Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

3.10 IUKWC Workshop Freshwater EO - Rajib Chattopadhyay - Jun17

57 views

Published on

A case study on Earth's groundwater recharge hotspots based on GRACE observation.
Rajib Chattopadhyay (Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune)

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

3.10 IUKWC Workshop Freshwater EO - Rajib Chattopadhyay - Jun17

  1. 1. RAJIB CHATTOPADHYAY SCIENTIST IITM, Pune
  2. 2. Atmosphere S Human Society Greenhouse Gas Emission Land Use/Land Cover a.Atmosphere Ocean Land Ground/Surface Hydrology Anthropogenic Component Climate Component TWS=GW + qsoil + wsurf + S + I
  3. 3.  Groundwater specialists were late to use satellite data for an obvious reason; groundwater lies in the subsurface.  The current air- and satellite-based radar and radiometers can normally penetrate only few centimeters into the ground.  In spite of this apparent obstacle, RS holds tremendous potential for regional groundwater flow studies.  Remotely sensed data are most useful where they are combined with numerical modelling, GIS, and ground-based information
  4. 4. Procedure for production of satellite image maps and hydrogeological maps using RS and GIS
  5. 5. Study 1: Southern India
  6. 6. Change in rainfall pattern The magnitude of changes in annual rainfall for the last 100 years shows  decreasing trend for Kerala  a minor increase for Tamil Nadu and Karnataka  a larger increase for Andhra Pradesh and Telangana (Vijay Kumar et al ,2010).
  7. 7. CORRELATION ST & GRACE = 0.90051094 CORRELATION PPT & GRACE = 0.672391822 CORRELATION ST & PPT = 0.75282834 GRACE, Well obs and Precipitation (2003-2014) -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 PPT Anomaly GRACE Station Anomaly
  8. 8. Management strategies  Kerala, Western Karnataka , Tamil Nadu and Eastern Andhra Pradesh :a least or intermediate dependence to precipitation - Rainwater harvesting by making different infrastructures such as dams.  Southern Karnataka have a greater dependence with rainfall - increasing trend of precipitation, we get a decreasing trend for groundwater : exploitative extraction should be regulated
  9. 9. Study 2: Remote Sensing data and Regional hotspots
  10. 10. GRACE TWS GRACE and IMD CC Chattopadhyay ,Chakraborty and Sahai, 201X
  11. 11. RELATION BETWEEN ARSENIC CONTENT OF GROUNDWATER & GEOLOGY, GEOMORPHOLOGY & LANDUSE OF THE AREA DIGITIZATION & THEMATIC MAP PREPARATION • DRAINAGE MAP • GEOMORPHOLOGIC MAP • LAND USE MAP CALCULATION OF DISTANCE OF WELLS FROM DIFFERENT GEOMORPHIC & LAND USE FEATURES GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF DEPTH & ARSENIC CONCENTRATION OF WELLS IMAGE ENHANCEMENT & PROCESSING GEO-REFERENCING OF THE IMAGE USING ERDAS IMAGINE 8.4 PROJECTION SYSTEM: UTM ARSENIC DISTRIBUTION & WELL DEPTH MAPPING FLOWCHART COLLECTION OF ARSENIC CONCENTRATION DATA & DEPTH OF WELL COLLECTION OF WORLD VIEW-2 & IRS-LISS-III SATELLITE IMAGE COLLECTION OF SOI TOPOGRAPHICAL SHEET STATISTICAL ANALYSIS • PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS (PCA). LITERATURE REVIEW
  12. 12. GW anomaly- Prior studies  A loss of 109 km3 of groundwater and depletion at a mean rate of 4.061 cm/yr equivalent height of water in NWI in 2002-2008 (Rodell, 2009)  Long-term changes in monsoon precipitation as a result of climate change are driving groundwater storage variability.  A decline of 2 cm/yr and an increase of 1-2cm/yr in Northern India and Southern India respectively between 2002 and 2013 (A Asoka et al., 2017 )
  13. 13. Regional Climate change and GW  Groundwater recharge is strongly affected by climate extremes , which are related to ENSO, PDO etc. (Taylor et al., 2013 )  The weakening of ISM or an increase in intensity and frequency of El Nino, due to climate variations have a larger impact on precipitation (Mall et al.,2006 )  Variations in precipitation pattern will alter the recharge rates (Taylor R. et al., 2013b)
  14. 14. Conclusion  Precipitation and groundwater have different trends in the region. While precipitation has a decreasing trend over most of Kerala, Central Tamil Nadu, Southern and central Andhra Pradesh and Northwestern Karnataka and increasing elsewhere, groundwater shows a drastic negative trend in whole of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, an intermediate declining trend in southern and central Karnataka, an intermediate increase in rest of Karnataka and southern Andhra Pradesh, and an even higher increasing trend for Northern, Central and Northeastern Andhra Pradesh.
  15. 15. Conclusion  The reliance of groundwater with precipitation also varies from place to place. Groundwater levels of Kerala and western coastal side of Karnataka have the least dependence with precipitation. Tamil Nadu, Eastern and North Eastern Andhra Pradesh have intermediate dependence, while Western side of Andhra Pradesh and Eastern side of Karnataka have a greater reliance on precipitation.
  16. 16. Conclusion  Analysis of groundwater usage pattern shows that the supply and demand of groundwater was not well maintained in the review period. Extraction of groundwater from tubewells and other wells has a steep increasing trend in the region regardless of precipitation. Among the four states, Kerala has a better irrigation strategy from groundwater where rainfall deficient years have an impact on groundwater fed irrigation.
  17. 17. Conclusion Based on groundwater usage pattern, trend, and its reliance on precipitation, future replenishment strategies have to be implemented.  Rainwater harvesting should be given a higher priority in Kerala, Western Karnataka , Tamil Nadu and Eastern Andhra Pradesh.  In southern Karnataka, usage controls and regulations should be executed before the resource gets exhausted.  In western and parts of central Andhra Pradesh, reducing trend of precipitation has to be considered and since groundwater shows a positive anomaly due to recharge from Godavari and Krishna rivers, measures should be taken to maintain the rivers in better condition.  Northern Karnataka and Northern Andhra Pradesh doesn't need any intensive management strategies at present, as both the precipitation and groundwater have an increasing trend.

×