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Acids and Bases

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Acids and Bases

  1. 1. Acids Bases& T- 1-855-694-8886 Email- info@iTutor.com By iTutor.com
  2. 2. Definitions • Acids – produce H+ • Bases - produce OH- • Acids – donate H+ • Bases – accept H+ • Acids – accept e- pair • Bases – donate e- pair Arrhenius Bronsted-Lowry Lewis only in water any solvent used in organic chemistry, wider range of substances © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. Examples Arrhenius Bronsted-Lowry Lewis HCl NaOH HCl NH3 :NH3BF3 HCN The hydrogen ion in aqueous solution H+ + H2O  H3O+ (hydronium ion) © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  4. 4. The Bronsted-Lowry Concept Conjugate pairs HCl Cl- CH3COOH CH3COO- NH4 + NH3 HNO3 NO3- How does a conjugate pair differ? H+ transfer © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  5. 5. H2O  H+ + OH- Does pure water conduct electrical current? (H+ )(OH- ) = 10-14 For pure water: (H+ ) = (OH- ) = 10-7 M This is neutrality and at 25o C is a pH = 7. Water is a very, very, very weak electrolyte. How are (H+ ) and (OH- ) related? © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  6. 6. Strong and Weak Acids/Bases Strong acids/bases – 100% dissociation into ions HCl NaOH HNO3 KOH H2SO4 Weak acids/bases – partial dissociation, both ions and molecules CH3COOH NH3 © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. What is acid rain? CO2 (g) + H2O  H2CO3  H+ + HCO3 - Dissolved carbon dioxide lowers the pH Atmospheric pollutants from combustion NO, NO2 + H2O …  HNO3 SO2, SO3 + H2O …  H2SO4 both strong acids pH < 5.3 © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  8. 8. General properties ACIDS • Taste sour • Turn litmus • React with active metals – Fe, Zn • React with bases BASES • Taste bitter • Turn litmus • Feel soapy or slippery (react with fats to make soap) • React with acids © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  9. 9. pH Table © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  10. 10. Call us for more Information: www.iTutor.com Visit 1-855-694-8886 The End

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