Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

6.1 Day 2 - IUKWC Workshop Freshwater EO - Laurence Carvalho - Loch Leven - Jun17

131 views

Published on

IUKWC Workshop Freshwater EO
About Loch Leven
Laurence Carvalho

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

6.1 Day 2 - IUKWC Workshop Freshwater EO - Laurence Carvalho - Loch Leven - Jun17

  1. 1. Loch Leven Laurence Carvalho Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (Edinburgh) laca@ceh.ac.uk
  2. 2. • CEH Lake observatories • Loch Leven – an awesome place! • Enrichment, water quality targets, solutions • Recovery in Quality & Ecosystem Services • Climate Change & Resilience What I’ll cover…
  3. 3. Grasmere (1970) Blelham Tarn (1945) Bassenthwaite (1990) Windermere S & N (1943) Esthwaite Water (1945) Currently ~ 450 lake years of data CEH’s Long-term Lake Observatories Derwent Water (1990) Loch Leven (1968) >70 years 50 years >25 years
  4. 4. Scotland’s largest shallow lake loch area 13.3 km2 maximum depth 25.5 m mean depth 3.9 m altitude 107 m a.s.l.
  5. 5. Internationally-important wild brown trout fishery Photo source: Jamie Montgomery
  6. 6. Internationally-important nature reserve (RAMSAR, SPA, NNR) Photo source: Scottish Natural Heritage
  7. 7. Important site for tourism (Loch Leven Castle & Mary Queen of Scots) Photo source: Historic Environment Scotland
  8. 8. 8 Loch Leven: tourism & recreational opportunitiesRecreationImportant site for recreation (Heritage Trail, RSPB bird reserve, cafes) Map source: TRACKS
  9. 9. Scotland’s Flagship Freshwater Observatory Measurements covering… • Physics (water temperature, water clarity) • Chemistry (N, P, Si, pH, DO, etc.) • Biology (phytoplankton, zooplankton, macrophytes, benthic invertebrates, fish) Length of dataset: 50 years (1968 onwards) Sampling frequency: fortnightly Nutrient loading data: 1985, 1995, 2005, 2015 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 TPconcentration(µgL-1) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300
  10. 10. Key datasets collected by others • Weather since 1968 (Kinross Estates) • Optical properties since 2007 (University of Stirling) • Palaeolimnology: diatoms, macrofossils 1750 - 2005 (UCL) • Macrophytes 1821 - 1999 (Various) • Fish catches daily since 1900 (Kinross Estates) • Bird counts monthly since 1967 (SNH) Ecosystem Service Data • Angler numbers daily since 1900 (Kinross Estates) • Water supply daily since 1850 (Tullis Russell) • Tourist visitor numbers daily since 2004 (HES & RSPB) • Heritage Trail users (SNH) - monthly since 2008
  11. 11. History of enrichment 1992 ‘Scum Saturday’ cost local businesses ~ £1M • Declines in macrophyte habitat for birds • Declines in angling (fish kills & reputation) • Reduced tourism
  12. 12. Setting Water Quality Targets “The extreme depth to which such plants as Nitella opaca and Fontinalis antipyretica will flourish may roughly be estimated by multiplying by four the greatest depth at which one can see the gravel at the bottom, when looking over the shaded side of a boat about midday in the summer, when the sun is shining brilliantly, the water being perfectly calm, and the boat still.” West G. (1910). In Murray & Pullar’s Bathymetrical survey of the Scottish fresh-water lochs. Volume I LLCMP targets: Total phosphorus 40 µg l-1 Chlorophyll a 15 µg l-1 Secchi disc depth 2.5 m
  13. 13. Identifying Cause of Eutrophication P input measured every 8 days for 1 year Nutrient loading surveys: 1985, 1995, 2005, 2015
  14. 14. 1995 P Loadings Runoff 54%Sewage 37% Rainfall 5% Wildfowl 4% Bailey-Watts & Kirika (1999) Source Estimated annual TP output (tonnes) Runoff 4.5 Sewage 3.1 Rainfall 0.4 Wildfowl 0.4 Total 8.4 Estimated annual P output (tonnes) Source 1985: Industrial pollution 1995: Sewage & agriculture (diffuse pollution) 2015: Diffuse pollution (agriculture, storm overflows)
  15. 15. Responses to P loading reductions
  16. 16. Recovery in TP concentrations • TP reductions in 1970s • Increasing 1989-1994 • Further recovery since 1995 External loading reductions a success Recovery over many years not a simple decline LLCMP target Carvalho et al., 2012
  17. 17. Reductions in Harmful Algal Blooms 2016
  18. 18. Aquatic plant coverage into deeper water Potamogeton praelongus re-appeared in 2014
  19. 19. Improved habitat for birds Carss et al., 2012 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Pochard Pochard Scotland
  20. 20. Enhanced Fishing Quality 2013 CPUE of brown trout Enhanced Catch Per Unit Effort More large fish caught (catch-release) 2014 CPUE of brown trout
  21. 21. Boosting Tourism & Recreation Visitor activities (n= 500, Source: TRACKS) >200,000 visitors per year (Source = SNH) Visitors attracted by: 1. Landscape aesthetics 2. Birds 3. Historic monuments Photo Analysis (n= 1470, Source: Flickr)
  22. 22. http://openness.hugin.com/caseStudies/LochLeven_Habitat Anders Madsen (Hugin Ltd.) Loch Leven Fishing BBN Select year and change probabilities: 1. Change habitat quality to see impact of achieving WFD target of good status on fishing quality 2. Change reputation to see the effect on fishing service (boat effort). Predicting future fishing services • What is the future sustainability of the fishery? • Will there be an increased demand for fishing boats?
  23. 23. Climate change
  24. 24. 1970 1980 1990 2000 56789 airtemp spring year airtemperatureC 1970 1980 1990 2000 1112131415 airtemp summer year airtemperatureC 1970 1980 1990 2000 5678910 airtemp autumn year airtemperatureC 1970 1980 1990 2000 01234567 airtemp winter year airtemperatureC Climate change: air temperature warmer Warmer springs, autumns and winters 2-3 °C warmer warmerwarmer Data Source: Willie Wilson, Loch Leven fishery Ferguson et al., 2008. J Applied Ecology, 45, 193–203
  25. 25. Climate adaptation: reduce nutrients further! http://www.snh.gov.uk/docs/A1675513.pdf
  26. 26. Contributors Linda May, Iain Gunn, Bryan Spears, Helen Woods, Alanna Moore, Ian Winfield Andrew Tyler & Peter Hunter, University of Stirling Claire Miller, University of Glasgow External partners – including Kinross Estates, Loch Leven Fishery & SNH Laurence Carvalho Freshwater Ecology Group laca@ceh.ac.uk www.ceh.ac.uk/staff/laurence-carvalho Hydrobiologia (2012): 681

×