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1.1 IUKWC Workshop Freshwater EO - Laurence Carvalho Day1 - Jun17

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• Overview of Water Quality and Quantity Monitoring in the UK
Laurence Carvalho (Head of the Freshwater Ecology Group, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology)

Published in: Environment
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1.1 IUKWC Workshop Freshwater EO - Laurence Carvalho Day1 - Jun17

  1. 1. Monitoring Water Quality and Quantity, UK Enhancing Freshwater Monitoring Through Earth Observation IUKWC Workshop, 19th June 2017 Prof. Laurence Carvalho Freshwater Ecology Group Centre for Ecology & Hydrology Edinburgh, UK Photo–DARDNI
  2. 2. The UK Terrain Population density Rainfall Terrain
  3. 3. Water Quantity: UK Monitoring
  4. 4. National River Flow Archive (NRFA) & National Groundwater Level Archive (NGLA) Monitoring and Network Design Data Sensing and Recording Data Validation and Archival Data Synthesis and Analysis Information Dissemination Information Usage and Decision Making National Hydrometric Information Service
  5. 5. NRFA: Monitoring and Network Design Development of national sub-networks: • National Benchmark Network: • 130+ ‘Near natural’ catchments • Heavily used for detection of climate-driven hydrological change Terrain
  6. 6. Data Validation and Archive Public Data Portals
  7. 7. Data Synthesis and Analysis National Hydrological Monitoring Programme • Monthly situation reporting • Hydrological reviews of major events • Audience: operational, policy, research, public interest, media
  8. 8. Water Quality Monitoring 82 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 High frequency Research purposes e.g. impacts of climate change on water quality CEH long-term monitoring sites Large-scale Regulatory purposes – to protect water quality and freshwater biodiversity • EU: Water Framework Directive (WFD) • EU: Habitats Directive EO potential for both long-term, high-frequency and large scale (in-lake, nationally and global) See poster by Stephen Maberly
  9. 9. The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) Aim • To promote sustainable water use and to protect and enhance aquatic environments • To achieve “good ecological status” in all surface waters by 2027 - lakes, rivers, estuaries and coastal waters Innovation in Water Policy, River Basin Management and Water Quality Assessment Shift from chemical quality to ecological status assessment EO data needs to demonstrate that it is useful and comparable to existing agreed methods
  10. 10. WFD Monitoring: Ecological Status Biological • Phytoplankton (chlorophyll-a) • Aquatic plants • Invertebrates • Fish Hydro-morphological • Flow, residence time, water level • Structure of substrate and condition of bank/shore Physico-chemical • Transparency, temperature • Oxygen, nutrients, salinity, pH, ANC • Specific pollutants (Arsenic, Chromium, etc.) Bio-assessment integrates many pressures over time Chemical status • EU Priority Substances (Pb, Cd, PAHs, Tribuyltine, etc.)
  11. 11. WFD Status Assessment
  12. 12. The State of Scotland’s Waters http://www.environment.scotland.gov.uk/get-interactive/data/water-body-classification/ Status Rivers Lochs Estuaries & Coastal High 154 59 134 Good 1167 165 341 Mod 616 69 28 Poor 378 34 2 Bad 91 7 0 Total 2406 334 505 % fail 45% 33% 6% Not all sites sampled due to costs
  13. 13. Innovation in Monitoring Water Quality
  14. 14. Innovation in Monitoring 1. Remote Sensing (Earth Observation) 2. Citizen Science 3. Sensors 4. Molecular approaches
  15. 15. Phytoplankton abundance (chlorophyll-a) & Harmful Algal Blooms (Phycocyanin) Hunter et al. 2010 Remote Sensing of Environment 114, 2705-2718 EO of Phytoplankton (HABs)
  16. 16. Citizen monitoring: log books & risk maps Ramani Huria Community mapping for flood resilience and development http://ramanihuria.org/
  17. 17. Bloomin’ Algae https://eip.ceh.ac.uk/apps/lakes/ Citizen monitoring: apps & data portals Data Portals Text alert services • Public engagement • Cost-effective monitoring • Improved health protection • Enhanced data for research www.brc.ac.uk/app/bloomin-algae-app
  18. 18. Sensors: high-frequency monitoring Hourly water quality monitoring of River Thames • Phosphate • Nitrate • Ammonium • Dissolved oxygen • Chlorophyll • pH • Water temperature • Turbidity Mike Bowes mibo@ceh.ac.uk
  19. 19. Lake buoys & Sensors Meteorological data Temperature profiles Underwater chemistry & biology • 4 minute resolution • Near real-time telemetry to CEH database Photo: E. Gray Dr Ian Jones ianj@ceh.ac.uk 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 Jan- 00 Feb- 00 Mar- 00 Apr- 00 May- 00 Jun- 00 Jul- 00 Aug- 00 Sep- 00 Oct- 00 Nov- 00 Dec- 00 Jan- 01 pH Manual 14-day Automatic hourly UKLEON
  20. 20. environmental DNA (eDNA) • eDNA extracted from water samples and sequenced • Analyse for bacteria, anti-microbial resistance, inverteberates, fish, etc. Vendace (rare UK fish)
  21. 21. • Percentage of wastewater safely treated • Percentage of water bodies with good water quality SDG 6.3 - Target and Indicators
  22. 22. WQ Indicators for SDG 6.3 • Purpose • Robustness • Practicality • Cost EO has great potential to provide high spatial and temporal coverage with consistency in measurement for both quantity and quality assessment
  23. 23. Photo–NickEverard,EnvironmentAgency Prof. Laurence Carvalho Centre for Ecology & Hydrology United Kingdom laca@ceh.ac.uk @LacLaurence

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