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2.1 IUKWC Workshop Freshwater EO - Pawan Kumar Labhasetwar - Jun17

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• Water quality monitoring and surveillance in rural India: An update
Pawan Kumar Labhasetwar (CSIR-NEERI, Hagpur, India)

Published in: Environment
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2.1 IUKWC Workshop Freshwater EO - Pawan Kumar Labhasetwar - Jun17

  1. 1. Water quality monitoring and surveillance in rural India: An update Pawan Labhasetwar Scientist & Head, Water Technology & Management Division CSIR-NEERI, Nagpur, India WHO Collaborating Centre for Water and Sanitation
  2. 2. Outline • Background • Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Challenges • Status of water quality in rural habitations • Action plan for improving water safety to meet SDG targets • Conclusion
  3. 3. CSIR and NEERI
  4. 4. Background - India Population 1.21 billion (Second most populous country) Population 0-25 years 50% of current population Population 0-18 years 40% of current population (480 million – largest in the world) Geographical area 3.28 Million km2 (7th largest country ) % Rural Population 68% Informed water sources 3.5 million Uninformed water sources 10 million Total rural habitations 1.713 Million Source : Census 2011, Government of India
  5. 5. National Programmes of Rural Water Supply 1972-73 Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP) 1986 Technology Mission 1991 Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission 1999-2000 Sector Reform Projects Swajaldhara Programme2002 2009 National Rural Drinking Water Programme 1950 Rural Water Supply included in 11th Schedule of Constitution
  6. 6. NATIONAL Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation STATE • State Water and Sanitation Mission • Department dealing with rural water supply • Water and Sanitation Support Organization DISTRICT • Zilla Panchayat • District Water and Sanitation Mission BLOCK Block Resource Centre PANCHAYAT • Gram Sabha • Gram Panchayat • Village Water and Sanitation Committee Institutional Mechanism
  7. 7. 0 3000 6000 9000 12000 15000 Ist (1951- 56) Iind (1956- 61) IIIrd (1961- 66) IVth (1969-74) Vth (1974- 79) VIth (1980-85) VIIth (1985-90) VIIIth (1992-97) IXth (1997- 02) Xth (2002- 07) XIth (2007- 12) Plan PeriodCentre State Ist (1951-56) 0.00 0.50 Iind (1956-61) 0.00 5.00 IIIrd (1961-66) 0.00 8.00 IVth (1969-74) 5.70 35.00 Vth (1974-79) 26.00 58.00 VIth (1980-85) 150.00 255.00 VIIth (1985-90) 320.00 410.00 VIIIth (1992-97) 690.00 850.00 IXth (1997-02) 1400.00 1800.00 Xth (2002-07) 2700.00 2520.00 XIth (2007-12) 6600.00 8100.00 XIIth (2012-17) 9150.00 12000.00 Investment in rural water and sanitation sector Rs. in crore InvestmentinmillionUSD
  8. 8. Outline • Background • Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Challenges • Status of water quality in rural habitations • Action plan for improving water safety to meet SDG targets • Conclusion
  9. 9. India – MDG Target for Water Source: Progress on sanitation and drinking water – 2015 update and MDG assessment
  10. 10. The New FOCUS for SDGS is “SAFELY MANAGED DRINKING WATER SERVICE” SDG 6 6.1 Drinking water 6.2 Sanitation and hygiene 6.3 Water quality 6.4 Water use 6.5 Water resources 6.6 Eco- systems Accessibility Safety Availability SDG Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water • Target 6.1: By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all • Indicator: Proportion of the population using safely managed drinking water service • Definition: Population using an improved drinking water source (MDG definition) which is: • Located on premises • Available when needed • Free of faecal and priority chemical contamination
  11. 11. MDG/SDG Service ladder Progressive realizationSDG6.1 Safely managed drinking water Improved facility located on premises, available when needed, and free from contamination MDGcontinuity Basic water Improved facility within 30 minutes round trip collection time Unimproved water Unimproved facility does not protect against contamination No service Surface water 12 DevelopingDeveloped
  12. 12. Source: JMP 201513 Example 1: India rural - water 93 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Improved
  13. 13. 14 Example 1: India rural - water 93 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Improved On premises Sufficient, Available when needed Improved, on premises, available when needed No contamination Safely managed Elements of safely managed
  14. 14. Source: Census 2011 15 Example 1: India rural - water 93 31.9 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Improved On premises Available Improved, on premises, available when needed No contamination Safely managed Elements of safely managed
  15. 15. Source: NSSO 201216 Example 1: India rural - water 93 31.9 86 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Improved On premises Available Improved, on premises, available when needed No contamination Safely managed Elements of safely managed
  16. 16. Source: Census, NSSOo Example 1: India rural - water 93 31.9 86 27.4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Improved On premises Available Improved, on premises, available when needed No contamination Safely managed Elements of safely managed
  17. 17. 18 Example 1: India rural - water 93 31.9 86 27.4 60 16.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Improved On premises Available Improved, on premises, available when needed No contamination Safely managed Elements of safely managed
  18. 18. Outline • Background • Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Challenges • Status of water quality in rural habitations • Action plan for improving water safety to meet SDG targets • Conclusion
  19. 19. Guiding document for Rural Water Quality Monitoring Water Quality Analysis Requirements • Parameters to be monitored • Protocol for Sampling • General Guidelines and Precautions for drinking water sampling • Analytical Quality Control • Frequency of testing • Recording and reporting of data Human Resources • Staffing Pattern • Suggested desirable qualification for Laboratory Staff • Roles and responsibilities of laboratory personnel Infrastructure requirements • Specification for laboratory and other infrastructural requirements • Instruments • Glassware Chemicals for State, District and Sub-district laboratories • Maintenance
  20. 20. Contaminated Habitations in 2014-15 State Total Arsenic Fluoride Iron Salinity Nitrate Maharashtra 20556 22 2304 4825 911 12494
  21. 21. S.No. State Total Sources Tested No. of Sources with Single Chemical Contaminants No. of Sources with Bacteriological Contaminants Iron Fluoride Salinity Nitrate Arsenic E-Coli (MPN /100 ml) Coliform 1 ANDAMAN and NICOBAR 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 ANDHRA PRADESH 168973 10250 9215 539 1277 0 121 22772 3 ARUNACHAL PRADESH 10590 62 0 0 0 0 58 5 4 ASSAM 120165 45378 126 0 2 21 91 2252 5 BIHAR 118264 6346 2533 0 11 329 1 0 6 CHATTISGARH 50288 2446 166 4 5 0 1 0 7 GOA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 GUJARAT 140884 0 8 0 23 0 35 4463 9 HARYANA 36443 58 621 56 1 3 217 3497 10 HIMACHAL PRADESH 31180 9 1 1 1 0 2 52 11 JAMMU AND KASHMIR 19515 18 3 2 0 1 6 1 12 JHARKHAND 58589 10775 364 2 25 17 4 220 13 KARNATAKA 204864 10817 10685 212 8566 31 568 782 14 KERALA 118026 1698 4 2 12 0 12646 93653 15 MADHYA PRADESH 269827 1454 2592 231 472 0 561 653 16 MAHARASHTRA 149764 872 293 31 4247 0 12235 20349 17 MANIPUR 2330 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 MEGHALAYA 5163 25 0 0 0 1 1 15 19 MIZORAM 4360 63 1 0 0 0 4 47 20 NAGALAND 99 53 0 0 0 0 3 0 21 ODISHA 203389 55729 1130 112 0 1 3 1 22 PUDUCHERRY 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 23 PUNJAB 21323 1050 274 6 141 244 0 0 24 RAJASTHAN 188826 30 13470 2714 23296 2 5 1 25 SIKKIM 984 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 26 TAMIL NADU 81798 118 62 36 23 0 136 1 27 TELANGANA 148161 2757 9325 337 1272 0 164 14364 28 TRIPURA 13571 6364 0 0 0 0 2 334 29 UTTAR PRADESH 38825 4056 436 9 245 14 9 2 30 UTTARAKHAND 3556 71 5 0 0 0 1 10 31 WEST BENGAL 217708 27977 154 28 0 28427 9917 24285 Total 2427465 188477 51468 4322 39619 29091 36794 187759 Contaminated Habitations in 2016-17
  22. 22. S.No. State Total Sources Tested No. of Sources with Single Chemical Contaminants No. of Sources with Bacteriological Contaminants Iron Fluoride Salinity Nitrate Arsenic E-Coli (MPN /100 ml) Coliform 1 ANDAMAN and NICOBAR 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 ANDHRA PRADESH 168973 10250 9215 539 1277 0 121 22772 3 ARUNACHAL PRADESH 10590 62 0 0 0 0 58 5 4 ASSAM 120165 45378 126 0 2 21 91 2252 5 BIHAR 118264 6346 2533 0 11 329 1 0 6 CHATTISGARH 50288 2446 166 4 5 0 1 0 7 GOA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 GUJARAT 140884 0 8 0 23 0 35 4463 9 HARYANA 36443 58 621 56 1 3 217 3497 10 HIMACHAL PRADESH 31180 9 1 1 1 0 2 52 11 JAMMU AND KASHMIR 19515 18 3 2 0 1 6 1 12 JHARKHAND 58589 10775 364 2 25 17 4 220 13 KARNATAKA 204864 10817 10685 212 8566 31 568 782 14 KERALA 118026 1698 4 2 12 0 12646 93653 15 MADHYA PRADESH 269827 1454 2592 231 472 0 561 653 16 MAHARASHTRA 149764 872 293 31 4247 0 12235 20349 17 MANIPUR 2330 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 MEGHALAYA 5163 25 0 0 0 1 1 15 19 MIZORAM 4360 63 1 0 0 0 4 47 20 NAGALAND 99 53 0 0 0 0 3 0 21 ODISHA 203389 55729 1130 112 0 1 3 1 22 PUDUCHERRY 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 23 PUNJAB 21323 1050 274 6 141 244 0 0 24 RAJASTHAN 188826 30 13470 2714 23296 2 5 1 25 SIKKIM 984 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 26 TAMIL NADU 81798 118 62 36 23 0 136 1 27 TELANGANA 148161 2757 9325 337 1272 0 164 14364 28 TRIPURA 13571 6364 0 0 0 0 2 334 29 UTTAR PRADESH 38825 4056 436 9 245 14 9 2 30 UTTARAKHAND 3556 71 5 0 0 0 1 10 31 WEST BENGAL 217708 27977 154 28 0 28427 9917 24285 Total 2427465 188477 51468 4322 39619 29091 36794 187759 Total Sources Tested No. of Sources with Single Chemical Contaminants No. of Sources with Bacteriological Contaminants Iron Fluoride Salinity Nitrate Arsenic E-Coli (MPN /100 ml) Coliform TOTAL 2427465 188477 51468 4322 39619 29091 36794 187759 Contaminated Habitations in 2016-17
  23. 23. S. No. District Total Sources Tested No. of Sources with Single Chemical Contaminants No. of Sources with Bacteriological Contaminants Iron Fluoride Salinity Nitrate Arsenic E-Coli (MPN /100 ml) Coliform 1 AHMEDNAGAR 7233 123 0 11 40 0 291 920 2 AKOLA 607 0 0 0 3 0 7 70 3 AMRAVATI 5341 4 0 0 35 0 229 278 4 AURANGABAD 2276 0 0 0 195 0 479 686 5 BEED 3145 10 11 0 48 0 1052 1119 6 BHANDARA 4378 134 11 1 312 0 796 928 7 BULDANA 1800 1 1 0 36 0 90 207 8 CHANDRAPUR 7252 33 104 2 622 0 353 794 9 DHULE 2952 0 0 1 0 0 17 626 10 GADCHIROLI 4488 72 14 0 20 0 794 715 11 GONDIA 9770 77 32 1 276 0 960 1016 12 HINGOLI 1528 47 4 5 72 0 302 317 13 JALGAON 3774 0 1 0 4 0 72 107 14 JALNA 2614 2 0 0 227 0 212 956 15 KOLHAPUR 4181 3 1 0 6 0 788 569 16 LATUR 1243 2 0 0 32 0 239 268 17 NAGPUR 3778 23 6 0 45 0 15 289 18 NANDED 4608 14 26 4 481 0 1279 1303 19 NANDURBAR 10429 2 0 0 0 0 106 868 20 NASHIK 7493 154 43 5 671 0 543 532 21 OSMANABAD 1061 19 5 0 0 0 145 145 22 PALGHAR 6473 0 0 0 0 0 513 511 23 PARBHANI 2393 9 1 0 490 0 158 131 24 PUNE 9437 12 0 0 0 0 131 1777 25 RAIGAD 3536 2 0 0 0 0 63 406 26 RATNAGIRI 6333 1 0 0 0 0 698 763 27 SANGLI 4932 1 0 0 0 0 431 617 28 SATARA 10721 0 1 0 26 0 860 1005 29 SINDHUDURG 2979 1 0 0 0 0 91 317 30 SOLAPUR 3081 0 0 1 5 0 64 239 31 THANE 1967 2 0 0 0 0 176 259 32 WARDHA 4295 122 30 0 580 0 0 999 33 WASHIM 490 2 2 0 21 0 0 43 34 YAVATMAL 3176 0 0 0 0 0 281 569 Total 149764 872 293 31 4247 0 12235 20349
  24. 24. S. No. District Total Sources Tested No. of Sources with Single Chemical Contaminants No. of Sources with Bacteriological Contaminants Iron Fluoride Salinity Nitrate Arsenic E-Coli (MPN /100 ml) Coliform 1 AHMEDNAGAR 7233 123 0 11 40 0 291 920 2 AKOLA 607 0 0 0 3 0 7 70 3 AMRAVATI 5341 4 0 0 35 0 229 278 4 AURANGABAD 2276 0 0 0 195 0 479 686 5 BEED 3145 10 11 0 48 0 1052 1119 6 BHANDARA 4378 134 11 1 312 0 796 928 7 BULDANA 1800 1 1 0 36 0 90 207 8 CHANDRAPUR 7252 33 104 2 622 0 353 794 9 DHULE 2952 0 0 1 0 0 17 626 10 GADCHIROLI 4488 72 14 0 20 0 794 715 11 GONDIA 9770 77 32 1 276 0 960 1016 12 HINGOLI 1528 47 4 5 72 0 302 317 13 JALGAON 3774 0 1 0 4 0 72 107 14 JALNA 2614 2 0 0 227 0 212 956 15 KOLHAPUR 4181 3 1 0 6 0 788 569 16 LATUR 1243 2 0 0 32 0 239 268 17 NAGPUR 3778 23 6 0 45 0 15 289 18 NANDED 4608 14 26 4 481 0 1279 1303 19 NANDURBAR 10429 2 0 0 0 0 106 868 20 NASHIK 7493 154 43 5 671 0 543 532 21 OSMANABAD 1061 19 5 0 0 0 145 145 22 PALGHAR 6473 0 0 0 0 0 513 511 23 PARBHANI 2393 9 1 0 490 0 158 131 24 PUNE 9437 12 0 0 0 0 131 1777 25 RAIGAD 3536 2 0 0 0 0 63 406 26 RATNAGIRI 6333 1 0 0 0 0 698 763 27 SANGLI 4932 1 0 0 0 0 431 617 28 SATARA 10721 0 1 0 26 0 860 1005 29 SINDHUDURG 2979 1 0 0 0 0 91 317 30 SOLAPUR 3081 0 0 1 5 0 64 239 31 THANE 1967 2 0 0 0 0 176 259 32 WARDHA 4295 122 30 0 580 0 0 999 33 WASHIM 490 2 2 0 21 0 0 43 34 YAVATMAL 3176 0 0 0 0 0 281 569 Total 149764 872 293 31 4247 0 12235 20349 Total Sources Tested No. of Sources with Single Chemical Contaminants No. of Sources with Bacteriological Contaminants Iron Fluoride Salinity Nitrate Arsenic E-Coli (MPN /100 ml) Coliform Total 149764 872 293 31 4247 0 12235 20349
  25. 25. Outline • Background • Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Challenges due to water quality in rural habitations • Status of water quality in rural habitations • Action plan for improving water safety to meet SDG targets • Conclusion
  26. 26. Action plan to improve rural water quality monitoring • Strengthening institutional mechanism • Optimise funding for improving laboratory infrastructure • Linking water quality to water safety • Quality control and quality assurance
  27. 27. Parameter 2017 2022 households with piped water supply 35% 90% Public (Stand) Post 20% 10% Hand pumps 45% 10% Strategic Plans For Rural Water Supply Source: National Rural Drinking Water Mission Guidelines, 2013
  28. 28. Case study of Madhya Pradesh Population : 7.5 million Rural Population : 72% Area : 308, 252 km2 Districts : 51
  29. 29. Parameters monitored - State Level Lab Physical parameters 1. Temperature 2. Colour 3. Odour 4. Turbidity 5. pH Chemical parameters 6. Elect. Conductivity 7. Total Dissolved solids 8. Total Alkalinity 9. Chloride 10. Fluoride 11. Nitrate 12. Sulphate 13. Calcium (as Ca) 14. Magnesium (as Mg) 15. Total Hardness 16. Residual Chlorine Metals 17. Iron 18. Manganese 19. Arsenic Microbiological 20. Total Coliform 21. E-coli / Thermo tolerant Coliform 22. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 23. Biochemical Oxygen Demand ( BOD) 24. Chemical Oxygen Demand ( COD) Treatability Related Tests 25. Chlorine Demand 26. Purity of alum, lime, bleaching power, chlorine tablets, sodium hypochlorite. 27. Coagulant dose
  30. 30. Water quality monitoring Year Samples tested in type of lab State District Sub Division Total 2013-14 2919 130318 207991 341228 2014-15 3610 144735 243669 392014 2015-16 3227 147869 269439 420535 2016-17 1899 168452 315349 410673
  31. 31. No. Parameter Number of labs out of 156 which are monitoring the parameter 1 pH 153 2 Turbidity 152 3 TDS 140 4 Alkalinity 153 5 Choride 141 6 Total Hardness 151 7 Sulphate 107 8 Iron 127 9 Nitrate 127 10 Fluoride 137 11 Arsenic 60 12 Manganese 81 13 Total Coliform 113 14 Faecal Coliform 113 Parameters monitored by District and Sub Division Lab
  32. 32. Organogram of Water Quality Monitoring Cell Executive Engineer, Quality Control Unit Division, Bhopal Director, WSO, State Water Mission, Bhopal Officer In Charge and Quality Manager-NABL, State Research Lab, Bhopal 4 Chief Engineers 13 Superintending Engineers 55 Executive Engineers Lab Staff of Distt labs Engineer In Chief Principal Secretary, Govt of MP Lab Staff of Sub Division labs
  33. 33. Water safety aspects 1. In case of microbiological contamination: – Chlorination – Improving sanitary conditions of the source – IEC in community 2. In case of chemical contamination: – Capping affected source – Providing alternate safe surface or ground water source – Treatment of affected source as last resort
  34. 34. Conclusion • Achieving SDG for water poses major challenge • Gradual improvement in rural water quality monitoring and surveillance • Water quality data is now being linked to water safety interventions • State-of-art water quality monitoring tools would further improve achieving SDG compliance
  35. 35. Thanks

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