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IUKWC Workshop Nov16: Developing Hydro-climatic Services for Water Security – Session 7 – Item 3 Lobo

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IUKWC Workshop Nov16: Developing Hydro-climatic Services for Water Security – Session 7.3 Lobo

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IUKWC Workshop Nov16: Developing Hydro-climatic Services for Water Security – Session 7 – Item 3 Lobo

  1. 1. Making Small-Holder Farming Climate Smart: Experiences from Rainfed and Semi-Arid Regions of India Crispino Lobo, WOTR
  2. 2. Support provided to Projects in Somaliland, Kenya, Tanzania and Malawi . Organizational Overview SELF People impacted > 1.8 million Watershed Villages 1,992 Project Villages 3,594 States 7 Area covered > 1.3 million ha People trained > 380,000 Personnel >165 Group Personnel >300 AgMet/IT Personnel >20
  3. 3. Climate Change Market Forces Fractured Vulnerable Communities TheContext Depleted Natural Resources
  4. 4. Watershed Based Eco-Systems Management
  5. 5. Stone Bunds MEASURES -AREA TREATMENTS
  6. 6. DRAINAGE TREATMENTS/LAND USE CHANGES
  7. 7. Watershed Organisation Trust (WOTR) 8 Components of Watershed Development • Human Resources and Institutional Development (community development) • Soil and Land Management • Water Harvesting and Management • Afforestation • Pasture/ Grassland Development • Agricultural Development • Horticulture Development • Livestock Management • Pisciculture • Rural Energy Management • Livelihood Support Systems
  8. 8. FOOD&WATER Conservation,Management,UseEfficiency Adaptive Sustainable Agriculture Water Budgeting Water Availability Cropping Pattern Soil Health and Environmentally safe Practices Water Conservation Technologies Integrated Water-Nutrient – Pest Management Weather - Based Crop Advisories Crop Demos/ Farmer Field Schools
  9. 9. 3. Water Budgeting and Management • Assess season-wise water availability - surface and groundwater • Assess current and projected water demand for domestic, agriculture, livestock and livelihood purposes • Match existing water availability with demand • Choose crops and cropping patterns in line with net water availability keeping in mind household food security and market (income) needs • Introduce water conserving technologies –drip, sprinkler, etc • Determine and Introduce sustainable surface and ground water accessing, management water sharing practices Water Budgeting and Water Stewardship
  10. 10. Water Budgeting for Village
  11. 11. 10 important soil parameters : pH, EC, Organic Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulphur, Zinc, Iron and Boron Soil Testing Lab and Soil Health Card SOIL HEALTH CARD Soil Nutrient status Elements Availability Category Major Elements Organic carbon (%) 0.55 Medium pH 8.3 Slightly alkaline EC (dSm/m) 0.16 Normal Nitrogen (kg/ha) 197 low Phosphorus (kg/ha) 31.2 High Potassium (kg/ha) 415 Very high Secondary Elements Sulphur (ppm) 17.5 Medium Micro nutrients Iron (mg/kg) 7.39 Medium Zinc (mg/kg) 0.5 low Boron (mg/kg) 0.2 low Recommendations Crop Fertilizer dose (kg/ha) FYM (t/ha) Vermicompost (t/ha) Urea SSP Time of application Rabi Sorghum 3.5 1.5 25 50 Basal dose - - 25 - 30 Days After Sowing Agri. Officer WOTR, Pune Farmer Name : Thakaji Namdev Thokal Village :Hivare Korda Cluster: Parner Tehsil : Parner District :Ahmednagar Area : 0.20 ha Date of soil sample collection : 20/04/2016 Gat No. : 2 Survey No. : 125 Soil colour : Medium black Previous season crop : Green gram Source of irrigation : Well Next season crop : Rabi Sorghum Type of irrigation : Surface GPS Coordinates :
  12. 12. 13 • Water Efficiency Enhancing Systems • Farm Ponds • Shade Nets/ Polyhouses/ New Technologies • Farmer Field Schools/ Exposure Visits • Eco-friendly Farming On Field Interventions – Learning By Doing
  13. 13. Environmentally Friendly Farming
  14. 14. Capacity Building, FFS and On-site Technical Support
  15. 15. Farmer-Friendly Agro-Meteorology
  16. 16. Automated Weather Stations installed in 87 villages (76 with telemetry links) Weather information displayed on boards in villages Training for villagers Awareness creation amongst villagers Farmers use the information to plan for agricultural operations and livestock management Locale-Specific Meteorological Information
  17. 17. The Agro-Met Advisory System: An Overview
  18. 18. • Farmer-specific, crop and field specific advisories which integrate management practices: - crops and cropping pattern - cultural practices - irrigation management - nutrient management - pest and diseases management • Environmentally friendly, promote soil health, reduce costs and increase productivity 19 Agro-Advisory ProvisioningAgro-Advisory Provisioning
  19. 19. • Total farmers benefiting: > 11,000 through wallpapers and public address system; > 8,200 thro’ SMSs • All the sections of the community including marginalized communities are included • On average, 30-80% increase in agriculture productivity • On an average 40-50% reduction in costs attributed to onsite advisories, Wallpaper, SMSs and public announcements. Impact
  20. 20. How the System will work? IMD Weather System 7 days Observed weather 5-day Moderated Weather forecast Identify impacts on crop Find matching crop and weather data Process input data Key Crop Growth Stage / Sowing Date Soil Moisture and NDVI Agro-climatic and Edaphic Zone data IMD/SAU/AFMU + WOTR Agro Advisory GOM/AFMU/ SAUs/KVK Parametrized Crop Calendar Details Automated Agromet Advisory Generation System Feedback IMD GOM/AFMU/ SAUs/KVK Scouts GOM/AFMU/ KVK Scouts One Time input Periodic Input
  21. 21. • Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) • Mahatma Phule Krushi Vidyapeeth (MPKV) • Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Agriculture University (VNMKV) • Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA) • Dept of Agriculture, Govt. of Maharashtra 22 Agro-Advisory ProvisioningInstitutional Collaborations
  22. 22. Vulnerability Assessment, Sensitivity Analysis, Building Adaptive Responses for Enhancing Resilience
  23. 23. Introduction to Community Driven Vulnerability Assessment Tool
  24. 24. Resilience Codes of Household Categories • Codes : 1-Nil (0-10%), 2- Minimum (11-25%), 3- Low (26-45%), 4- Medium (46- 70%) , 5- High ( 71%<) Village: Chirkone Village Financial Human Natural Physical Social Large landowners 2 3 1 3 2 SMF 2 2 1 2 1 Landless 1 1 1 1 1 Village: Dhonda Village Financial Human Natural Physical Social Large landowners 2 3 2 2 2 SMF 2 2 1 1 1 Landless 1 1 1 1 1
  25. 25. Indications and Opportunities • If you handle large scale projects covering many villages …. Districts Village codes District 1 Village A 12241 Village B 12332 Village C 13231 District 2 Village A 44213 Village B 34213 Village C 44321 1. Indicates that natural capital is low in all villages in the area : helps prioritize investment and funding needs 2. Since a detailed description of the capitals is also included, location specific needs can be identified and catered to
  26. 26. Software Tool http://codrive.wotr.in/CodrivePD/Forms/HomePage.aspx
  27. 27. The WOTR Centre for Resilience Studies (W-CReS) • Purpose: To bridge the gap between science, policy and practice and contribute towards building adaptive and resilience capacities at all levels • Objectives: (i) Undertake collaborative and rigorous trans-disciplinary research on the ground; (ii) Undertake widespread dissemination of these findings and knowledge products at the local, national and global levels; (iii) Build capacities of stakeholders across scales; (iv) Contribute to building a “community of learning and practice” across public, private and civil society agencies, at all levels; (v) Advocate and lead innovations in adaptation and resilience building policy and practice so that: (a) an enabling institutional environment is created and; (b) appropriate and adequately resourced adaptation and resilience enhancing programs get efficiently implemented at scale.
  28. 28. IMPACTS
  29. 29. Darewadi - 1996 Darewadi - 1999 Darewadi - 2009 STRATEGIES AND APPROACHES
  30. 30. Water Shortages : Fading Memories
  31. 31. The Impacts of Watershed Development Barren land decreased by 74% despite a 32% decline in rainfall. A study of 15 villages revealed the following: • Productive wells increased by 29% • Area under irrigation increased by 233% • Cropped area increased by 25% • Agriculture employment went from 4 to 10 months /year locally (150% increase) • Distress migration declined by 84% • Milk production increased by 143% • Production of Food crops by 65% • Vegetable production by 64%
  32. 32. • Innovations developed under The Indo-German Watershed Development Program (IGWDP) have been mainstreamed in large-scale WSD programs: • Capacity Building as a distinct and preparatory phase • Participatory Net Planning (PNP) • Involving the Forest Dept. and Securing Permission to treat Forest land • Involving NGOs and GPs as Resource Agencies and Project Implementers in developmental programs • Spread the concept and practice of participatory WSD country-wide through training and technical support to NGOs and decision makers • Establishment of the Watershed Development Fund (WDF) –with NABARD - in 1999 which took the IGWDP experience across the country • Developed a Private-Public-Civil Society Partnership Model (PPCP) for NGREGA which has been up-scaled up across Maharashtra and now adopted in 250 Blocks in the country. • Developed a model for weather-based crop and locale specific agro-advisories that is being up-scaled across the country by the IMD • Establishment of the National Adaptation Fund in 2014 – with NABARD -for enhancing resilience in rural India. Key Policy and Scale Impacts
  33. 33. Thank You!

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