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IUKWC Workshop Nov16: Developing Hydro-climatic Services for Water Security – Session 1 – Item 2 - SK_Jain

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IUKWC Workshop November 2016: Developing Hydro-climatic Services for Water Security
Session 1.2 Sharad K Jain

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IUKWC Workshop Nov16: Developing Hydro-climatic Services for Water Security – Session 1 – Item 2 - SK_Jain

  1. 1. Hydro-meteorological inputs for hydrological studies Sharad K. Jain National Institute of Hydrology Roorkee s_k_jain@yahoo.com IITM Pune, 29 Nov 2016
  2. 2. Major Uses of Hydromet Data Hydrologic modelling and Water Resources Assessment, Improve understanding of hydrologic processes Management of Hydrologic extremes: Flood and drought forecasts Warning of cloudbursts Trend analysis and study impacts of climate change. Assessment of Environmental water
  3. 3. Data required to simulate/forecast hydrologic response of catchments: • Precipitation at short space and time intervals, • Precipitation variability with altitude, • Temperature and lapse rates at various locations, • Other meteorological data such as radiation, wind speed, humidity … Hydromet Data for Hydrologic Modeling
  4. 4. Hydrologic Modeling of Upper Ganga Basin
  5. 5. Hydrologic Modeling by using SWAT Model
  6. 6. • Limitations of current hydromet data availability: • Sparse network in mountains where RF variation is high; rare to find stations above 1000 m altitude, • Observation network of variables such as ET/soil moisture is poor, • Data needed for glacier mass balance and melt estimation are missing, • Strengthen networks; generate data on finer temporal/spatial scales by merging satellite and ground based observations. Hydrologic Modeling in Mountains
  7. 7. Flood Prone Area (40 mha, 32, 15.8)
  8. 8. Flood Management At least one major SEVERE flood event each year – Mumbai floods, Indus floods, Kedarnath Disaster, Jhelum Floods, Chennai Floods, 2016 floods, Flood prone area map needs review with meteorological inputs, Medium and short-term rainfall forecasts are needed for flood forecasting, Set up flood forecast and early warning systems in flood prone areas.
  9. 9. Trend analysis and climate change
  10. 10. Cauvery Basin: Number of rainy days with rainfall intensity > 20, 30, 40, and 50 mm/day
  11. 11. Number of rainy days having rainfall intensity of 20, 30, 40, and 50 mm/day or more for Mahanadi Basin 1950 1962 1974 1986 1998 2010 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 1950 1962 1974 1986 1998 2010 0 4 8 12 16 20 1950 1962 1974 1986 1998 2010 0 2 4 6 8 10 1950 1962 1974 1986 1998 2010 0 2 4 6 Numberofrainydays Rainfall (20 mm/day) Numberofrainydays Rainfall (30 mm/day) Numberofrainydays Rainfall (40 mm/day) Numberofrainydays Rainfall (50 mm/day)
  12. 12. Number of rainy days for different years for different basins in India. 1950 1962 1974 1986 1998 2010 75 90 105 120 135 1950 1962 1974 1986 1998 2010 135 150 165 180 195 210 1950 1962 1974 1986 1998 2010 160 180 200 220 240 260 1950 1962 1974 1986 1998 2010 200 220 240 260 280 1950 1962 1974 1986 1998 2010 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 1950 1962 1974 1986 1998 2010 180 200 220 240 260 280 1950 1962 1974 1986 1998 2010 140 160 180 200 220 Numberofrainy Sabarmati Numberofrainydays Narmada Numberofrainydays Mahanadi Numberofrainydays Krishna Numberofrainydays Cauvery Numberofrainydays Godavari Numberofrainydays Year of from 1951 to 2012 Brahmani and Baitarni
  13. 13. change Rainfall data at short time intervals are needed to determine trends in intensities.
  14. 14. ASSESSMENT OF E-FLOWS FOR UPPER GANGA BASIN ASSESSMENT OF E-FLOWS FOR UPPER GANGA BASIN G&D Sites Depth (m) Velocity (m/s) Discharge (cumecs) D V Q Alaknanda (Joshimath) 0.25 0.87 5.98 Alaknanda (Rudraprayag) 0.50 2.06 29.20 Bhagirathi (Uttarkashi) 0.50 1.99 7.98 Bhagirathi (Tehri) 0.50 1.73 41.96 Ganga (Devprayag) 0.50 0.88 18.25 Ganga (Rishikesh) 0.50 2.08 43.88 Min flow requirements in lean period (Nov-May) Min flow requirements in lean period (Nov-May) Min flow requirements in spawning period (June-Oct) Min flow requirements in spawning period (June-Oct) Depth (m) Velocity (m/s) Discharge (cumecs) D V Q 1.00 1.75 51.25 1.00 3.12 41.36 1.00 2.70 131.45 1.00 3.11 89.49 1.00 4.55 136.40 1.00 1.75 51.25 14
  15. 15. NIH Experimental Catchments in Lesser Himalayas
  16. 16. NIH Experimental Catchments in Lesser Himalayas Objectives •Run experimental catchments for better understanding of hydrological processes in lesser Himalayas. •Field estimation of ET by flux tower and comparison with methods such as RS/SEBAL, FAO56 method. •To establish relationship between climatic and hydrologic variables and seasonal variations in Himalayan environment. •To improve understanding of hydrological processes through isotope geochemistry. •To study the ground water dynamics in lesser Himalayan watershed. Advanced instruments being installed •Flux tower •COSMOS
  17. 17. LULC of Henval Basin S. no. Class Name Area (%) 1 Agriculture 12.44 2 Fallow land 10.27 3 Openforest 26.23 4 Denseforest 51.06 LULC of Jijli Basin S. no. Class Name Area (%) 1 Agriculture 4.95 2 Fallow land 3.29 3 Openforest 27.61 4 Denseforest 64.14
  18. 18. AWS (+ Proposed Flux Tower) site in Henval Catchment
  19. 19. Variation of soil temperature at different depths
  20. 20. SOIL TEMPERATURE AT DIFFERENT DEPTHSSOIL TEMPERATURE AT DIFFERENT DEPTHS
  21. 21. Diurnal variation in the Soil Temp. at different depths
  22. 22. • Is the precipitation intensity changing with time. If yes, where and attributions ? • Changes in ET, Relative Humidity ?? • What are the uncertainties in observed estimates ? • What are the impacts on components of the hydrologic cycle at various scales ? • More research and observations are required to understand occurrence of cloudburst events and their prediction. Topics Requiring Attention
  23. 23. Thanks

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