think it is a right thing to do?). You oughtn’t to tell lies. (It’s immoral to tell lies). Note 1. Should is not as strong as must (see Must 5): Compare: You should stop smoking (It would be a good thing to do). You must stop smoking (It’s necessary that you stop smoking. I insist on it). Note 2. Should is different from had better. ‘d better do is used to give advice about what should be done in the future in order to avoid some bad consequence: You’d better stop smoking now. (Otherwise something bad might happen, for ex. we’ll be driven out of here). 2. to express criticism (followed by different infinitive forms): a. to say that something is not right or not what we expected, that someone is doing the wrong thing: Those children shouldn’t (oughtn’t to) be playing. They should be at school. That motor-cyclist should be wearing a crash helmet. b. to say that someone did the wrong thing. The modal is followed by perfect infinitives: should have done, ought to have done indicate that a desirable action was not carried out; should not have done, ought not to have done indicate that an undesirable action was carried out. The party was great last night. You should’ve come. Why didn’t you? Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  19. 19. She oughtn’t to have listened to our conversation. It was private. 3. to express probability, usually with the reference to the future; to say that something will probably happen, esp. of something the speaker wants (compare with Must 1): She’s been studying hard. She should (ought to) pass her examination. 4. to say that something is naturally expected: If it’s a story by Twain it should (ought to) be amusing. 5. to ask for or give opinion: I don’t think you should (ought to) work so hard. 6. to sound emotional. Only should is used for this purpose: Why should I do it? = С какой стати мне это делать? How should I know? = Почем мне знать? Why shouldn’t I have done that? = А почему бы мне было это не сделать? I don’t know why he should want to see him. = Я не знаю, с какой стати он хочет его видеть. The door opened and who should come in but Tom. = Дверь открылась, и кто бы вы думали (по-вашему) вошел? Никто иной как Том. 7. Should can be used in subordinate clauses after ‘suggest, propose, recommend, insist, demand, etc.’: What do you suggest he should do?/ he do (it’s an infinitive!!!)? (US) Tom insisted that she should buy a car. WILL no contracted affirmative form negative form: will not / won’t past form: would, would not / wouldn’t We use will: 1. to ask someone to do something (in interrogative sentences, with the 2nd person) in polite requests with the shade of instruction: Will you shut the door? Won’t you sit down? Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  20. 20. Would you stop talking? (more polite) Typical responses: Yes, I’d be happy to / be glad to. Certainly. Sure. (informal) Compare with can, could (see Can 3): Can/ could you shut the door? (The speaker is not sure the request will be complied with). 2. to express refusal to do something (in negative sentences): I won’t be operated on. (= Я ни за что не соглашусь на операцию). I told the doctor that I wouldn’t be operated on. 3. to ask whether a thing performs or say that it fails to perform its function (in questions and negative sentences): Will this printer do double-sided copies? The pen won’t write. (= Ручка не пишет). 4. to express will, intention, determination to do something (in affirmative and negative sentences, with the 1st person): I’m going to get out of this hole. I will make money. 5. to talk about habitual or recurrent actions, esp. in a disapproving way (would is characteristic of literary English narratives): He will leave that door open every time he goes through! She would sit for hours looking through the window (= Она часами просиживала, смотря в окно). Compare with used to do, which is used to talk about something someone did in the past but doesn’t do any longer now: I used to read a lot (but not now). 6. in clauses of condition introduced by ‘if’ where it expresses willingness, consent: No, we are not going to quarrel at all if you will only let me talk (… если только ты дашь (согласишься дать) мне сказать). 7. to express prediction (only will) with the reference to the present or future (followed by simple infinitives), processes (followed by progressive Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  21. 21. infinitives) and to the past (followed by perfect infinitives) (compare with Must 1, Should 3): This will be the school, I believe (= Это, по-видимому, и есть школа). Don’t phone her now. She will be sleeping (Она, по всей вероятности, сейчас спит) You will have heard the news, I think (Вы, по-видимому, уже слышали новость). It also expresses general predictions about things that always happen: A dog will growl when it’s angry or frightened. 8. to comment on someone’s action, to say sarcastically that it was to be expected (only would): She’s been very brave. Yes, she would be brave (= Это на нее похоже, этого и следует ожидать). 9. in some set phrases: I won’t have you do this (= I’ll see to it that it doesn’t happen. = Я не допущу …). I’d rather do it myself (= I’d prefer to do it myself). You would, would you? = Ах, ты так. SHALL no contracted affirmative form negative form: shall not/ shan’t We use shall 1. in offers (in interrogative sentences with the 1st person singular): A: Shall I switch on the lights? (= Do you want me to switch on the lights?) B: Yes, do (please)/ Oh no, thank you. 2. in suggestions (in interrogative sentences with the 1st person plural) A : Shall we have some more coffee? B.: Yes, let’s/ No, I’d rather not. 3.asking for instruction: I’ve got no money. What shall I do? (= What do you suggest I should do?) Who shall answer the telephone? Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  22. 22. 4.in directives but this use is very formal and rare: ‘You shall be punished,’ said Mrs Marline. ‘You shall go to your room and stay there without a light when it is dark.’ DARE negative form: dare not / daren’t past form: dared, dared not can be used as a defective verb: You daren’t tell him the truth. How dare she read my diary! as a regular verb: He didn’t dare to meet his uncle. Do you dare to tell him? as a partly defective verb (followed by bare infinitives): He didn’t dare lie to his father. Do you dare tell him? We use dare: 1. to say that someone has the courage or impertinence to do something (in exclamations with How): How dare you say that! How dared she say that! 2. to express lack of courage to do something: I daren’t ask for money. I don’t dare (to) ask for money. I hardly dare tell him what happened. I dared not say that. I didn’t dare (to) say that. No one dared to live in the house since. 3. to challenge someone to do something (in children’s language): I dare you to jump off the wall. (Not …you jump…) Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  23. 23. 4. in the idiomatic expression ‘I daresay’ which means ‘I think it’s probably true’: I daresay the climate of the country is rather good. SECTION 2 MODAL VERBS IN COMMUNICATION There is no communication among people without expressing their attitudes to what they say and to one another. It means that we cannot manage without modals in everyday life. But those who speak English as a foreign language may have great difficulty choosing the correct modal verb to express exactly what they want to. These are the most common situations in which modals are helpful: 1. Asking for permission: Can I ask you a question, please? (informal) Could I (possibly) ask you a question, please? (more polite) Can’t / Couldn’t I ask you a question? (if you want to put extra pressure on someone to give a positive answer) I wonder if I could ask you a question. (very polite) May I ask you a question, please? (formal) Might I ask you a question, please? (very formal) 2. Giving / Refusing permission: You can park your car here. (informal) You may park your car in this area. (formal – usually written) You can’t / mustn’t park your car here (informal, prohibition) You may not park your car here (formal – usually written) You needn’t do it. (permission not to do) 3. Making requests / instructions / orders: Can you explain this to me? (informal) Could / Would you explain this to me? (more polite) Will you explain this to me? (polite instruction) You must explain this to me. (very strict) Can I have some water? (informal) Could I have some water? (polite) May I have some water? (formal) Might I have some water? (very formal) What shall I explain to you? (asking for instruction) Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  24. 24. 4. Making offers: I’ll help you. Can I help you? Could I help you? (less certain that the offer will be accepted) Shall I help you? (= Do you want me to help you?) Would you like me to help you? (on a specific occasion) 5. Making and asking for suggestions: Shall we visit Grandma this weekend? We can / could visit Grandma this weekend. We may as well visit Grandma this weekend. (because there’s nothing else to do) Where shall we go? (=What’s your suggestion?) Would you join us tomorrow? (invitation) 6. Giving advice: You should / ought to study harder. You really must come to see us (very strong and emphatic). 7. Criticizing: You should / ought to have been more careful. You might be more careful (= Be more careful now). You might have been more careful (= You should have been more careful). 8. Expressing possibility / talking about facts (not specific occasions) It can (sometimes) happen. (it’s a fact) It could have happened. (It was possible but didn’t happen) It couldn’t have happened. (There was no possibility that it would happen) 9. Expressing supposition: Positive: He may / might / could be sick. (all of them are uncertain, less than 50 % sure) Can / could / might he be sick? (not may) He should do well in the exam. (very certain, 90 % sure, refers to future) That will be Nick. (prediction) Negative: He may not / might not be hungry. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  25. 25. 10.Expressing logical assumptions Positive: He must be sick (very certain, 95 % sure) Negative: He can’t / couldn’t be sick. (very certain, 95 % sure) 11.Expressing obligation / necessity: Positive: We must get up early. (from the speaker’s point of view) We are to get up early. (from a previously arranged plan or agreement) We have to get up early. (from the situation) We have to get up early tomorrow. (the necessity already exists) We’ll have to get up early tomorrow if they phone us. (the necessity may or may not appear tomorrow) We’ve got to get up early tomorrow. (from the situation, a specific occasion) We need to get up early. Negative: We don’t need / have to get up early. 12.Talking about ability: I can / can’t do it. (in present-time contexts) I could / couldn’t do it. (general ability in past-time contexts) I was able to do it. (a specific achievement in past-time contexts) I’ll be able to do it. (a future ability which doesn’t exist now) I have been able to do it for some time. SECTION 3 INFINITIVES AFTER MODAL VERBS Modal verbs are followed by infinitives. Some of their meanings allow only simple infinitives (do, occasionally to do) others demand different forms: I could swim when I was three. (past ability) I’ve got to do everything in an hour. (obligation) She may be sleeping now. (supposition near uncertainty) You needn’t have done everything yourself. (necessity) She must have been carefully instructed before the interview. (supposition near certainty) There are 6 infinitive forms which are chosen with reference to some certain types of action: Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  26. 26. Active Passive Simple / Indefinite (to) do (to) be done Progressive / Continuous (to) be doing --------------- Perfect (to) have done (to) have been done Perfect Progressive (to) have been doing --------------- 1. Simple (Active and Passive) Infinitive can 1.1. denote a repeated action or state: I’ve seen this girl many times. She may be our neighbour. I know her. She can’t do such things. 1.2. denote a future action: He may be offered a promotion soon. (Perhaps he’ll be offered a promotion soon.) Note 1. Must is not used with the reference to the future. Someone’ll probably/ evidently do; someone is sure / bound to do can be used instead: He’ll probably come tomorrow. He’s bound to come soon. 1.3.be used with verbs which are not used in progressive tenses: She can’t know anything about it. 2. Progressive (Active) Infinitive denotes a simultaneous action in progress: Can/could she be still sleeping? (It is doubtful that she is still sleeping.) 3. Perfect (Active and Passive) can 3.1.denote a prior action: She must have already heard the news. She’s smiling (I’m sure she has heard the news). 3.1. denote a possible or desirable action which did not happen: She could have failed the exam. (It was possible because she wasn’t prepared enough, but it didn’t happen). or undesirable action which happened: You shouldn’t have gone so early. (It’s a pity you went so early. 3.2. occasionally denotes a future action which will have happened by some future moment: You may have left by the time I’m back (Perhaps, you’ll have left by the time I’m back). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  27. 27. 4. Perfect Progressive (Active) can 4.1. denote an action of certain duration: She can’t have been sleeping for over 12 hours. (It seems improbable that she has been sleeping for over 12 hours). 4.2. denote a prior action of certain duration which has/had visible results: She’s so tired. She must have been working hard. (I’m sure she was working hard the whole week. That’s why she looks so tired) 4.3. denote a past process: She must have been sleeping when I phoned and didn’t hear the ring. (I’m sure she was sleeping when I phoned.) 5. Passive (Simple and Perfect) has a passive meaning. It can denote an action which is received 5.1. by the subject: She must have been kidnapped. (I’m sure she was kidnapped) 5.3. by people in general: It can’t be pleasant to be scolded. (People don’t like to be scolded) SECTION 4 MODAL VERBS IN REPORTED SPEECH When there is a modal verb in the original statement, suggestion, etc., this sometimes changes when we report what was said. It depends on the meaning it expresses. So one modal is changed in one context and not changed in another. The changes are summarized in the table: modal verb in original modal verb in report (past time context) could, would, should, might, ought to, used to could, would, should, might, ought to, used to will, can, may, be to, have to, need, dare would, could, might, was/were to, had to, needed, dared will, can, may (if the situation we are reporting still exists or in the future) may (supposition) can’t (doubt, negative logical assumption) must (positive logical assumption) may can’t must shall should Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  28. 28. must (obligation) mustn’t (prohibition) had to mustn’t needn’t (absence of necessity, permission not to do something) didn’t need to ‘You may do it,’ – he said – He said that I might do it. (permission) ‘John may be sleeping now,’ he said – He said that John may be sleeping now. (supposition, not ‘might’ as it expresses less certainty) ‘I must do it as soon as possible,’ I thought. - I thought that I had to do it as soon as possible. (obligation) ‘Oh. You mustn’t hurry. Make sure you don’t spoil anything,’ he said. – He said that I mustn’t hurry. (prohibition, not ‘didn’t have to’ as it expresses lack of necessity) SECTION 5 RUSSIAN-ENGLISH CORRESPONDENCES 1. умение / способность Я (не) умею это делать………… Я умел это делать………………. Я сумел / смог это сделать…….. Я не смог это сделать…………... Я научусь это делать…………… 2. возможность (факт) (Иногда) это возможно происходит……………………… Это не возможно………………... Возможно ли это?......................... 3. предположение близкое к неуверенности / возможность в конкретном случае Это возможно произойдет… Это возможно не произойдет… I can do it. I could / was able to do it. I was able to do it. I couldn’t do it. I’ll be able to do it. It can / may happen. / I can / may do it. It can’t happen. Can it happen? It may / might / could happen. / I may / might / could do it. It may not happen. / I may not do it. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  29. 29. Это возможно происходит (повторяющееся действие)…….. (в настоящий момент)…………. Это возможно произошло… Это возможно происходило (процесс в прошлом / период времени)………………………… Возможно ли это?....................... Это было возможно, но не произошло………………………. 4. предположение близкое к уверенности / логические выводы Это точно происходит в настоящий момент…………. Это точно произошло………….. Это точно происходило (процесс в прошлом / период времени)….. Это точно не происходит (повторяющееся действие)…….. (в настоящий момент)…………. Это точно не произошло……….. Это точно не происходило (процесс в прошлом / период времени)………………………… 5. разрешение Позвольте мне сделать это? (formal)………………………….. Можно я? (polite)………………. Я сделаю это? (informal)……….. Я (не) разрешаю этого делать…. Я не имею ничего против этого... It may / might / could happen. It may / might / could be happening. It may / might / could have happened. It may / might / could have been happening. Can / could / might it happen? It could / might have happened. It must be happening. It must have happened. It must have been happening. It can’t / couldn’t happen. It can’t / couldn’t be happening. It can’t / couldn’t have happened. It can’t / couldn’t have been happening. May I do it? Could I do it? Can I do it? You may (not) do it. You can do it. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  30. 30. Я против этого………………….. Нельзя…………………………… Можешь этого не делать………. 6. запрет Этого нельзя делать (таковы требования)……………………. (таковы правила)……………… Я не разрешаю тебе этого делать…………………………… Нет, нельзя…...…………………. 7. просьба / инструкция / приказ Не мог бы ты это сделать?.......... Ты можешь это сделать?............. Пожалуйста, сделай это (polite)…………………………… (more polite)…………………….. Ты это должен сделать (таковы требования)…………… 8. совет Тебе (не) следует это сделать…. Следует ли мне это сделать…… Сделай это обязательно (эмоциональный совет)……….. 9. предложение (своих услуг, чего-либо) Мне сделать это?........................ Не хочешь ли …?........................ (esp. at table) Вам помочь?............................... 10. предложение (идея) Мы могли бы сделать это……… You can’t do it. You mustn’t do it. You needn’t do it. You mustn’t do it. You can’t do it. You may not do it. No, you can’t. Could you do it? Can you do it? Will you do it? Would you do it? You must do it. You should (not) / ought (not) to do it. Should I do it? You must do it. Shall I do it? Would you …? Can I help you? We could / can do it. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  31. 31. Можем и сделать это………….. Давай сделаем это……………… 11. критика / упрек Тебе не следовало этого делать.. Тебе не следует этого делать (сейчас) ………………………… Мог бы и сделать это (сейчас)…………………………. (в прошлом, ситуацию не исправить)……………………. 12. долженствование Я должен сделать это (я сам считаю это необходимым)…………………. (этого требует ситуация)……… ( мы так договорились)………... 13. необходимость Мне нужно это сделать……….. Мне не нужно этого делать……. Мне не пришлось этого делать... Зря я это сделал………………… Нужно ли мне это сделать?........ 14. запрос на инструкцию Мне сделать это?........................ Как мне это сделать?................... Вы настаиваете, чтобы я это сделал?.......................................... We may / might as well do it Shall we do it? You shouldn’t have done it. You shouldn’t be doing it. You might do it. You might have done it. I must do it. I have to do it. I am to do it. I need to do it. I don’t have / need to do it. I didn’t have / need to do it. I needn’t have done it. Do I have / need to do it. Shall I do it? How shall I do it? Must I do it? Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  32. 32. SECTION 6 EXERCISES Exercise 1. Complete the sentences using the correct form of can. Comment on its meaning in each sentence. 1. Tom . . . drive but he has no car. 2. I can’t understand Martin. I’ve never . . . understand him 3. I used to . . . stand on my head but I can’t do it now. 4. He can’t play tennis very well now but he . . . play quite well when he was younger. 5. Did they find your house? – Yes. It took them a long time but they . . . find it. 6. He hurt his leg so he . . . walk very well. 7. The boy fell into the river but fortunately I . . . rescue him. 8. My grandmother loved music. She . . . play the piano very well. 9. When shall we go and see Tom? – We . . . do it on Friday. 10. . . . I help you, sir? 11. Did you buy that car? – No. I . . .have bought it but decided not to. 12. Jim wanted Ken to play tennis on Monday afternoon but couldn’t contact him. Ken . . . have played anyway because he wasn’t free on Monday afternoon. 13. . . . you tell me the right time, Mr. White? 14. I don’t think so. She . . . know a lot of people here. She is a stranger in this town. 15. Did Tom know about the plan? – No. He . . .have known about it? We kept it a secret. 16. He refused to help us. But he . . . have helped us if he wanted to. Exercise 2. Complete the sentences using the correct form of may. Comment on its meaning in each sentence. 1. Do you know if they are married? - I’m not sure. They . . . be married. 2. Do you know if she was serious? - I’m not sure. She . . . have been serious. It sounded too improbable. I’m not sure. 3. Look! Sue’s going out. I wonder where she’s going. – I don’t know. She . . . be going to the theatre. 4. My friend said I . . . meet a lot of interesting people there. 5. . . . you be very happy! Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  33. 33. 6. Where are going for your holidays? – I haven’t yet decided but I . . . go to Italy. 7. Yesterday I had to do everything by myself. You . . .have helped me. Why didn’t you? 8. A friend has invited you to a party. You’re not very keen to go but there isn’t anything else to do. So you think you should go. You say: ‘I . . . as well go. There isn’t anything else to do’. 9. . . . I come in? – Yes , you … . 10. You are not alone in the room! You . . . .stop smoking. Exercise 3. Complete the sentences using the correct form of must where possible. Comment on its meaning in each sentence. 1.All lights …be turned off by midnights. 2. We must make him change his mind, …we? 3. When you drive, you …go faster than the speed limit. 4. I … have been sleeping when you phoned. 5. I …be more attentive at the lectures. 6. You … visit the museum. 7. … we really help him? 8. He said he … talk about it with his friends. 9. You … come on time. 10. You … get tired tomorrow. Exercise 4. Can, may, must: Which of the sentences is correct? 1. Неужели он не заметил тебя? a. Can he have failed to notice you? b. Could he not notice you? c. Can he not have noticed you? 2. Жаль, что вчера погода была плохая, мы могли бы пойти прогуляться. a. We could take a walk. b. We could have taken a walk. c. We can have taken a walk. 3. Может быть, он тебя не заметил. a. He may not notice you. b. He might not have noticed you. c. He might not notice you. 4. Это не может быть правдой. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  34. 34. a. It must not be true. b. It cannot be true. c. Can it be true? 5. Неужели она все еще ждет нас? a. Can she still wait for us? b. She may not be waiting for us. c. Can she be still waiting for us? 6. Она, должно быть, скоро придет. a. She must come soon. b. She’ll probably come soon. c. She can come soon. 7. Неужели он знал об этом? a. Could he know about it? b. May he have known about it? c. Can he have known about it? 8. Я предполагаю, что он может и не знать об этом. a. He may not know about it. b. He may fail to know about it. c. He cannot know about it. 9. Джейн впервые в нашем городе. Почему вы ее не встретили вчера в аэропорту? Могли бы и встретить. a. You might meet her. b. You might have met her. c. You could have met her. 10. Возможно, он этого не знал. a. He may not have known about it. b. He must have known nothing about it. c. He could know nothing about it. 11. Он точно не знал этого. a. He cannot have known about it. b. He must not have known about it. c. He must know nothing about it. 12. Она, должно быть, много читает. a. She must be reading a lot. b. She must read a lot. c. She may be reading a lot. 13. В конце концов, мы смогли заказать 2 билета. a. At last we could book 2 tickets. b. At last we can have booked 2 tickets. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  35. 35. c. At last we were able to book 2 tickets. 14. Словарь возьму? a. May I take your dictionary? b. Can I take your dictionary? c. Could I take your dictionary? 15. Перед неисчисляемыми существительными неопределенный артикль употреблять нельзя. a. You may not use the indefinite article before uncountable nouns. b. You must not use the indefinite article before uncountable nouns. c. You can not use the indefinite article before uncountable nouns. Exercise 5. Complete the sentences using the correct form of have to. Comment on its meaning in each sentence. 1. I’d like to. But Mum says I … visit my grand parents. 2. If you are late, I … do everything myself. 3. Tomorrow I .. get up earlier than usual. 4. It rained yesterday. We … water the flowers. 5. … he really … leave? Exercise 6. Complete the sentences using the correct form of be to. Comment on its meaning in each sentence. 1. ‘You … do it immediately’, says the father to the child. 2. As we had agreed, we … wait for them at the bus stop. 3. He …have bought the flowers but he didn’t. 4. What … become of me? 5. Tomorrow I … come first. Exercise 7. Complete the sentences using the correct form of need (to). Comment on its meaning in each sentence. 1. I get to school by bus which leaves at 7. I … get up early . 2. You … have bought any bread. I didn’t ask you to do it. 3. The exercise is very easy. You … do it in writing. 4. My friend phoned me and said that he was running late. I … hurry. 5. He … do any shopping. His mother does everything. Exercise 8. Must, have to, be to, need: a. Which of the patterns would you use to translate the sentences into English?There may be more than one answer to some of the sentences so choose the best one: Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  36. 36. 1. Мне нужно спешить. В шесть часов я должен встретить маму на вокзале. a. must meet b. am to meet c. need to meet d. have got to meet 2. Боюсь, мне нужно уходить. Меня ждут дома. a. have to go b. need to go c. am to go d. have got to go 3. Должно быть, это держали в секрете долгое время. a. must be kept b. must have been kept c. had to be kept d. was to be kept 4. Вчера Тому не нужно было никуда выходить, так как Мери купила все необходимое накануне. a. did not have to go out b. need not have gone out c. need not go out d. must not go out 5. Позже или раньше, но всегда приходиться выбирать. a. one has to choose b. must choose c. needs to choose d. is to choose 6. Мы решили, что он должен рассказать ей, что произошло. a. was to have told her b. had to tell her c. must have told her d. was to tell her 7. Ни к чему было покупать эту книгу. Ее можно взять в библиотеке. a. did not need to buy b. need not have bought c. did not have to buy d. was not to have bought 8. Можете не выполнять это упражнение письменно. Мы проверим его устно. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  37. 37. a. need not have done it in writing b. do not have to do c. are not to do d. need not do 9. Ей приходится вставать рано, так как ей долго добирать до университета. a. has to get up b. needs to get up c. must get up d. has got to get up early 10. Завтра выходной, и тебе не нужно вставать рано. a. must not get up b. are not to get up c. do not have to get up d. will not need to get up b. Translate the sentences above into English. Exercise 9. Complete the sentences using the correct form of should / ought to. Use either of the verbs or both where possible. Comment on their meanings in each sentence. 1.You … ask Tom about his exam. He failed and is too much upset about it. 2. Do you think you … do it immediately? 3. Don’t worry. Rachel … do well in her exam. 4. You … have been so rude to your parents. 5. Why … I do it? Exercise 10. Complete the sentences using the correct form of will or shall. Comment on their meanings in each sentence. 1. Oh, someone’s knocking. That … be Greg. 2. … I switch on the lights? 3. … you answer my question? 4. The door … open. We can’t get in. 5. He explained that the door … open. Exercise 11. Complete the sentences with the appropriate forms of the words in parentheses. Add not if necessary for a sentence to make sense. (Section 3) 1. Look. Those people who are coming in the door are carrying wet umbrellas. It (must + rain). Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  38. 38. 2. A: Where’s that cold air coming from? B: Someone (must + leave) the door open. 3. Alex (should + watch) TV now. He has a test tomorrow that he needs to study for. 4. The roads are treacherous this morning. In places there’re nothing but a sheet of ice. I (should + take) a bus to work today instead of driving my car. 5. A: Why didn’t Jack answer the teacher when she asked him a question? B: He was too busy staring out of the window. He (must + daydream). 6. A: Where is Jane? I haven’t seen her for weeks? B: I’m not sure. She (might +travel) in Europe. I think I heard her mention something about spending a few weeks in Europe this spring. 7. You (need + buy) so much food. We are leaving tomorrow. 8. Mary (may + return) by Wednesday 9. Her eyes are red. She (must + cry). 10. You say it was boring at the party. Anyway I (could + come) as I was busy studying for my exam. Exercise 12. Say the sentences in another way using modals. 1. I’m sure this is the hotel we stayed at last year. 2. It’s not a good idea to eat so much chocolate. 3. Please help me with my bags. 4. She is able to play the guitar well. 5. Why not see a film tonight. 6. Don’t work too hard. 7. It isn’t possible for me to meet you this evening. 8. I’ve finished my exams. It’s not necessary for me to study any more. 9. There’s a possibility of better weather tomorrow. 10. Our family went to the seaside every summer but not any more. 11. Do you want me to help you to unpack the shopping? 12. Do you mind if I leave work early today? 13. I refuse to eat such disgusting food! 14. Do you know how to make real Italian Pizza? 15. My only regret is that I didn’t follow her advice. 16. Why use the car? Why don’t you cycle to work? 17. It isn’t necessary for Irish people to take a passport to enter Britain. 18. It was impossible to understand a word he said. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  39. 39. 19. I strongly recommend the exhibition at the British Museum. 20. I don’t recognize this street. Maybe we took a wrong turning. 21. Let’s go for a bike ride. 22. I’m sure Paula’s train left on time. 23. I’m sure Jim didn’t mention the matter to anyone. 24. It’s possible that Liverpool will win the match. 25. Do you want me to make the lunch? Exercise 13. Decide how to say what you would say in the following situations. There may be a number of possible answers (Section 2). 1. Offer to open the door for a stranger. 2. Ask someone to answer the door for you. 3. Invite to go for a swim this morning. 4. Offer to make someone a sandwich. 5. Request an appointment to see your bank manager, Ms Arnold. 6. Give someone permission to use your phone. 7. Suggest going for a picnic this afternoon. 8. Ask someone to wait here for you. 9. Give your son permission to go out but tell him to be back before it gets dark. 10. You are on a train. The woman next to you has finished reading a newspaper. Ask her to let you have a look at it. 11. You are in the post office. You want to buy three stamps for Russia. What do you say? 12. Your friend wants you to phone him later. You don’t know what time to phone. Ask him when to do this. 13. You are the teacher. Give your students permission not to work in groups today but tell them not to talk too loud. 14. Offer to answer the phone. 15. You friend is going to visit Greece. Advise him to learn a few words of Greek before he goes. 16. Ask a friend for a pen. 17. Allow you friend to take your pen. 18. A friend has just come to see you in your flat. Offer him something to drink. 19. You are sitting in a crowded bus. There is an old lady standing. Offer her your seat. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  40. 40. 20. You are at an interview. You want to smoke a cigarette. What do you ask first? 21. You are in a car with a friend who is driving. He is going to park the car but there is a No Parking sign. You see the sign and say: 22. It is very hot in the room. The window is shut. Suggest opening the window. 23. You don’t think it would be a good idea for Jill and Sam to get married. 24. You’ve got a pound note but you need some change. Ask someone to help you. 25. Prohibit your child to waste money on candies. Exercise 14. Report what he said / asked (Section 4). 1. ‘You should look for a new job no.’ → He said … 2. ‘You can borrow my guitar.’ → 3. ‘The baby is crying. You must have woken her’ → 4. ‘May I leave earlier today?’ → 5. ‘You must collect more data.’ → 6. ‘That can’t be true.’ → 7. ‘She has to study a lot.’ → 8. ‘I can show you the way.’ → 9. ‘You mustn’t be late for work.’ → 10. ‘He may be still sleeping.’ → 11. ‘Shall I carry this bag for you?’ → 12. ‘You should have tried to do it.’ → 13. ‘You needn’t translate the sentences.’ → 14. ‘We are to meet at ten.’ → 15. ‘I may be wrong.’ → Exercise 15. Translate the following sentences into English (Section 5). 1. Я умею говорить по-английски. 2. Когда ему было 4 года, он уже умел читать. 3. Она смогла убедить его переехать в другой отель. 4. Он не смог отказаться от этого предложения. 5. Я уже несколько дней не могу дозвониться до родителей. 6. Я думаю, что по окончании этих курсов я смогу водить машину. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  41. 41. 7. Иногда он может исчезнуть на несколько дней, мы все уже привыкли к этому. 8. Не волнуйся, сегодня он может опоздать. 9. Возможно, он не выполнит это задание. Оно слишком трудное. 10.Я уверен, что он справится с этим заданием. 11. Я уверен, что он справился с этим заданием. 12. Возможно, он не справился с этим заданием. 13. Я уверен, что он не справился с этим заданием. 14. Он мог бы справиться с этим заданием, если бы постарался. 15. Он все равно не справился бы с эти заданием. 16. Возможно, он сейчас обедает. 17. Не может быть, чтобы он обедал. Сейчас еще слишком рано. 18. Я уверен, что в то время он обедал. 19. Не может быть, чтобы они обедали полтора часа. 20. Возможно ли то, что они сейчас обедают, 21.Позвольте задать вам вопрос. 22. Ты можешь мне помочь? 23. Вы можете позвонить в любое время. 24. Если нужно, звони мне в любое время. 25. Нельзя задавать ему этот вопрос. 26. Можете не звонить ему. Я сделаю это сам. 27. Позвоните мне, пожалуйста, в 10 утра. 28. Не могли бы Вы позвонить мне в 10 утра? 29.Тебе следует сначала позвонить, меня может не быть дома. 30. Обязательно позвони мне. Я буду ждать твоего звонка. 31. Следует ли мне позвонить и напомнить о нашей встрече? 32. Тебе нужно было позвонить и напомнить мне о нашей встрече. 33. Могу ли я Вам помочь? – Да, конечно. 34. Не хотите ли еще чаю? 35.Джон ждет тебя уже два часа. Мог бы постараться прийти пораньше. 36. Мне обязательно нужно хорошо подготовиться к этому тесту. 37. Давай пойдем ложиться спать. Завтра нам нужно встать пораньше. 38. Завтра мы встречаемся у входа в метро. 39.Хочешь я встречу тебя у метро? 40. Я зря ждал его у метро. Он приехал на автобусе. 41. Он приехал на пол часа раньше, мне не пришлось ждать его. 42. Где мне тебя ждать? Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  42. 42. 43. Тебе придется подождать меня, если я буду опаздывать. 44. Мы могли бы подождать его у входа в метро. 45. Можно и подождать немножко. Мы ведь не торопимся. Exercise 16. Correct the following sentences if necessary. 1. Could you help me lift this box? – Of course, I could. 2. Although he was exhausted, he could finish the race. 3. The bus can be late tonight because there’s a lot of traffic. 4. Let’s wait two more minutes. She must come soon. 5. A: You mustn’t clean the floor. B: Oh, have you done it already? 6. May you give me a lift to work tomorrow? 7. Sylvia can’t mean what she said. 8. A: Where is Colin? B: I’m not sure. He must be in the study. 9. May these flowerы be from your fiancé? 10.Will we go for a walk this afternoon? Exercise 17. Choose the correct variant. 1. A: Can / Might I have a biscuit, Mum? B: Of course. Help yourself. 2. A: Could I use your pen? B: Of course you could / can. 3. A: Where’s Jane? B: I’m not sure. She may / must have gone shopping. 4. A: I didn’t know Rachel was in the choir/ B: Oh yes. She may / can sing beautifully. 5. A: Shall I cook dinner tonight? B: No you mustn’t / needn’t. We’re going to a restaurant. 6 A: It’s Sally’s birthday on Wednesday. B: I know I have to / must remember to buy her a present. 7. Although it was dark, he could / was able to find his way in the woods. 8. A: Shall / Must we have a barbecue next weekend? B: Yes, if the weather’s fine. 9. A: She has a huge house and an expensive car. B: Yes, she could / must be very rich. 10. Shall / Will you answer the phone, please? 11. A: I’m certain she’s looking for a new job. B: She can’t / mustn’t. She’s found a good job. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  43. 43. 12. You shouldn’t / needn’t have been so rude to him. It sounded very offensive. 13. A: Can / Shall I have a milkshake, please? B: Yes, of course. What flavour would you like? 14. A: I saw Tina in town last night. B: You could / can’t have seen her. She’s on holiday in Spain. 15. Lizzie might / could spell her name before she was three. 16. A: Did you phone Alan yesterday? B: No, I needn’t have / didn’t need to. He came round to see me. 17. John can’t be working / work in the library now. I saw him leave an hour ago. 18. It must have happened / happen like this. 19. Who may / can this present be from? 20. Can / Will I help you, ma’am? Exercise 18. Choose the correct answer. 1. Shall I make you a cup of tea? a. Yes, please. b. No, you won’t. 2. Would you help me please? My car won’t start? a. I’d be happy to. b. Yes, I would. 3. Could you open the door for me, please? a. Yes, I could. b. Of course. 4. Can you do the washing up for me, please? a. No, I may not. b. No problem. 5. We could go for a walk this afternoon. a. That’s a nice idea. b. No, we might not. 6. Could I sit down for a minute, please? a. Yes, of course. b. No, you couldn’t. 7. Can I get you anything, madam? a. No, you can’t. b. No, thank you. I’m just looking. 8. Can I go and play football now, please? a. Not at all. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  44. 44. b. Yes, if you like. 9. Shall I pick you up from work this evening? a. Yes, please. b. No, you won’t. Exercise 19. TEST. MODAL VERBS Task 1. Match the items in column A to their synonyms in column B: A B 1. You mustn’t … 2. You can’t be … 3. You needn’t … 4. Will you …? 5. She didn’t need to … 6. You should … 7. May I …? 8. We needn’t have … 9. He was able to … 10. Shall we …? 11. You must … 12. they must be … a. It’s a good idea for you to … b. It wasn’t necessary for us to … (but we did) c. Let’s … d. He managed to … e. I want you to … f. It’s forbidden to … g. I’m sure they are … h. Do you mind if I … i. You are to … j. It’s not necessary for you to … k. I’m certain you’re not … l. It wasn’t necessary for her to … ----------- 12 points. Task 2. Choose the correct word(s) in bold:  A: I found a briefcase on the train. B: You (1) ought to / can take it to the police station as soon as possible.  A: Did you get some money from the bank? B: No, I (2) didn’t need to / needn’t. I had enough in my wallet.  A: Sorry. I’m late again. B: You (3) should / may wear a watch.  A: (4) Couldn’t / May I speak to Claire, please? B: Just a moment, please. I’ll call her.  A: (5) Could / Would I use your phone, please? B: Yes, of course.  A: When (6) will / shall I visit you next? Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  45. 45. B: You (7) can / must call in tomorrow, if you like.  A: I wonder if Paul and Jim have got lost. B: They (8) can’t / mustn’t have got lost. I gave them a map.  (at an estate agency) A: (9) May / Can you help us? We’d like a house with a large garden. It (10) mustn’t / needn’t be in the village, but it (11) has to / must be on a bus route. It (12) mustn’t / shouldn’t cost more than $ 200.000. B: Let’s see. We have three that (13) can / might be suitable. (14) Would / Should you like to go and see them now?  Although he was ill, he (15) could / was able to finish all the paperwork.  I went to college yesterday, but I (16) didn’t have to go / needn’t have gone as all the lectures were cancelled. ----------- 16 points Task 3. Rephrase the following sentences in as many ways as possible: 1. I strongly advise you to take legal action. 2. I advise you to book a table in advance. 3. How about inviting some friends over to dinner? 4. Perhaps we’ll go to Italy for a holiday next summer. 5. We managed to do the puzzle, although it was difficult. 6. I’m certain she’s looking for a new job. 7. I’m certain she doesn’t know the secret. 8. It’s possible she called while we were out. 9. Perhaps he was sleeping at that time. 10.It’s not necessary to do the ironing today. 11.Driving without headlights is forbidden. 12. It wasn’t necessary to get dressed up, so we didn’t. ----------- 12 points Task 4. Correct the following sentences. 1. They shouldn’t to have called the police. 2. They might have been forgotten about our meeting. 3. May this letter be from my friend? 4. Could you lend me some money? – Of course, I could. 5. I must study very hard last week. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  46. 46. 6. The shops can be crowded tomorrow because it’s the last shopping day before Christmas. 7. You mustn’t go to the bank. I can lend you some money. 8. We needn’t have caught the early train so we woke up late. 9. I can’t sleep well for two days. 10.Ben was very rude. He mustn’t have talked to Sarah that way. ----------- 10 points 50 points – 46 points – Excellent 45 points – 36 points – Good 35 points – 26 points - Satisfactory Less than 25 points - Unsatisfactory Exercise 20. Answer the questions. 1. Which English modals can express supposition (different kinds of it)? Comment on the differences in the meanings. 2. Which English modals can express obligation? Comment on the differences in the meanings. 3. Which English modals can express permission (asking for, giving and refusing)? Comment on the differences in the meanings. 4. Which English modals can be followed by perfect and progressive infinitives? Comment on them. 5. Comment on different structures with modals which can be used to get people to do things. SECTION 7 KEYS TO EXERCISES Exercise 1. 1. can 2. been able to 3. be able to 4. could 5. were able to 6. couldn’t 7. was able to 8. could 9. could 10. Can 11. could 12. couldn’t 13. Could 14. Can’t/ couldn’t 15. Can’t/ couldn’t 16. could Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  47. 47. Exercise 2. 1. may / might 2. may not / mightn’t 3. may / might 4.might 5.May 6. may / might 7.might 8.may / might 9.May / Might, may 10. might Exercise 3. 1.must 2.must not / mustn’t 3.mustn’t 4.must 5.must 6.must 7.must 8.had to 9.must 10. are sure / bound to, ‘ll probably / evidently Exercise 4. 1.a. 2.b. 3.b. 4.b. 5.c. 6.b. 7.c. 8.a. 9.b. 10.a. 11.a. 12.a. 13.c. 14.b. 15.c. Exercise 5. 1. have got to/ ‘ve got to / have to 2. ‘ll have to 3. have got to/ ‘ve got to / have to 4. didn’t have to 5. Did … have to Exercise 6. 1. are to 2. were to 3. was to 4. is to 5. am to Exercise 7. 1. need to 2. needn’t 3. needn’t 4. didn’t need to 5. doesn’t need to Exercise 8 1.b 2.d 3.b 4.a 5.a 6.d 7.b 8.d 9.a 10.c Exercise 9. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  48. 48. 1. shouldn’t / oughtn’t to 2. should / ought to 3. should / ought to 4. should / ought to 5. should Exercise 10. 1. will 2. Shall 3. Will / Would 4. won’t 5. wouldn’t Exercise 11. 1. must be raining 2. must have left 3. shouldn’t be watching 4. should take 5. must have been daydreaming 6. might be traveling 7. needn’t have bought 8. may have returned 9. must have been crying 10.couldn’t have come Exercise 12. 1. must be 2. shouldn’t eat 3.Could/ Would you help 11. can play 12. Shall we see, could/can see 13. shouldn’t work 14. can’t meet 15. don’t have to study 16. may/might/could be 17. used to go 18. Shall I help 19. Could I leave 20. won’t eat 14. Can you make 15. should’ve listened 16. could/can cycle 17. don’t have to, don’t need to 18. couldn’t understand 19. must see 20. may/might/could have taken 21. Shall we go, could/can go 22. must have left 23. can’t have mentioned 24. may/might/ could win 25. Shall I take Exercise 13. 1. Shall I open …? 2. Would you answer …? 3. Shall we go …? 4. Can I make …? 5. Could I make …? 6. You may use … . 14.Shall I answer ..? 15. You should learn … 16. Can you give …? 17. You can take … 18. Would you have …? 19. Would you take …? Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  49. 49. 7. We could go … . 8. Could you wait …? 9. You can go …, you must be … 10.May I have? 11. Will you sell …? 12. What time shall I phone ...? 13.You needn’t work… but you mustn’t talk … . 20. Can I smoke …? 21. You mustn’t park … 22. Shall I open …? 23. They shouldn’t get … 24. Could you help …? 25. You mustn’t waste … Exercise 14. 1. I should 2. I could 3. I must 4. if he might 5. I had to 6. that can’t 7. she had to 8. he could 9. I mustn’t 10.he may 11.if he should 12.I should 13.I didn’t need to 14.they / we were to 15.he may Exercise 15. 1. I can speak … 2. he could read … 3. She was able to persuade … 4. He couldn’t refuse 5. I haven’t been able to phone 6. I’ll be able to drive … 7. He can disappear … 8. He may / might / could be … 9. He may / might / could not do ... 10.He’ll sure / bound to do … 11.He must have done … 12.He may / might / could not have done … 13.He can’t / couldn’t have done .. 14.He could have done … 15.He couldn’t have done … 16.He may / might / could be having … 17.He can’t / couldn’t be having … 24.you can phone … 25.You mustn’t ask … 26.You needn’t phone … 27.Will you phone …? 28.Could you phone …? 29.You should phone …, I may / might / could not be … 30.You must phone … 31.Should I phone …? 32.You should have phoned … 33.Can I help …? 34.Would you have …? 35.You might have tried … 36.I must get … 37.We’ve got to … 38.We are to meet … 39.Shall I meet …? 40.I needn’t have been waiting … 41.I didn’t have to wait … Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  50. 50. 18.He must have been having … 19.They can’t / couldn’t have been having … 20.Can / Might / Could they be having …? 21.May I ask …? 22.Can you help …? 23.You may phone … 42.Where shall I wait …? 43.You’ll have to wait … 44.We could / can wait … 45.We may / might as well wait … Exercise 16. 1. Of course, I can. 2. He was able to finish … 3. The bus may / might / could be late … 4. She’s bound / sure to come / She’ll probably come … 5. You needn’t clean …. 6. Can / Could / Will / Would you give …? 7. Sylvia can’t have meant … 8. He may / might / could be … 9. Can / Might / Could these flowers be …? 10.Shall we go …? Exercise 17 1. Can 2. can 3. may 4. can 5. needn’t 2. must 3. was able to 4. Shall 5. must 10.will 11.can’t 12.shouldn’t 13.Can 14.can’t 15. could 16.needn’t have 17.be working 18. have happened 19. can 20. Can Exercise 18. 1. a 2. a 3. b 4. b 5. a 6. a 7. b 8. b 9. a 10.b Exercise 19. Task 1. 1. f 2. k 3. j 4. e 5. l 6. a 7. h Task 2. 1. ought to 2. didn’t need to 3. should 4. May 5. Could 6. shall Task 3. 1. You must take 2. You should book 3. Shall we invite / We could / can invite 4. We may / might / could go Task 4. 1. shouldn’t have 2. have forgotten 3. Can / Could / Might 4. I can 5. I had to 6. may / might / Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  51. 51. 8. b 9. d 10.c 11.i 12.g 7. can 8. can’t 9. Can 10.needn’t 11.must 12. mustn’t 13. might 14. Would 15. was able to 16. needn’t have gone 5. We were able to do 6. She must be looking 7. She can’t know 8. She may / might / could have called 9. He may / might / could have been sleeping 10.You don’t have to / don’t need to / needn’t do 11.You mustn’t drive 12.We didn’t have to / didn’t need to get could 7. needn’t 8. didn’t need / have to catch 9. haven’t been able to sleep 10.shouldn’t have talked Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»
  52. 52. REFERENCES 1. Крылова И.П., Гордон Е.М. Грамматика английского языка. Учебник для ин-тов и фак. иностр. яз. – 4-е изд., испр. – М.: Книжный дом «Университет», 1999. – 448 с. – На англ. яз. 2. Azar B.Sh. Understanding and using English Grammar. - 3rd edition. – Prentice Hall Regents, New Jersey, 1998. – 430 p. 3. Battersby A. Instant Grammar Lessons. – Longman Teaching Publications, 1996. 4. Carter R., McCarthy M. Cambridge Grammar of English: A Comprehensive Guide. Spoken and Written English Grammar and Usage. – Cambridge University Press, 2007. – 974 p. 5. Dooly J., Evans V. Grammar Way 4. – Express Publishing, 1999. – 224 p. 6. Evans V. Enterprise Grammar 4. – Express Publishing, 2000. – 159 p. 7. Evans Virginia. Round –Up. English Grammar. Practice 6. – Longman, 1995. – 256 p. 8. Leech G. An A-Z of English Grammar and Usage. – Longman, 1998. – 575 p. 9. Murphy R. English Grammar in Use: A self-study reference book for intermediate students (with answers). - 2nd edition. – Cambridge University Press, 1994. – 350 p. 10.Watkins M. Practice Your Modal Verbs. - Longman, 1990 - 60 p. Copyright ОАО «ЦКБ «БИБКОМ» & ООО «Aгентство Kнига-Cервис»

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