Stutoday12

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Stutoday12

  1. 1. Planning Reports and Proposals
  2. 2. Workplace Writing <ul><li>Informational reports </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical reports </li></ul><ul><li>Proposals </li></ul>
  3. 3. Three-Step Writing Process <ul><li>Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Completing </li></ul>
  4. 4. Analyzing the Situation <ul><li>Define the purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the work plan </li></ul>
  5. 5. Defining the Purpose <ul><li>Inform </li></ul><ul><li>Persuade </li></ul><ul><li>Recommend </li></ul><ul><li>Confirm </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize </li></ul>
  6. 6. Preparing the Work Plan <ul><li>Statement of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of the purpose and scope </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion of tasks to be accomplished </li></ul><ul><li>Description of final products or outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Review of schedules and requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Plans for following up </li></ul><ul><li>Working outline </li></ul>
  7. 7. Gathering Information <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><li>Priorities </li></ul>
  8. 8. Selecting the Medium <ul><li>Hardcopy </li></ul><ul><li>Digital format </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul>
  9. 9. Organizing the Information <ul><li>Direct approach </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State conclusions and recommendations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce findings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Include support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Indirect approach </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce findings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State conclusions and recommendations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Using Outline Headings I. Industry Characteristics A. Annual sales B. Profitability C. Growth rate 1. Sales 2. Profit I. Flour milling is a mature industry. A. Market is large B. Profit margins are narrow C. Growth is modest. 1. Sales growth less than 3% 2. Profit growth is flat. Descriptive (Topical) Outline Informative (Talking) Outline
  11. 11. Informational Reports <ul><li>Monitor and control operations </li></ul><ul><li>Implement policies and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Document compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Record overall progress </li></ul>
  12. 12. Organizing Informational Reports <ul><li>Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence or time </li></ul><ul><li>Category </li></ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial orientation </li></ul>
  13. 13. Planning Analytical Reports <ul><li>Assess opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Support decisions </li></ul>
  14. 14. Challenges of Writing Analytical Reports <ul><li>Quality of reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Clarity of writing </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasive elements </li></ul>
  15. 15. Defining the Problem <ul><li>What needs to be determined? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this issue important? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is involved in the situation? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the trouble located? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the situation originate? </li></ul><ul><li>When did it start? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Organizing Analytical Reports <ul><li>Logical arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Feasible recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom-line conclusions </li></ul>
  17. 17. Focus on Conclusions <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom-line driven </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oversimplification </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Focus on Recommendations <ul><li>Establish the need for action </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce benefits </li></ul><ul><li>List the steps </li></ul><ul><li>Explain each step </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize </li></ul>
  19. 19. Focus on Logical Arguments <ul><li>2 + 2 = 4 approach </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific method </li></ul><ul><li>Yardstick approach </li></ul>
  20. 20. Planning Proposals <ul><li>Internal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Structuring Proposals <ul><li>Solicited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interested audience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unsolicited </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uninterested audience </li></ul></ul>

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