CellStructure &Function By iTutor.comT- 1-855-694-8886Email- info@iTutor.com
Structure and FunctionCell = smallest unit of lifeA cell is the smallest unit that is capable ofperforming life functions.
What are cells?• A cell is the basic unit ofstructure and function in aliving thing.
What are cells?• You have nerve cells,skin cells, muscle cells,blood cells, and manyother types as well.These are some of the types of cellsfound in your blood.
What are cells?• Each cell in your body shares thecharacteristics of all living things.
Cell Theory• All living things are made up of cells.• Cells are the smallest working units of allliving things.• All cells come from preexisting cellsthrough cell division.The cell theory explains the relationshipbetween cells and living things.
The cell membrane and nucleus• The nucleus is covered with a membrane thatallows materials to pass in and out.• It’s often called the “control center” of the cellbecause it contains DNA.The nucleolus acts as astorage area for materials.
Organelles and their functions• Mitochondria are called the “powerhouses” of cells.• They produce much of the energy a cell needs tocarry out its functions.
Organelles and their functions• A vacuole is the storagearea of the cell.• Vacuoles store water,food, and waste.
Organelles and their functions• The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a series oftunnels throughout the cytoplasm.• They transport proteins from one part of the cell toanother.
Organelles and their functions• Ribosomes are the protein factories of the cell.• When ribosomes make proteins, they releasethem into the ER.
Organelles and their functions• Golgi bodies receive proteins and othercompounds from the ER.• They package these materials and distributethem to other parts of the cell.
Organelles and their functions• Lysosomes contain enzymes that canbreak things down.• Lysosomes pick up bacteria, food, andold organelles and break them into smallpieces that can be reused.
Organelles and their functions• The cytoskeleton isa series of fibersmade from proteins.• It provides structureto the cell and givesit its shape.
How plant cells are different1. Plant cells havechloroplasts,but animal cellsdo not.A chloroplast is an organellethat contains a greenpigment called chlorophyll.
How plant cells are different2. Plant cells have a large central vacuole thatstores cell sap.
How plant cells are different3. Plant cells have acell wall, but animalcells do not.Cell walls providestructure and supportfor the plant.
Two Cell TypesProkaryotic BacteriaEukaryoticProtistsFungiPlantsAnimals
Prokaryotic cells• Prokaryotic cells do not havea nucleus.• Small; ~1.0 µm in diameter• Simple structure• Scientists believe that all lifeon Earth came from ancientcells of this type.• Only bacteria have this typeof cell.
Eukaryotic cells• Eukaryotic cells have anucleus and membrane-covered organelles.• They tend to be about tentimes larger thanprokaryotic cells.• Animals, plants, fungi,and protists all haveeukaryotic cells.