Transaction Processing System

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A Report on TPS

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Transaction Processing System

  1. 1. Report Transaction Processing System (TPS) By Abdul-rehman AslamNATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MODERN LANGUAGES ISLAMABAD 13, December 2012 3|Page
  2. 2. Table of Contents1. Introduction:.....................................................................................................................52. History:............................................................................................................................53. List of TPS Systems:.......................................................................................................64. Transaction Processing Cycle:........................................................................................6Data Entry Activities............................................................................................................6Transaction Processing Activities........................................................................................6File and Database Processing...............................................................................................6Document and Report Generation.......................................................................................6Inquiry Processing...............................................................................................................65. Processing types:..............................................................................................................7 1.Batch processing:..........................................................................................................7 2.Real-time processing:....................................................................................................7 3.Time-sharing:................................................................................................................7 4.Transaction processing:................................................................................................76. Transaction processing system features:..........................................................................7Performance:..................................................................................................................................7Continuous availability:...................................................................................................................8Data integrity:.................................................................................................................................8Ease of use:.....................................................................................................................................8Modular growth:.............................................................................................................................87. Transaction Processing Modes:.......................................................................................8 7.1. Characteristics of on-line transaction processing:....................................................8 7.2. Characteristics of batch transaction processing:.......................................................98. Transaction Processing Activities:...................................................................................99. Transaction Processing Subsystems in a Firm:..............................................................1010. Outputs Provided by Transaction Processing Systems:...............................................1011. Types of Transactions:.................................................................................................11 11.1. Internal Transactions:............................................................................................11 11.2. External Transactions:..........................................................................................1112. Characteristics of Transaction Processing Systems:....................................................1113. Processes of Transaction Processing System:..............................................................1114. References:...................................................................................................................12 4
  3. 3. 1. Introduction:Transaction processing (or OLTP for online transaction processing) is a class ofinformation system in which the goal is to handle requests for updates to shared datafrom multiple clients. A crucial requirement is that the processing be completed while theclient waits and an immediate response given. The automated teller machine (ATM)network is a typical example.Transaction processing applications typically have some or all of these requirements: • data is shared among multiple clients • requests are processed while a user is waiting • multiple requests may be in progress at once • scalability to large volumes of requests • high reliability (few errors) • high availability (minimal down-time)So, what exactly is a transaction? A transaction is a series of operations on shared datataken together as a logical unit of work. It must succeed or fail as a unit and must proceedindependently from other transactions that may be running at the same time. In otherwords, a transaction is a short program that accesses shared data and that must beexecuted in a way that obeys the ACID properties.The standard example of a transaction is a transfer of funds from one account to another.The transaction has two parts. Crediting one account and debiting another. Clearly, itwould be bad if one of these parts were to happen without the other.Transaction processing is a key piece of computing infrastructure that enablesapplications in e-commerce, airline reservations, banking, and securities trading. Whenbuzzwords like "enterprise" and "middleware" are thrown about, the meaning often boilsdown to transactional capabilities.2. History: One of the first transaction processing systems was American Airline SABREsystem, which became operational in 1960. Designed to process up to 83,000 transactionsa day, the system ran on two IBM 7090 computers. SABRE was migrated to IBMSystem/360 computers in 1972, and became an IBM product first as Airline controlProgram (ACP) and later as Transaction Processing Facility (TPF). In addition to airlinesTPF is used by large banks, credit card companies, and hotel chains. 5
  4. 4. 3. List of TPS Systems: Some of the common TPS systems are as follow: • IBM Transaction Processing Facility (TPF) - 1960. Unlike most other transaction processing systems TPF is a dedicated operating system for transaction processing running on IBM System z mainframes. • IBM Information Management System (IMS) - 1966. A joint hierarchical database and information management system with extensive transaction processing capabilities. Runs on OS/360 and successors. • IBM Customer Information Control System (CICS) - 1969. A transaction manager designed for rapid, high-volume online processing, CICS originally used standard system datasets, but now has a connection to IBMs DB/2 relational database system. Runs on OS/360 and successors and DOS/360 and successors, IBM AIX, VM, and OS/2. Non-mainframe versions are called TX Series. • Tuxedo - 1980s. Transactions for UNIX, Extended for Distributed Operations developed by AT&T Corporation, now owned by Oracle Corporation. Tuxedo is a cross-platform TPS. • UNIVAC Transaction Interface Package (TIP) - 1970s. A transaction processing monitor for UNIVAC 1100/2200 series computers.4. Transaction Processing Cycle: • Data Entry Activities • Transaction Processing Activities • File and Database Processing • Document and Report Generation • Inquiry Processing 6
  5. 5. 5. Processing types: 1. Batch processing: Batch processing is execution of a series of programs (jobs) on a computerwithout manual intervention. Several transactions, called a batch are collected andprocessed at the same time. The results of each transaction are not immediatelyavailable when the transaction is being entered there is a time delay. 2. Real-time processing: "Real time systems attempt to guarantee an appropriate response to a stimulus orrequest quickly enough to affect the conditions that caused the stimulus. Eachtransaction in real-time processing is unique; it is not part of a group of transactions. 3. Time-sharing: Time sharing is the sharing of a computer system among multiple users, usuallygiving each user the illusion that they have exclusive control of the system. The usersmay be working on the same project or different projects, but there are usually fewrestrictions on the type of work each user is doing. 4. Transaction processing: Transaction processing systems also attempt to provide predictable response timesto requests, although this is not as critical as for real-time systems. Rather than allowingthe user to run arbitrary programs as time-sharing, transaction processing allows onlypredefined, structured transactions. Each transaction is usually short duration and theprocessing activity for each transaction is programmed in advance.6. Transaction processing system features: The following features are considered important in evaluating transactionprocessing systems. • Performance: Fast performance with a rapid response time is critical. Transaction processingsystems are usually measured by the number of transactions they can process in a givenperiod of time. 7
  6. 6. • Continuous availability: The system must be available during the time period when the users areentering transactions. Many organizations rely heavily on their TPS. A breakdown willdisrupt operations or even stop the business. • Data integrity: The system must be able to handle hardware or software problems withoutcorrupting data. Multiple users must be protected from attempting to change the samepiece of data at the same time, for example two operators cannot sell the same seat onan airplane. • Ease of use: Often users of transaction processing systems are casual users. The systemshould be simple for them to understand, protect them from data-entry errors as muchas possible, and allow them to easily correct their errors. • Modular growth: The system should be capable of growth at incremental costs, rather thanrequiring a complete replacement. It should be possible to add, replace, or updatehardware and software components without shutting down the system.7. Transaction Processing Modes:Transaction processing may be accomplished in one of two modes: 1. On-line mode 2. Batch mode 7.1. Characteristics of on-line transaction processing: 1. Each transaction is completely processed immediately upon entry. 2. OLAP is the most common mode of used today. 3. More costly than batch processing. 4. Database is always up to date. 5. Require the use of fast secondary storage such as magnetic disks. 8
  7. 7. 7.2. Characteristics of batch transaction processing: 1. Relies on accumulating transaction data over a period of time and then processing the entire batch at once. 2. Batch processing is usually cyclic: daily, weekly, or monthly run cycle is established depending on the nature of the transactions 3. Cheaper than on-line processing 4. Easier to control than on-line processing 5. Database is constantly out of date 6. Batch processing is now being captured using disk files8. Transaction Processing Activities: The processing of individual transactions, of course, depends to a degree ontheir nature. The general elements of transaction processing include:1. Data capture and validation2. Transaction - dependent processing steps3. Database maintenance 9

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