Sources of Energy


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Sources of Energy

  1. 1. Sources of Energy By T- 1-855-694-8886 Email-
  2. 2. Characteristics of Sources of Energy It should do a large amount of work per unit mass or volume - it means that the output energy must be more than the input energy. It should have high calorific value. It should be easily accessible - the energy source should be able to provide energy over a long period of time. Example: coal and petroleum. Should be easy to store and transport - most common sources of energy such as coal, petrol and LPG need to be transported to users from their points of production. They also need proper storage. Thus it is important to store and transport these sources safely and economically. Safe and convenient to use - energy sources should be safe as it is used by a large number of people and should be convenient. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. Where Does Energy Come From? Energy is one of the most vital needs of the human beings. As per first law of thermodynamics energy can neither be created nor it can be destroyed, it can only be converted from one form to the other, Energy is stored in the nature in various sources and in various forms. The sources of energy available in the nature are divided into two main type: • Renewable energy sources • Non-renewable energy sources. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  4. 4. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  5. 5. Renewable Energy Renewable energy is any source of energy that doesnt consume the finite resources of the Earth and can be easily and quickly replenished. Renewable Energy can be regenerated in a short amount of time or is basically unlimited At present only a small proportion of the worlds energy needs come from alternative and renewable energy sources. These exist in many forms including Solar Thermal, Photovoltaic, Wind, Hydro, Tidal/Wave and Bioenergy (including Biomass, Biogas and Biofuels). © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  6. 6. Solar energy from the Sun This is one of the most commonly used renewable sources of energy. Solar energy is being currently tapped for food cooking, water heating, electricity generation, lights, etc.  The solar collectors are installed that collect the solar energy and convert it into various forms. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. Wind Energy Wind energy is being used extensively for generation of electricity. Huge fans are installed to tap the wind energy and convert it into electricity for domestic as well as commercial applications. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  8. 8. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  9. 9. Geothermal energy The heat from the earth is called geothermal energy. It can be used to heat water, generate electricity, etc. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  10. 10. Geothermal energy © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  11. 11. Biomass energy This is the energy stored in the organic matter generated by the plants and animals © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  12. 12. Water energy The energy obtained from tidal waves, rain water, etc. is the renewable energy obtained from water. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  13. 13. Water energy Control Gate
  14. 14. The Advantages of Renewable Energy One major advantage with the use of renewable energy is that as it is renewable it is therefore sustainable and so will never run out. Renewable energy facilities generally require less maintenance than traditional generators. Their fuel being derived from natural and available resources reduces the costs of operation. Renewable energy produces little or no waste products such as carbon dioxide or other chemical pollutants, so has minimal impact on the environment. Renewable energy projects can also bring economic benefits to many regional areas. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  15. 15. The Disadvantages of Renewable Energy It is difficult to generate the quantities of electricity that are as large as those produced by traditional fossil fuel generators. Renewable energy often relies on the weather for its source of power. Hydro generators need rain to fill dams to supply flowing water. Wind turbines need wind to turn the blades, and solar collectors need clear skies and sunshine to collect heat and make electricity. When these resources are unavailable so is the capacity to make energy from them. This can be unpredictable and inconsistent. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  16. 16. Non-Renewable Energy The energy sources that cannot be recreated and which go on depleting as we use them are non-renewable energy sources. The most extensively used non-renewable energy sources are the fossil fuels that consist of oil, natural gas, and coal. The fossil fuels are formed from the dead bodies of the plants and animals buried below the deep layers of earth’s core since millions of years ago. Another popular non-renewable source of energy is the radioactive elements. The energy obtained from these elements is called nuclear energy. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  17. 17. Fossil Fuels  Fossil fuels are made up of plant and animal matter. When plants and animals died, their bodies decomposed and were buried under layers of earth. Millions of years later we have the three forms of fossil fuel: oil, natural gas and coal. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  18. 18. Fossil Fuel Energy Oil Crude oil or liquid petroleum, is a fossil fuel that is refined into many different energy products (e.g., gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, heating oil). Oil forms underground in rock such as shale, which is rich in organic materials. Its also burned in factories and power plants to make electricity. The oil is burned, which produces gases that turn a turbine to create electricity. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  19. 19. Fossil Fuel Energy Coal Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel in the world with an estimated reserve of one trillion metric ton Coal is a solid, black rock-like substance and is the Earths most abundant fuel. Its organic nature ensures the presence of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur, key elements found in decomposed plant and animal remains. The intense pressures and temperatures found in the conditions of the early Earth, caused the organic substance peat to develop into various types of coal. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  20. 20. Fossil Fuel Energy Coal There are over 1200 various types of coal, but four main types are observed.1. Lignite- soften brown coal containing more hydrogen and oxygen2. Subbituminous- dull black coal containing little plant matter and has a relitvely low heating consumption3. Bituminous- jet black coal with a greater amount of decomposed plant matter and has a relatively high heating consumption4. Anthracite- hardest and darkest type of coal, containing the greatest proportion of carbon than most other coal. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  21. 21. Fossil Fuel Energy Natural gas  Natural gas is basically a mixture of gases, commonly methane (CH4), ethane (C2H5), propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10).  The gas does not contain sulphur and it makes the fuel cleanest. It is called LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas) when propane and butane are detached. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  22. 22. Oil Shale And Tar Sands Oil shale and tar sands are the least utilized fossil fuel sources Oil shale is sedimentary rock with very fine pores that contain kerogen, a carbon-based, waxy substance. If shale is heated to 490º C, the kerogen vaporizes and can then be condensed as shale oil, a thick viscous liquid. Tar sand is a type of sedimentary rock that is impregnated with a very thick crude oil. This thick crude does not flow easily and thus normal oil recovery methods cannot be used to mine it. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  23. 23. Advantages of Fossil Fuels A major advantage of fossil fuels is their capacity to generate huge amounts of electricity in just a single location. Fossil fuels are very easy to find. When coal is used in power plants, they are very cost effective. Coal is also in abundant supply. Transporting oil and gas to the power stations can be made through the use of pipes making it an easy task. Power plants that utilize gas are very efficient. Power stations that make use of fossil fuel can be constructed in almost any location. This is possible as long as large quantities of fuel can be easily brought to the power plants. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  24. 24. Disadvantages of Fossil Fuels Pollution is a major disadvantage of fossil fuels. This is because they give off carbon dioxide when burned thereby causing a greenhouse effect. This is also the main contributory factor to the global warming experienced by the earth today. Coal also produces carbon dioxide when burned compared to burning oil or gas. Additionally, it gives off sulphur dioxide, a kind of gas that creates acid rain. Environmentally, the mining of coal results in the destruction of wide areas of land. Mining this fossil fuel is also difficult and may endanger the lives of miners. Coal mining is considered one of the most dangerous jobs in the world. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  25. 25. NUCLEAR POWER The ever increasing demand of more and more reserves of power has encouraged scientists to discover newer, better and stronger sources of energy. Nuclear power is the most tremendous non-renewable sources of energy. The nuclear power is produced by using Uranium which is mined in different parts of the world. Nuclear power today fulfills the 11 per cent of world’s total need of energy. Nuclear power stations work in pretty much the same way as fossil fuel-burning stations, except that a "chain reaction" inside a nuclear reactor makes the heat instead. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  26. 26. NUCLEAR POWER © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  27. 27. Advantages of Nuclear Power Nuclear power costs about the same as coal, so its not expensive to make. Does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide, so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. Produces huge amounts of energy from small amounts of fuel. Produces small amounts of waste. Nuclear power is reliable. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  28. 28. Disadvantages of Nuclear Power Although not much waste is produced, it is very, very dangerous. It must be sealed up and buried for many thousands of years to allow the radioactivity to die away. It must be kept safe from earthquakes, flooding, terrorists and everything else. This is difficult. Nuclear power is reliable, but a lot of money has to be spent on safety - if it does go wrong, a nuclear accident can be a major disaster. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
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