<ul><li>Timeline of development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Top down / Bottom up </li></ul><ul><li>Issues from Jane Jacobs </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
Development The Early Years to the 19th Century 1693 , found by Portuguese explorers 1721 , renamed their new home "Curitiba." It was Curitiba's early leaders who first established building regulations 1854 , Curitiba became the official capital of Paraná The end of the century, when a tide of European immigrants arrived in southern Brazil, Curitiba's population had surpassed 50,000. 1693 1854 1940 1960 1964 1970 1980 1990 2000
Curitiba's First Urban Plan: 1940s 1940 , Curitiba was experiencing rapid growth. Increasing demands for improved services, housing and transportation. The city hired French planner and architect Alfred Agache to help ease the growing pains. The city transformed from agricultural into industrial and commercial after World War II. Development 1693 1854 1940 1960 1964 1970 1980 1990 2000
Unchecked Growth: 1960s Curitiba's population swelled to more than 430,000 people in 1960. French architect Alfred Agache's plan from the 1940s hadn't considered future waves of newcomers . 1964 , Mayor Ivo Arzua issued a call for proposals to prepare Curitiba for new growth. A team of young, idealistic architects and planners from the Federal University of Paraná, led by Jamie Lerner , answered. Development 1693 1854 1940 1960 1964 1970 1980 1990 2000
<ul><li>The proposal : </li></ul><ul><li>plans to minimize urban sprawl </li></ul><ul><li>reduce downtown traffic </li></ul><ul><li>preserve Curitiba's historic district </li></ul><ul><li>provide easily accessible and affordable public transit </li></ul><ul><li>Improving upon Agache's plan, Lerner's team also proposed adding main linear transit arteries. It was known as the Curitiba Master Plan . </li></ul>Development 1693 1854 1940 1960 1964 1970 1980 1990 2000
Implementing the Master Plan: 1970s 1968 , leading architect Jamie Lerner created the city's first urban planning department to help organize and direct further redevelopment efforts Among the department's innovations in the 1970s was Rua Quinze do Novembro , the heart of commercial Curitiba and Brazil's first pedestrian-only street . Curitiba began developing an industrial zone on the city's outskirts Development 1693 1854 1940 1960 1964 1970 1980 1990 2000
The Green Era: 1980s 1980s , rising urban poverty and increasing deforestation rates in Brazil Rolled out a number of eco-friendly and social programs during the 1980s " Green areas " protected from future development Curitiba's transit system was expanded Regional administrations were established to decentralize government Development 1693 1854 1940 1960 1964 1970 1980 1990 2000
International Recognition: 1990s 1992 , the World Cities Forum 1990s , New botanical garden and an opera house located on the site of an abandoned quarry New industry to its Industrial City, with automobile companies New red multicabin buses were integrated into its transit system, and high-speed bus stops were created Development 1693 1854 1940 1960 1964 1970 1980 1990 2000
The Millennium Tourism becomes important to the local economy Added a sightseeing bus line to its transit system The city also recently began building a technology park to attract new-economy businesses Investing in alternative fuel technologies Development 1693 1854 1940 1960 1964 1970 1980 1990 2000
One of the key elements of successful planning in Curitiba is the integrated transport system , especially the bus routes. Curitiba was the first city to implement rapid bus transit system . Five routes radiate out from the centre of the town. People use the buses not their cars. Transportation
Transport in Curitiba is not planned in isolation , it is coupled with land use policy, work schemes, education. System approach does not only enhance the environment, it also enhances the social and economic viability of a city. Transportation
GREEN EXCHANGE IN EXCHANGE FOR A GIVEN VOLUMN OF GARBAGE ,CITIZENS ARE COMPENSATED WITH FOOD OR BUS TOKENS RESULT: FARMERS & POOR CITIZENS BENEFIT AT VERY LITTLE COST TO THE CITY 70% CURIBITANO VS 15% SUBURBAN TORONTO GARBAGE RECYCLING FAMILIES
FLOODING PROBLEM & PUBLIC OEPEN SPACE Curitiba had major problems with flooding, waterways had been canalised, making the problem worse. Waterways and low-lying land prone to flooding, was turned into parks. In the 1990s, Curitiba was designated the Ecological Capital of Brazil. Six new parks, the Botanical Garden , and eight wooded areas were created, totaling more than eight million square meters of public preservation areas.
70% RECYCLE Recycling in Curitiba is now so advanced that two thirds of the city's daily waste is processed. Curitiba was awarded the highest environmental prize in 1990 by UNEP, and since its start in 1989 the recyclable waste scheme has accomplished the separation of 419,000 tons of recyclable waste – the equivalent of 1,200 20-storey buildings creating 280 square metres of trash each.
USE OF EXISTING BUILDINGS SKYLINE CONTROL maximum use is made of existing buildings. Eg.Schools are re-used in the evening for adult education programmes. The historic core of the city, founded by European immigrants in the 18th century, has been preserved by strict planning guidelines In recent years, high rise buildings have been permitted in Lincoln, despoiling the historic skyline. Until then, and since Norman times, the skyline was dominated by the Norman Castle and Cathedral.
SUMMARY If cities are to become more sustainable, people must take action in the neighborhoods where they live. Most of the urban environmental success stories came about when citizens identified various problems and the links between them in order to pin down cause and effect. Curitiba, a provincial town in Brazil, where sustainable development is not given lip service, but actually practiced , where the people are involved in the planning decisions. Curitiba, perhaps the best planned city in Brazil and an international model for sustainable development,
WHOLE –SYSTEMS THINKING 6 ARCHITECT/MAYOR (JAIME LERNER etc.) Jamie Lerner , architect and three-term mayor of Curitiba, has a mission: to export the Curitiba model to cities around the world. Cassio Taniguchi , a civic engineer, now serving as Curitiba's mayor, is leading the city through a new century of growth. Top down (Architect’s mind) + Bottom up (Citizen’s view) Jamie Lerner <ul><li>POLITICAL CONTINUITY </li></ul><ul><li>Ippuc (Urabn Planning And Research Institute Of Curitiba) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to maintain the continuity of the urban projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>regime support----clienteles system </li></ul>
v.s <ul><li>OTHER BRAZILIAN CITIES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>W ild policy shifs to four-year electoral cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I ndividual property rights restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C ontrol over infrastructural systems dispersed between competing agencies </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>THEORY OF IMPLEMANTATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ IT IS NECESSARY TO START WITHOUT ALL THE ANSWERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ READY,FIRE,AIM” (LERNER 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E nending cycles of action and reflection that moves us forword </li></ul></ul>
v.s IDELOGICAL PURISTS (DAVISON 2001) A COMMON THEORY BEFORE ACTIONS IMPLEMENTATION ADVANTAGE SHORT-TERM COMMITMENT CHANGES WITH THE PROGRESS
INTEGRATED PLANNING-----BOTTOM UP TRASPORTATION ----INTEGRATED SYSTEM WITH URBAN LIFE BUILDINGS -----traffic/public transport-generating element eg. low income housing close to these transportation routes and close to the Curitiba Industrial City INFRASTRUCTER -----eg. electricity, clean water, sewerage, education, and public health facilities.
v.s TRADITIONAL PLANNING TRANSPORTATION PLANNING ---- data-demanding, equation-based, and technocratic CITY PLANNING ----physical features /static ----isolated, large scale, and uniform housing projects
PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN THE PROCESS OF IMPLEMENTAION IN THE PROCESS OF DECISION-MAKING v.s Eg. PORTO ALEGRE ----BASED ON PULIC TALK RESULT DISAPPOINTED DESITION----MADE BY A FEW ELITE PLANNERS
SUMMARY S uccessful town design is not top-down, it is organic, it involves the people, it is bottom up . Curitiba is not top-down led by the mayor, even though it has been fortunate to have had a visionary mayor. All of the mayors who have followed Jaime Lerner have worked in partnership with private companies, NGOs, neighborhood and community groups. A series of interactive, interconnected evolving solutions. Wide public debate and discussion, widespread participation, to reach a broad consensus. Most important of all, the best ideas and implementation comes from its citizens . Curitiba is a success because it involves all its people , treating them, especially the children, not as a burden, a nuisance, a bunch of troublemakers to be ignored or worst still, attacked and victimised, but as its most precious resource, the path to the future.
“ Low income projects become worse centers of delinquency, vandalism and general social hopelessness than the slums they were supposed to replace .” 1950’s Morningside Heights in New York “ Applied more planning theory, wiped out the most run down part of the area, middle income cooperative project complete with public housing project.” Housing issue Quoted from Jane Jacobs - “The Death and life of Great American Cities”
“ Government’s acquisition of land along or close to the new transport axes .” “ To build high density housing projects for lower income families .” Housing issue Quoted from “Environmental Innovation and Management in Curitiba, Brazil” <ul><li>The government acts an important role. </li></ul><ul><li>Transport axes are the structure of the city in Curitiba. </li></ul><ul><li>The project associated with the transport system to solve the concern of citizens. </li></ul>
Decades of preaching, writing and exhorting by experts have gone into convincing us and our legislators that mush like this must be good for us …. View issue Quoted from Jane Jacobs - “The Death and life of Great American Cities”
View issue Quoted from “Environmental Innovation and Management in Curitiba, Brazil” <ul><li>The citizens can participated in the development of city. </li></ul><ul><li>The city’s life is belonged to citizens. </li></ul>The role of every actor is a function of scale, means, and knowledge. The city administration should be in a position to determine structural guidelines for the city and its wider region, whereas citizens can better determine what is the best for their own street or neighborhood. Balance between representation and participation is essential .
Transportation issue Quoted from Jane Jacobs - “The Death and life of Great American Cities” The simple needs of automobiles are more easily understood and satisfied than the complex needs of cities, and a growing number of planners and designers have come to believe that if they can only solve the problems of traffic , they will thereby can solve the problem of cities .
Transportation issue Quoted from “Environmental Innovation and Management in Curitiba, Brazil” <ul><li>The architect realized the problem of traffic would affected the development of city. </li></ul><ul><li>The transportation system becomes the concept to develop the city. </li></ul><ul><li>All functions and land use are associated with this structure. </li></ul>Curitiba’s road network is the concept and use of “road hierarchies.” Each road is assigned a function in relation to its location and importance. There are the structural roads along ……roads from the skeleton structure of Curitiba .
<ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>City expansion guided through integrated road planning and enforcement of land use legislation as a starting point of development. </li></ul><ul><li>Public transportation is always priority suggested over the private automobiles. </li></ul><ul><li>Public involvement and awareness are important for the city development. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>“ Environmental Innovation and Management in Curitiba, Brazil” - Rabinovitch, Jonas. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Alternative routes to the sustainable city : Austin, Curitiba, and Frankfurt” - Steven A. Moore </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.arch1design.com/Urban_Design_CURITIBA.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www3.iclei.org/localstrategies/summary/curitiba2.html </li></ul><ul><li>http:// home.clara.net/heureka/gaia/curitiba.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curitiba </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/fellows/brazil1203/master-plan.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.solutions-site.org/artman/publish/article_62.shtml </li></ul>