3.10 IUKWC Workshop Freshwater EO - Rajib Chattopadhyay - Jun17
SCIENTIST IITM, Pune
TWS=GW + qsoil + wsurf + S + I
Groundwater specialists were late to use satellite data for an
obvious reason; groundwater lies in the subsurface.
The current air- and satellite-based radar and radiometers can
normally penetrate only few centimeters into the ground.
In spite of this apparent obstacle, RS holds tremendous potential
for regional groundwater flow studies.
Remotely sensed data are most useful where they are combined
with numerical modelling, GIS, and ground-based information
Procedure for production
of satellite image maps
and hydrogeological maps
using RS and GIS
Change in rainfall pattern
The magnitude of changes in annual rainfall for the last 100
decreasing trend for Kerala
a minor increase for Tamil Nadu and Karnataka
a larger increase for Andhra Pradesh and Telangana (Vijay
Kumar et al ,2010).
Kerala, Western Karnataka , Tamil Nadu and Eastern
Andhra Pradesh :a least or intermediate dependence to
precipitation - Rainwater harvesting by making different
infrastructures such as dams.
Southern Karnataka have a greater dependence with
rainfall - increasing trend of precipitation, we get a
decreasing trend for groundwater : exploitative extraction
should be regulated
Study 2: Remote Sensing data and Regional
GRACE and IMD CC
Chattopadhyay ,Chakraborty and Sahai, 201X
RELATION BETWEEN ARSENIC CONTENT OF GROUNDWATER
& GEOLOGY, GEOMORPHOLOGY & LANDUSE OF THE AREA
THEMATIC MAP PREPARATION
• DRAINAGE MAP
• GEOMORPHOLOGIC MAP
• LAND USE MAP
CALCULATION OF DISTANCE OF WELLS
FROM DIFFERENT GEOMORPHIC &
LAND USE FEATURES
GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF
DEPTH & ARSENIC CONCENTRATION
IMAGE ENHANCEMENT &
GEO-REFERENCING OF THE IMAGE
USING ERDAS IMAGINE 8.4
PROJECTION SYSTEM: UTM
ARSENIC DISTRIBUTION &
WELL DEPTH MAPPING
COLLECTION OF ARSENIC
CONCENTRATION DATA & DEPTH
COLLECTION OF WORLD VIEW-2 &
IRS-LISS-III SATELLITE IMAGE
COLLECTION OF SOI
• PRINCIPAL COMPONENT
GW anomaly- Prior studies
A loss of 109 km3 of groundwater and depletion at a mean rate
of 4.061 cm/yr equivalent height of water in NWI in 2002-2008
Long-term changes in monsoon precipitation as a result of
climate change are driving groundwater storage variability.
A decline of 2 cm/yr and an increase of 1-2cm/yr in Northern
India and Southern India respectively between 2002 and 2013
(A Asoka et al., 2017 )
Regional Climate change and GW
Groundwater recharge is strongly affected by climate
extremes , which are related to ENSO, PDO etc. (Taylor et al.,
The weakening of ISM or an increase in intensity and
frequency of El Nino, due to climate variations have a
larger impact on precipitation (Mall et al.,2006 )
Variations in precipitation pattern will alter the recharge
rates (Taylor R. et al., 2013b)
Precipitation and groundwater have different trends in the
region. While precipitation has a decreasing trend over most
of Kerala, Central Tamil Nadu, Southern and central Andhra
Pradesh and Northwestern Karnataka and increasing
elsewhere, groundwater shows a drastic negative trend in
whole of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, an intermediate declining
trend in southern and central Karnataka, an intermediate
increase in rest of Karnataka and southern Andhra Pradesh,
and an even higher increasing trend for Northern, Central and
Northeastern Andhra Pradesh.
The reliance of groundwater with precipitation also varies
from place to place. Groundwater levels of Kerala and
western coastal side of Karnataka have the least
dependence with precipitation. Tamil Nadu, Eastern and
North Eastern Andhra Pradesh have intermediate
dependence, while Western side of Andhra Pradesh and
Eastern side of Karnataka have a greater reliance on
Analysis of groundwater usage pattern shows that the
supply and demand of groundwater was not well
maintained in the review period. Extraction of
groundwater from tubewells and other wells has a steep
increasing trend in the region regardless of precipitation.
Among the four states, Kerala has a better irrigation
strategy from groundwater where rainfall deficient years
have an impact on groundwater fed irrigation.
Based on groundwater usage pattern, trend, and its reliance on
precipitation, future replenishment strategies have to be implemented.
Rainwater harvesting should be given a higher priority in Kerala, Western Karnataka
, Tamil Nadu and Eastern Andhra Pradesh.
In southern Karnataka, usage controls and regulations should be executed before
the resource gets exhausted.
In western and parts of central Andhra Pradesh, reducing trend of precipitation has
to be considered and since groundwater shows a positive anomaly due to recharge
from Godavari and Krishna rivers, measures should be taken to maintain the rivers
in better condition.
Northern Karnataka and Northern Andhra Pradesh doesn't need any intensive
management strategies at present, as both the precipitation and groundwater have
an increasing trend.