Packaging, Process & Consumption Wastes


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Class project on "Packaging, Process & Consumption Wastes" for Environmental Management course.

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Packaging, Process & Consumption Wastes

  1. 2. <ul><li>Primary packaging is the wrapping or containers handled by the consumer </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary packaging is the term used to describe larger cases or boxes that are used to group quantities of primary packaged goods </li></ul><ul><li>Transit packaging groups into larger loads for transport, which facilitates loading and unloading of goods </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Plastic packaging of </li></ul><ul><li>various types and </li></ul><ul><li>plastic materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Glass bottles and jars </li></ul><ul><li>Paper and cardboard </li></ul><ul><li>wrapping and boxes </li></ul><ul><li>Metal cans </li></ul><ul><li>Wood </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>In many countries, thin polyethene carrying bags are just </li></ul><ul><li>thrown away. As they are not biodegradable, they pile up, </li></ul><ul><li>and then block drains and cause floods. During monsoon </li></ul><ul><li>the city of Mumbai was flooded for days due to drainage blocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the use of these bags (20 or 30 micrometer) has been </li></ul><ul><li>banned in many countries </li></ul><ul><li>The main “method” of waste management in many countries </li></ul><ul><li>is open burning. If waste contains chlorine, dioxins and furans </li></ul><ul><li>are formed. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Pre-consumer waste materials come directly from manufacturers. </li></ul><ul><li>Postconsumer waste materials come from consumers, after they have used the product. </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers include citizens, shops, offices, markets, hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Recyclable materials are mixed with other waste Recyclable materials include: paper, cardboard, glass and metal packaging, newspapers, food waste, garden trimmings </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Placing different waste materials into separate containers before they are thrown away together is called waste segregation at source. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to be successful, the segregation system has to be convenient to waste generators (citizens and others). </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, adequate and sufficient information and instructions should be provided, and active contribution of other stakeholders required. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Waste generators (e.g. households and businesses) store their segregated waste materials </li></ul><ul><li>Bring them to designated communal containers, drop off centers </li></ul><ul><li>Give them to informal collectors </li></ul><ul><li>Bring them back to shops, as part of producer responsibility system for beverage bottles (if supported by a deposit) </li></ul><ul><li>Retailers take over discarded products as part of producer responsibility system </li></ul>
  7. 12. <ul><li>Most of the recycling today is actually Downcycling: in every new cycle material loses quality </li></ul><ul><li>Upcycling – 90% recycled PET </li></ul>
  8. 14. <ul><li>Direct heating (boiler house) </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity production / combined heat power </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrading to natural gas quality </li></ul>
  9. 15. <ul><li>Materials used in products (and packaging) could successfully be reused again and again </li></ul><ul><li>Materials are biodegradable </li></ul><ul><li>Pure in their chemical composition </li></ul>
  10. 16. <ul><li>Pollutant or a combination of pollutants discharged into the environment by manufacturing or production process from process industries. </li></ul><ul><li>The process industries includes chemical,pharmaceutical,biotechnology,food and drink,oil and gas,power generation and mineral sectors. </li></ul>
  11. 17. <ul><li>Process waste includes solid,liquid and gaseous wastes. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Textile effluent waste. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>waste from power generaion </li></ul></ul>
  12. 18. Conceptual process waste flow diagram
  13. 19. <ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Minimization </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling </li></ul><ul><li>Discharge </li></ul>
  14. 20. <ul><li>Waste management implies activity at a number of levels in the organisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Company mangement (Investment proposals and projects) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research and Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul></ul>
  15. 21. <ul><li>Reducing process waste by increasing efficiency has two major imapct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximization of Profit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better public relation value </li></ul></ul>
  16. 22. <ul><li>The waste generated from the resources that society consumes are called as consumption wastes. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly go for further recycling. </li></ul>
  17. 23. Material Composition % Glass 10 Paper/Cardboard 30 Metals 9 Textiles 3 Plastics 4 Vegetable Waste 23 Dust, Cinders, Miscellaneous 21
  18. 24. <ul><li>It consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>packaging </li></ul><ul><li>parts that are not needed, such as fruit skins, bones in meat, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>broken things, things no longer working, spoilt food, worn-out clothes, clothes which no longer fit </li></ul><ul><li>outgrown items toys, clothing, books, schoolwork </li></ul><ul><li>disposables such as finished batteries, tissues </li></ul><ul><li>human waste, waste of pets, waste water from various forms of cleaning </li></ul>
  19. 25. <ul><li>Educate </li></ul><ul><li>Enforce </li></ul><ul><li>Engineer </li></ul>