Defense Mechanisms


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Defense Mechanisms

  1. 1. Psychoanalysis seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 1
  2. 2. SIGMUND FREUDFather of Psychoanalysis • Developed Psychoanalytic Theory in the 19th and 20th century in Vienna. • Support the notion that all human behavior is caused and can be explained. ( DETERMINISTIC THEORY) seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 2
  3. 3. STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITYID I’m ID !!! I operate on the• is the part of one’s nature PLEASURE PRINCIPLE and I that reflects basic or innate always demand for the desires such as pleasure- immediate gratification of my needs. seeking behavior,aggression and sexual impulses.• seeks instant gratification, causes impulsive unthinking behavior and has no regard for rules or social conversion.• Irrational and not based on reality. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 3
  4. 4. STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY I’m SUPEREGO! I amSUPEREGO stubborn and as blind and ruthless as the ID. I am based• Is the part of a person’s on what’s IDEAL rather than nature that reflects moral REAL. and ethical concepts, values and parental and social expectations.• Is in Direct opposition to the ID.• Moral, ethical, values,Parental seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 4
  5. 5. STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY I’m the EGO!EGO My role is to balance the ID and the• is the balancing or mediating Super- Ego. I operate based on REALITY force between the ID and PRINCIPLE. SUPEREGO. I individualizes a person.• Represents mature and adaptive behavior that allows a person to function successfully in the world.• Adaptation to reality;modulation of anxiety;reality testing;store of experiences in memory, uses defense mechanisms to protect self. Microsoft Office PowerPoint Presentation seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 5
  6. 6. FREUD believed that Human personality functions atTHREE LEVELS OF AWARENESS: 1.Conscious 2.Preconscious 3.unconscious seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 6
  7. 7. THREE LEVELS OF AWARENESS1.Conscious• Refers to the perceptions, thoughts and emotions that exist in the person’s awareness, such as being aware of happy feelings or thinking about loved-one. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 7
  8. 8. THREE LEVELS OF AWARENESS2. Preconscious Example• Thoughts and An adult remembering what emotions are NOT she or he did, thought or currently in the felt as a child. person’s awareness, but he or she can recall them with some effort. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 8
  9. 9. THREE LEVELS OF AWARENESS3. Unconscious• Is the realm of thoughts and feelings that motivates a person even though he or she is totally unaware of them.• This realm includes most DEFENSE MECHANISMS and some instinctual drives or motivations.According to Freud theories,The person represses into the unconcious the memory of traumatic events that are too painful to remember. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 9
  10. 10. Freud believed that much of what we do and say is motivated by our SUBCONSCIOUS THOUGHTS or feelings. (those in the preconscious or unconscious level of awareness).Freudian slip• Is a term commonly used to describe slips of tongue.Example:Saying “ You look portly today”, to an overweight friend instead of “ You look pretty today”. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 10
  11. 11. Slips of tongue are not accident or coincidences but rather are indications of subconscious feelings or thoughts that accidentally emerge in a casual day-to-day conversations.Freud believed that a person’s dream reflect his or her Subconscious and have significant meaning although sometimes the meaning is hidden or symbolic. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 11
  12. 12. DEFENSE MECHANISM• Unconscious, specific intrapsychic ways ofcoping which are employed by persons to resolve emotional conflict and to cope with anxiety.• The use of defense mechanisms excessively leads to maladaptive ways of coping. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 12
  13. 13. DEFENSE MECHANISM• ( ego defense mechanism) are unconscious ( except SUPPRESSION, which is the only defense mechanism operating in the conscious level).• Protective barriers that are used to manage instinct and affect in the presence of difficult situations. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 13
  14. 14. DEFENSE MECHANISM• May distort, falsify, or deny reality.• Used by individuals to relieve or decrease anxiety caused by uncomfortable situations that threatened self-esteem.• Decrease emotional conflicts , provide relief from stress, protect from feelings of anxiety and maintain an individual’s self- esteem. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 14
  15. 15. Purposes include:S elf security protectionA nxiety ( or fear ) reductionM ental conflict resolutionE steem ( self) protection seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 15
  16. 16. Level 1: Pathological MechanismsGeorge Eman Vaillant s (1977) • The mechanisms on this level, when predominating, almost always are FOUR LEVEL OF severely pathological. DEFENSE • These six defenses, in conjunction, MECHANISMS permit one to effectively rearrange external experiences to eliminate the ( common in healthy individuals before age 5) need to cope with reality.•Delusional projection The pathological users of these mechanisms frequently appear irrational•Conversion or insane to others. These are the•Denial "psychotic" defenses, common in overt•Distortion psychosis. However, they are found in•Splitting dreams and throughout childhood.•Extreme projection seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 16
  17. 17. FOUR LEVELS Level 2 : Immature of Mechanism • These mechanisms are often present in DEFENSE adults.MECHANISMS • lessen distress and anxiety provoked by threatening people or by uncomfortable ( common in ages 3-15) reality.•Projection • Excessive use of such defenses is seen•Schizoid fantasy as socially undesirable in that they are immature, difficult to deal with and•Hypochondrias seriously out of touch with reality.•Passive-Aggressive • These are the so-called "immature"behavior defenses and over use almost always•Acting out leads to serious problems in a persons•Blocking ability to cope effectively. These•Regression defenses are often seen in•Introjection major depression and personality disorders. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 17•somatization
  18. 18. FOUR LEVELS Level 3 : Neurotic of Defenses DEFENSE • These mechanisms areMECHANISMS considered neurotic, but(common in aged 3- 90 ) fairly common in adults.•Intellectualization•Repression • have short-term advantages•Displacement in coping, but can often•Reaction formation cause long-term problems in•Dissociation relationships, work and in•Controlling enjoying life when used as•Externalization ones primary style of coping•Inhibition•Rationalization with the world.•Sexualization seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 18
  19. 19. FOUR LEVELS Level 4: Mature of Mechanisms DEFENSE • These are commonly found among MECHANISMS emotionally healthy adults and are considered mature, even though many have their origins in an immature stage•Altruism • of development. adapted through the years in order to•Humor optimize success in life and relationships.•Sublimation • enhances pleasure and feelings of control.•suppression • help us to integrate conflicting emotions and thoughts, whilst still remaining effective. Those who use these mechanisms are usually considered virtuous. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 19
  20. 20. LEVEL 1Pathological Defense MechanismDelusional Projection• Delusions about external reality, usually of a persecutory nature.Conversion• Emotional problems are converted to physical symptoms.Example 1 : Teenager forbidden to see X-rated movies is tempted to do so by friends and develops blindness. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 20
  21. 21. LEVEL 1 Pathological Defense Mechanism ConversionExample 2: A young child who witnesses a crime became blind.Example 3 : CJ awakens with gastric distress in the morning of her science final exams. She does not realize that she is unprepared with 4 hours of cramming the night before. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 21
  22. 22. LEVEL 1 Denial • Blocking out or disowningPathological painful thoughts orDefense feelings.Mechanism Example 1: A psychiatric client tells the nurse “ I have no problem; I don’t need to talk with you”. Example 2 : Diabetic eating chocolate candy. My husband is only a Example 3: Spending money social freely when broke. drinker.. Example 4: Waiting 3 days to seek help to severe abdominal pain. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 22
  23. 23. LEVEL 1 Pathological Defense MechanismDistortion•Grossly reshaping external reality to suit inner needs (including unrealisticmegalomanic beliefs, hallucinations, wish-fulfilling delusions) and using sustained feelings of delusional superiority or entitlement.Distortions in regards to defense mechanisms are broken down into three separate levels; minor, major and dysregulation. Minor image-distorting level is characterized by distortions in the image of self, body, or others that may be used to maintain self-esteem. Examples include:• Devaluation: attributing exaggerated negative qualities to self or others.• Idealization: attributing exaggerated positive qualities to self or others.• Omnipotence: acting as if self is possessed with special powers or abilities and is superior to others. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 23
  24. 24. LEVEL 1 Pathological Defense MechanismMajor image-distorting level is characterized by gross distortion or misattribution of the image of self or others. Examples of this level include:• Autistic fantasy: excessive daydreaming as a substitute for human relationships, more effective action, or problem solving.• Projective identification: falsely attributing to another the feelings, thoughts or impulses of self; differing from simple projection by the fact that the individual doesn’t fully disavow what is projected; rather misattributes them as justifiable reactions to the other person. Frequently the individual induces those very feelings in others that were believed to be there, making it difficult to untangle the situation.• Splitting of self-image or image of others: compartmentalizing opposite affect states and failing to integrate the positive and negative qualities of self or others into cohesive images. Self and object images ten to alternate between polar opposites. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 24
  25. 25. LEVEL 1 Pathological Defense MechanismThe more severe level of distortion, defensive dysregulation, is characterized by a failure of defensive regulation in individuals’ reactions to stressors, which lead to a pronounced break with objective reality. Examples of this level include:• Delusional projection: attributing non reality-based thoughts, emotions and impulses to others.• Psychotic denial: gross impairment in reality testing.• Psychotic distortion: gross impairment in perceiving reality differently than others• This is not exhaustive of the multitude of defense mechanisms that individuals use to communicate. Interactions can be complex and though an understanding of defense mechanisms is helpful; when impaired, it is wise to leave it to professionals to conduct in depth analysis of another’s words or actions. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 25
  26. 26. LEVEL 1 Pathological Defense MechanismSplitting• A primitive defense.• Negative and positive impulses are split off and unintegrated.Example 1: An individual views other people as either innately good or innately evil, rather than as an individual who is defined by his or her actions. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 26
  27. 27. LEVEL 1 Pathological Defense MechanismExtreme Projection• The blatant denial of a moral or psychological deficiency, which is perceived as a deficiency in another individual or group. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 27
  28. 28. Level 2 Immature MechanismsActing out• Direct expression of an unconscious wish or impulse in action, without conscious awareness of the emotion that drives that expressive behaviour.Fantasy• Tendency to retreat into fantasy in order to resolve inner and outer conflicts.Passive aggression• Aggression towards others expressed indirectly or passively such as using procrastination. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 28
  29. 29. Level 2 Projection Immature • is a primitive form of paranoia. • It is shifting ones unacceptableMechanisms thoughts, feelings and impulses within oneself onto someone else, such thatExample 1: Man who has those same thoughts, feelings, beliefsthought about same-gender and motivations are perceived as beingsexual relationship, but possessed by the other.never had one, beats aman who is gay. Anyway, my wife probably cheats onExample 2: A secretary me too.who is very envious of a co-worker says, “ All the girlsin the office are jealous ofmy position.” seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 29
  30. 30. Level 2 Immature MechanismsSomatization• The transformation of negative feelings towards others into negative feelings toward self, pain, illness, and anxiety.Schizoid fantasy• Indulging in autistic retreat in order to resolve conflict and to obtain gratification.• Interpersonal intimacy is avoided, and eccentricity serves to repel others. The person does not fully believe in the fantasies and does not insist on acting them out. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 30
  31. 31. Regression Level 2 • Attempting to return to an earlier libidinal Immature phase of functioning to avoid the tension and conflict evoked at the present level ofMechanisms development. • It reflects the basic tendency to gain instinctual gratification at a less- developed period. • Moving back to a previous developmental stage to feel safe or have needs met. Example 1: Five year asks for a bottle when new baby brother is being fed. Example 2: Man pouts like a 4 year old if he is not the center of his girlfriend’s attention. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 31
  32. 32. Level 2 Introjection Immature • Accepting another person’s Mechanisms attitudes,beliefs, and values as one’s own.Example 1: Person whodislikes guns becomes anavid hunter, just like a bestfriend.Example 2 : MJ whoidolized a movie star, whocommitted suicide, alsocommitted suicide whenshe reached her idol’s age. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 32
  33. 33. Level 2 Hypochondriasis ImmatureMechanisms • Exaggerating or overemphasizing an illness for the purpose of evasion and regression. • Reproach arising from bereavement, loneliness, or unacceptable aggressive impulses toward others is transformed into self reproach and complaints of pain, somatic illness, and neurasthenia. • In hypochondriasis, responsibility can be avoided, guilt may be • circumvented, and instinctual impulses are warded off. Because hypochondriacal introjects are ego- alien, the afflicted person experiences dysphoria and a sense of affliction. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 33
  34. 34. Level 3 Neurotic DefensesNeurotic means too anxious of everything.• Common in adults• Have short-term advantages in coping, but can often cause long-term problems in relationships, work and in enjoying life when used as one’s primary style of coping with the world. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 34
  35. 35. RationalizationLevel 3 ( making excuse)Neurotic • Excusing own behavior to avoid guilt,Defenses responsibility, conflict, anxiety or loss of self-respect. • The target of rationalization is something that we have done, such as being unkind to another person. • May also be used when something happens independent of us which causes discomfort, such as when a friend is unkind to us. • We NOT only rationalized actions and the things we have done, we also find reason for our Beliefs, models, values and other inner structure and thoughts. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 35
  36. 36. Rationalization• We rationalize to ourselves, to other people , even those we do not know.When a person does something of which the moral super ego disapproves, the ego seeks to defend itself by adding reasons to make the action acceptable to super ego. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 36
  37. 37. • Self- Serving Bias – uses rationalization when it leads to taking more credit for success than we deserve and blame others for our failures.Examples:1.A person evades paying taxes and then rationalize it by talking about the government wastes money. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 37
  38. 38. 2. A man buys a expensive car and then tells people his old car was very unreliable, very unsafe.3. A person fails to get good enough results to get into a chosen university and then says that they didn’t want to go there anyway.4. A parent punishes a child and says that it is for the child’s own good. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 38
  39. 39. Level 3 Neurotic DefensesRationalization• Excusing own behavior to avoid guilt, responsibility, conflict , anxiety or loss of self respect You’re not my favorite teacherExample 1: Student blames failureon teacher being mean. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 39
  40. 40. Level 3 Rationalization Neurotic Defenses Example 2: Man says he beats his wife because she doesn’t listen to him. Nagger !It’s just a junk anyway. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 40
  41. 41. WATCH FOR YOUR OWN RATIONALIZATIONIf you can be HONEST with yourself and with other people, YOU can gainself-esteem for your COURAGE and INTEGRITY. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 41
  42. 42. Level 3 Displacement Neurotic Defenses • Defense mechanism that shiftsExample 1 : A mother may sexual or aggressive impulses toyell at her child because a more acceptable or lessshe is angry with her threatening target;husband. • redirecting emotion to a safer outlet; • separation of emotion from its real object and redirection of the intense emotion toward someone or something that is less offensive or threatening in order to avoid dealing directly with what is seewhylifeisamazing_JTA frightening or threatening. 42
  43. 43. Level 3 DisplacementNeuroticDefenses Example 2: Person who is mad at the boss yells at his or her spouse. Example 3: Child who is harassed by a bully at school mistreats a younger sibling. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 43
  44. 44. Level 3 DISSOCIATIONNeurotic Defenses • is a term in psychology describing a wide array of experiences from mild detachment from immediate surroundings to more severe detachment from physical and emotional experience. Levels of Dissociation 1.Everyday Dissociation is healthy in general • Day dreaming • Spacing out • Fantasy seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 44
  45. 45. Dissociation2.Traumatic Dissociation that comes from trauma• Numbness• Deadened emotion• Leaving one’s body seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 45
  46. 46. • 3. Severe traumatic Dissociation comes from major trauma.Derealization – constant experience of dissociation.Depersonalization –not feeling the sense of “ME” .Forming separate identities or self states seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 46
  47. 47. Dissociation Level 3 • Dealing with emotionalNeurotic conflict by a temporaryDefenses alteration in consciousness or identity. Example 1: Amnesia that prevents recall of yesterday’s auto accident. Example 2: adult remembers nothing of childhood sexual abuse. Example 3: Somnambulism ( sleep walking) seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 47
  48. 48. REACTION FORMATION• Occurs when a person feels an urge to do or say something and they actually does or says something that is effectively the opposite of what they really want.• Appears as a defense against a feared social punishment.• Fear to be criticized of something. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 48
  49. 49. Reaction FormationExample1.A person who is angry with a colleague actually ends up being particularly courteous and friendly towards them.2.A man who is a gay has a number of conspicuous heterosexual affairs and openly criticized gays.3.A mother who has a child she does not want becomes very protective of the child. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 49
  50. 50. Level 3 Reaction Formation Neurotic • Acting the opposite of what one thinks or feels. Defenses • Assuming attitudes andExample 2: Person who behaviors that one consciouslydespises the boss tells rejects.everyone what a great bosshe is. He is a great boss. Example 1: Woman who never wanted to have children becomes a super mom. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 50
  51. 51. So what? Reaction Formation• When a person takes a • help a person who is position or stance on dysfunctionally forming something, and particularly if that position is extreme, contrary reactions by first consider the possibility that create a supportive their real views are opposite to environment where they this. This offers you two can admit and accept options in persuasion. You can what is happening to either support their current position or carefully expose themselves. Then support how their underlying their changing of position tendencies are opposite (and to somewhere that is how it is ok to admit this). more acceptable and appropriate for them. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 51
  52. 52. Level 3 IntellectualizationNeurotic • A form of isolation;Defenses • concentrating on the intellectual components of a situation so as to distance oneself from the associated anxiety-provoking emotions; • separation of emotion from ideas; thinking about wishes in formal, affectively bland terms and not acting on them; • avoiding unacceptable emotions by focusing on the intellectual aspects. Examples: isolation,rationalization, ritual, undoing, compensation, magical thinking seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 52
  53. 53. Level 3 Repression • Unconscious forgetting.Neurotic • Excluding emotionally painful orDefenses anxiety-provoking thoughts and feelings from conscious awareness. Example 1: Woman has no memory Of mugging she suffered yesterday. Example 2: woman has no memory before age 7,when she was removed from abusive parents. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 53
  54. 54. Level 3 Undoing Neurotic Defenses • A person tries to undo an unhealthy,Example 1: After a fight, aman brings his wife out for a destructive or otherwise threateningcandle light dinner. thought by acting out the reverse of unacceptable. • Involves symbolically nullifying an unacceptable or guilt provoking thought, idea, or feeling by confession or atonement. • An attempt to erase an act, thought, feeling or desires. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 54
  55. 55. Level 3 Undoing Neurotic Example 2: Student decides not to think Defenses about a parent’s illness to study for a test.Isolation Example 3. Woman tells a friend she cannot think about her son’s death right•Separation of now.feelings from ideasand events. WithdrawalExample : • is a more severe form of defense.describing a murder • It entails removing oneself from events,with graphic details stimuli, interactions, etc. under the fear of being reminded of painful thoughtswith no emotional and feelings.response. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 55
  56. 56. Level 4Mature Mechanisms Sublimation • Transformation of negative emotions or instincts into positive actions, behavior, or emotion. • The rechanneling of unacceptable instinctual drive with one that is acceptable. • Diversion of unacceptable drives into personally and socially acceptable areas to help channel forbidden impulse into constructive activities. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 56
  57. 57. Level 4 Sublimation Mature Example 1 : Person who cheats on Mechanisms a spouse brings the spouse a bouquet of flowers.Example 2: A man whois ruthless in businessdonates large amountsof money to charity. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 57
  58. 58. Level 4 Mature HumorMechanisms • Overt expression of those that are feelings (especially ideas and unpleasant to focus on or too terrible to talk about) that gives pleasure to others • . The thoughts retain a portion of their innate distress, but they are "skirted round" by witticism Example: Self-deprecation. • is the act of belittling or undervaluing oneself. It can be used in humor and tension release. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 58
  59. 59. Level 4 Identification MatureMechanisms • The unconscious modellingExample 1: An adolescent of ones self upon anothermanifest his/her behavior persons character andsimilar to his/her idolizedperson over time though behavior.he/she is unaware thathis /her behavior is similar • Modeling actions andto his/her idol. opinions of influential others while searching for identity, or aspiring to reach a personal, social or occupational goal. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 59
  60. 60. Level 4 Altruism Mature • Constructive service toMechanisms others that brings pleasure and personal satisfaction. • Involves the unselfish concern for other people. • It involves doing things simply out of a desire to help, not because you feel obligated to out of duty, loyalty, or religious reasons. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 60
  61. 61. Level 4 Altruism Pro social behavior Mature • refers to any action that benefits otherMechanisms people, no matter what the motive or how the giver benefits from the action. • Remember, however, that altruism involves true selflessness. • While all altruisms acts are prosocial, not all pro social behaviors are altruistic. • For example, we might help others for a variety of reasons such as guilt, obligation, duty or even for rewards. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 61
  62. 62. • Psychologists have suggested a number of different explanations for why altruism exists, Level 4 including: Biological Reasons: We may be more altruistic Mature towards those we are related to because it increases the odds that our blood relations willMechanisms survives and transmit their genes to future generations. Neurological Reasons: Altruism activates reward centers in the brain. Neurobiologists have found that when engaged in an altruistic act, the pleasure centers of the brain become active. Cognitive Reasons: While the definition of altruism involves doing for others without reward, there may still be cognitive incentives that are not obvious. For example, we might help others to relieve out own distress or because being kind to others upholds our view of ourselves as kind, empathetic people. seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 62
  63. 63. THANK YOU seewhylifeisamazing_JTA 63