Chapter 1: CRM, Database Marketing and Customer Value


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  • Source: Information Resources, Sloan Management Review, BCG Analysis
  • Chapter 1: CRM, Database Marketing and Customer Value

    1. 1. Customer Relationship Management A Databased Approach V. Kumar Werner J. Reinartz Instructor’s Presentation Slides
    2. 2. Chapter One <ul><li>CRM, Database Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>and Customer Value </li></ul>
    3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Topics discussed: </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing concept </li></ul><ul><li>Link between CRM and Database Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>CRM and Customer value </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualizations of CRM </li></ul><ul><li>Relevance of CRM </li></ul><ul><li>Data based Customer Value Management </li></ul>
    4. 4. Marketing-definition <ul><li>“Marketing is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American Marketing Association,2004 </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Link Between CRM and Database Marketing <ul><li>Database Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and analyze customer population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group based on similarities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommend separate marketing campaigns for different groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CRM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applies database marketing techniques at customer level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops strong company-to-customer relationships </li></ul></ul>DB CRM
    6. 6. CRM <ul><li>Capture customer data and interact with the </li></ul><ul><li>customer simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>Develop specific strategies for interaction with each customer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better relationships with profitable customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locating and enticing new customers that will be profitable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding appropriate strategies to deal with unprofitable customers, including termination of relationships </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Link Between CRM and Customer Value <ul><li>Customer Value: The economic value of the customer relationship to the firm – expressed on the basis of contribution margin or net profit </li></ul><ul><li>CRM is the practice of analyzing and utilizing marketing databases and leveraging communication technologies to determine corporate practices and methods that will maximize the lifetime value of each individual customer to the firm </li></ul>
    8. 8. Using Customer Value for Marketing Decisions <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease in Costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximization of Revenues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement in Profits and ROI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisition and Retention of Profitable Customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactivation of Dormant Customers </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Conceptualizations of CRM <ul><li>Functional level: focuses on technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales force automation in the sales function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Campaign management in the marketing function </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer facing front-end level: focuses on total customer experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To build a single-view of customers across contact channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To distribute customer intelligence to all customer-facing functions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategy level: focuses on customer satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frees CRM from technology underpinnings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes CRM as a process to implement customer centricity in the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>market and build shareholder value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge about customers affects the entire organization </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Components of CRM from a Business Strategy Perspective <ul><li>Strategic process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spans multiple organizational functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous effort towards becoming customer-centric </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource allocation based on economic value of customer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange of information and goods between customer and firm evolves as a function of past exchanges </li></ul></ul>C R M
    11. 11. Components of CRM from a Business Strategy Perspective (contd.) <ul><li>Customers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End-users and intermediaries such as distributors and retailers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater fine-tuning of segmentation strategies to eventually target individual customers with customized product offerings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optimizing current and future value of customer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximizing customer equity by maximizing profits over a series of transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Caution: Managing fairness in the exchange process is important to sustain mutually profitable relationships </li></ul>
    12. 12. Relevance of CRM <ul><li>Firms are facing changes with respect to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketplaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing functions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CRM is a response to these changes </li></ul>
    13. 13. Changes with respect to Consumers <ul><li>Growing consumer diversity- due to demographic and behavioral trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ageing of the population in developed countries- “de-youthing” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased diversity in ethnicity of population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing individualization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time scarcity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities compete for customers’ time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value consciousness and intolerance for low service levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise in customer expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline in consumer satisfaction level </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Time Scarcity and Value Consciousness- Example Average waiting time (in seconds) after which calls are abandoned by customers Source: : Merchants International Call Center Report Figure shows that customers are less and less satisfied with the treatment they get from corporate call centers. The average time after which calls are abandoned fell by about 19% in just one year.
    15. 15. Declining Customer Satisfaction- Example (American Customer Satisfaction Index) with products and services Source :, University of Michigan
    16. 16. Changes with respect to Consumers (contd.) <ul><li>Information availability and technological aptitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers more knowledgeable in making purchase decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More comparisons across providers and transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decrease in loyalty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversification of holdings across service providers even within same household </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketers should be wary of placing heavy time demands on consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The major challenge facing companies has become meeting consumer demands rather than cost reduction </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Decreasing Customer Loyalty- Example Number of financial service providers Source : Unidex Report Number of different financial service providers that respondents are associated with
    18. 18. Changes with respect to the Marketplace <ul><li>More intense competition between firms for customers </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmentation of markets </li></ul><ul><li>Diminishing product-quality </li></ul><ul><li>differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value added to customers by offering customized product and service propositions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To maintain market share, need to realign business strategy to become customer-centric </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Product Parity of Grocery Private Label (US) <ul><ul><li>More switching to private-label products with decrease in disposable income . Switching back to national brands with economy picking up and decreased unemployment. This link broken today. ( Source: Information Resources, Sloan Management Review, BCG Analysis) </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Changes with respect to Data Storage Technology <ul><li>Better technology, cheaper and larger storage units </li></ul><ul><li>Huge increase in demand for data storage </li></ul><ul><li>Increased popularity of data warehouses </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better information about customer behavior and attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better prediction of customer buying behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much data can lead to misapplication and wrong analysis </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Changes with respect to Marketing Function <ul><li>Media dilution and multiplication of channels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proliferation of communication media focused on the customer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct-to-consumer channels - email, telephone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive media - internet, interactive TV etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced need for techniques focused on price alone due to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of new data collection and communication tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing processes such as loyalty programs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Changes with respect to Marketing Function (contd.) <ul><li>Decreasing market efficiency and effectiveness due to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on acquisition, price and short-term transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proliferation of new contact channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased or flat cost of contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased customer response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced value for advertising in any medium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure on the marketing function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing in danger of being restricted to advertising and media planning </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Implications of Changes in Business Environment <ul><li>Greater demand for learning about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product and service customization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus on customer-centric instead of product-centric strategies </li></ul>
    24. 24. Data Based Customer Value Management <ul><li>To satisfy increasing customer heterogeneity </li></ul><ul><li>To address concerns of marketing accountability </li></ul><ul><li>To put available data to use </li></ul><ul><li>To use customer profitability as the key objective function </li></ul>
    25. 25. Benefits of Data Based Customer Value Management Approach <ul><li>Integrate and consolidate customer information </li></ul><ul><li>Provide consolidated information across all channels to assist in timely and relevant communication with customers </li></ul><ul><li>Manage customer cases </li></ul><ul><li>Personalize the service and products offered to each customer to meet expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Automatically and manually generate new sales opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Provide flexibility to adapt campaigns to take changes in customer behavior or information into account </li></ul>
    26. 26. Benefits of Data Based Customer Value Management approach (contd.) <ul><li>Yield faster and more accurate follow-up on sales leads, referrals and customer enquiries </li></ul><ul><li>Manage all business processes by introducing a central point of control ensuring all business processes are executed in accordance with correct and effective business rules </li></ul><ul><li>Give top managers a detailed and accurate picture of all sales and marketing activities </li></ul><ul><li>Instantly react to a changing business environment </li></ul>
    27. 27. Summary <ul><li>From a strategic perspective, CRM is the process of selecting the customers a firm can most profitably serve and shaping the interactions between a company and these individual customers </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing Customer Value is critical to CRM </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid changes are taking place in the environment in which firms operate with respect to customers, market places, technology, and marketing functions </li></ul><ul><li>These changes have driven the marketplace to become relationship-based and customer-centric </li></ul><ul><li>CRM’s goal is to optimize the current and future value of the customers for the company </li></ul>