Cellular Process


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Cellular Process

  1. 1. CellularProcessesT- 1-855-694-8886Email- info@iTutor.comBy iTutor.com
  2. 2. Cellular Processes - Homeostasis• Homeostasis is maintained on an individual level, by the semi-permeable membrane surrounding the cell called the plasmamembrane.• This membrane is made of a thin layer of long chained phospho -lipids.• Lipids are fats and the plasma membrane is semi-water repellent.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. Diffusion• Molecules move across the cell membrane by a process calleddiffusion.• Diffusion is the movement of molecules from areas of greaterconcentration to areas of lesser concentration.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  4. 4. Diffusion• Molecules move into or out of the celluntil there is an equal number on bothsides of the cell membrane.• Water molecules are small enough topass through the cell membrane bydiffusion.• Osmosis is the diffusion of water acrossthe cell membrane.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  5. 5. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  6. 6. Cellular Processes - Permeability• The permeability of a membrane is the rate of passivediffusion of molecules through the membrane.• These molecules are known as permeant molecules© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. Transportation of Molecules• Larger molecules like sugars,starches, and proteins sometimesdiffuse through protein channels.Active Transport• Active transport is a process that allows molecules to move acrossthe cell membrane from lower to higher concentrations.• To do this requires energy.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  8. 8. Transportation of Molecules• A cell can take in large particles of food by “engulfing” them.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  9. 9. Cells and Energy© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  10. 10. What is photosynthesis?• Photosynthesis is a chemical reactionthat takes place in the chloroplasts ofplant cells.• During photosynthesis, plants use theenergy of sunlight to produce energy-rich molecules called carbohydrates(ex. glucose).In photosynthesis, plants take in carbon dioxide andwater and release glucose and oxygen wastes.• Chloroplasts are where photosynthesisoccurs.• Chloroplasts work much like solar cellsfound in calculators.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  11. 11. Chlorophyll• A pigment is a molecule that absorbssome colors of light and reflectsothers.• Chlorophyll is the main pigment usedin photosynthesis.• Chlorophyll absorbs mostly blue andred light, and reflects green light.• This is why most plants look green.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  12. 12. Cellular Respiration• Cellular respiration is a chemicalreaction that occurs in all living things.• Cells use oxygen and glucose toproduce carbon dioxide, water, andenergy.• In most eukaryotic organisms,cellular respiration takes place inthe mitochondria of cells.• During cellular respiration, energyis stored in a molecule called ATPwhile some energy is released asheat.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  13. 13. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  14. 14. Disposal of Wastes• A living cell uses a number ofdifferent chemical reactions tosurvive.• These processes create a largeamount of waste that the cellneeds to remove.• This includes the byproducts ofreactions designed to burn energy,as well as toxic metabolites such asreactive oxygen species.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  15. 15. The EndCall us for moreInformation:www.iTutor.com1-855-694-8886Visit