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Faith Formation presentation; Sophmore Theology - Baptism

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  1. 2. Sophomore Theology Sophomore Theology 4 – Baptism “ What was visible in our Savior has passed over into his mysteries ” -- St. Leo the Great
  2. 3. Opening Prayer <ul><li>Veni, Sancte Spiritus </li></ul><ul><li>Come, Holy Spirit, fill the hearts of your faithful. </li></ul><ul><li>And kindle in them the fire of your love. </li></ul><ul><li>Send forth your Spirit and they shall be created </li></ul><ul><li>And you will renew the face of the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Lord, by the light of the Holy Spirit, </li></ul><ul><li>You have taught the hearts of your faithful. </li></ul><ul><li>In the same Spirit help us to relish what is right </li></ul><ul><li>And always rejoice in your consolation. </li></ul><ul><li>We ask this through Christ our Lord. Amen. </li></ul><ul><li>-- Handbook on Indulgences and Grants (1991) </li></ul><ul><li>First reading: Romans 6:3-11 </li></ul><ul><li>Second reading: John 3:1-6 </li></ul>
  3. 4. Scripture Readings <ul><li>1 st Reading: Romans 6:3-11 </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Reading: John 3:1-6 </li></ul>
  4. 5. Review <ul><li>What is the liturgy? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is the liturgy important? </li></ul><ul><li>When is the liturgy celebrated? </li></ul><ul><li>Who celebrates the liturgy? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the liturgy celebrated? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the liturgy celebrated? </li></ul>
  5. 6. Overview <ul><li>Paschal Mystery </li></ul><ul><li>Economy of Salvation </li></ul><ul><li>Sacraments and Sacramentals </li></ul><ul><li>Ex Opere Operato </li></ul><ul><li>What makes a sacrament valid? </li></ul><ul><li>Sacramental “seal” or “indelible mark” </li></ul><ul><li>Sacrament of Baptism </li></ul><ul><li>What is it? </li></ul><ul><li>How is it celebrated? </li></ul><ul><li>Who can receive it? </li></ul><ul><li>Who can baptize? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it necessary? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the effects of baptism? </li></ul>
  6. 7. What is “Pachal Mystery” <ul><li>Christ’s work of redemption accomplished principally by his Passion, death, Resurrection, and glorious Ascension, whereby “dying he destroyed our death, rising he resorted our life” (CCC 1067; cf. 654) </li></ul>
  7. 8. Economy of Salvation <ul><li>Economy – from Greek oikonomia , literally “management of a household” or “stewardship” (CCC, glossary) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Economy of Salvation ” or “ Divine Economy ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>God’s revelation and communication of Himself to the world in time for the sake of the salvation of all humanity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplished through the work of Jesus Christ, through His Body, the Church, in its life and sacraments </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Paschal Mystery in the Sacraments <ul><li>The sacraments are efficacious signs of grace, instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, by which divine life is dispensed to us. The visible rites by which the sacraments are celebrated signify and make present the graces proper to each sacrament. They bear fruit in those who receive them with the required dispositions. (CCC 1131) </li></ul><ul><li>The Holy Spirit prepares the faithful for the sacraments by the Word of God and the faith which welcomes that word in well-disposed hearts. Thus the sacraments strengthen faith and express it. (CCC 1133) </li></ul>
  9. 10. Sacraments and sacramentals <ul><li>The sacraments are divided into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the sacraments of Christian initiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the sacraments of healing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the sacraments at the service of communion and mission </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are “sacrament als ”? (CCC 1668f) </li></ul><ul><li>The difference between “sacrament als ” and “Sacraments” </li></ul>
  10. 11. Why the sacraments are efficacious <ul><li>Sacraments convey grace “ex opere operato” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ By the very fact that the valid sacrament was performed” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What does this mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When celebrated in accord with the intention of the Church, the power of Christ and His Spirit acts in and through it independent of the personal holiness of the minister (CCC 1128) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For fruitful reception, the recipient must be properly disposed – ie., no barriers to worthy reception (eg. repentance, faith, state of grace) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Catechism: Ex Opere Operato <ul><li>“ This is the meaning of the Church's affirmation that the sacraments act ex opere operato (literally: &quot;by the very fact of the action's being performed&quot;), i.e., by virtue of the saving work of Christ, accomplished once for all. It follows that &quot; the sacrament is not wrought by the righteousness of either the celebrant or the recipient, but by the power of God .&quot; From the moment that a sacrament is celebrated in accordance with the intention of the Church, the power of Christ and his Spirit acts in and through it, independently of the personal holiness of the minister. Nevertheless, the fruits of the sacraments also depend on the disposition of the one who receives them.” </li></ul>
  12. 13. Ex Opere Opera to (by virtue of the act) <ul><li>A term defined by the Council of Trent to describe how the sacraments confer the grace they signify. Trent condemned the following proposition: &quot;That grace is not conferred `ex opere operato' by the sacraments of the New Law&quot; (Denzinger 1608). Literally the expression means &quot; from the work performed ,&quot; stating that grace is always conferred by a sacrament, in virtue of the rite performed and not as a mere sign that grace has already been given, or that the sacrament stimulates the faith of the recipient and thus occasions the obtaining of grace, or that what determines the grace is the virtue of either the minister or recipient of a sacrament. Provided no obstacle (obex) is placed in the way, every sacrament properly administered confers the grace intended by the sacrament. In a true sense the sacraments are instrumental causes of grace. (Modern Catholic Dictionary) </li></ul>
  13. 14. Ex Opere Opera ntis (by reason of the person acting) <ul><li>A term mainly applied to the good dispositions … But it may refer to any subjective factor that at least partially determines the amount of grace obtained by a person who performs some act of piety. Thus in the use of sacramentals or in the gaining of indulgences, the blessings received depend largely on the faith and love of God with which a sacramental is employed or an indulgenced prayer or good work is performed. (Modern Catholic Dictionary) </li></ul>
  14. 15. What makes a sacrament valid? <ul><li>Given the minister has the “power” or authority to properly administer the sacrament, a valid sacrament requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper Matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper Form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper Intention (of the empowered minister) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>cf. Council of Florence, Exultate Deo , Nov 22, 1439 (D 695) </li></ul><ul><li>cf. Leo XIII, Apolstolicae curae, Sept 13, 1896 (D 1964) </li></ul>
  15. 16. Sacramental “seal” or “indelible mark” <ul><li>The spiritual “seal” bestowed by the sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders </li></ul><ul><li>Promise and guarantee of Divine protection </li></ul><ul><li>By virtue of this “seal” the Christian is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Configured to Christ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participates in his priesthood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes part in the Church according to different states and functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set apart for divine worship and service of the Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Indelible” mark or character – cannot be removed; received only once </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Sacrament of Baptism <ul><li>First sacrament of initiation – door to other sacraments </li></ul><ul><li>Prefigured in Old Testament </li></ul><ul><li>Form – “I baptise you in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit” (cf. Mt 28:19) </li></ul><ul><li>Matter – true and natural water (physical contact with the body by immersion, or pouring, or sprinkling) </li></ul><ul><li>Minister – a priest or deacon (anybody in extraordinary circumstances) </li></ul><ul><li>Rite of Baptism – also includes prayers and symbols, annointing with Holy Chrism </li></ul><ul><li>Indelible mark on soul – never repeated </li></ul>
  17. 18. Who can receive it? <ul><li>Can be received by any living person who is not already baptized </li></ul><ul><li>In the case of adults, valid reception requires the intention to receive baptism; for worthy reception, supernatural attrition (sorrow because of fear of just punishment) is required, which presupposes acts of faith, hope, and repentance </li></ul><ul><li>For young children, they did not incur original sin by their consent, so their consent is not required; “they can be said to intend, not by their own act of intention…; but by the act of those who bring them to be baptized” (St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica III, 68, 9) </li></ul>
  18. 19. Effects of Baptism <ul><li>Gives us new life in Christ (cf. 2 Cor 5:17) </li></ul><ul><li>Removes original sin, all personal sin, and all punishment for sin </li></ul><ul><li>Fills the soul with grace and gifts of the Holy Spirit (see Col 2:13-14 and Acts 2:38) </li></ul><ul><li>We die with our Lord in Baptism and are born into the new, spiritual life of Christ, and are clothed with him </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporated into the Body of Christ, the Church (cf. 1 Cor 12:13) </li></ul>
  19. 20. Effects of Baptism (cont.) <ul><li>Reception of the supernatural virtues of Faith, Hope, and Charity (cf. Gal 5:5, 22; Tim 3:5-7) </li></ul><ul><li>Faith – foundation of our relationship with God </li></ul><ul><li>Hope – sure pledge of our salvation </li></ul><ul><li>Charity – vocation and strength to life the Christian life of love </li></ul><ul><li>These supernatural virtues equip us to partake of the Divine nature </li></ul>
  20. 21. Necessity of Baptism <ul><li>The Lord Himself affirms that Baptism is necessary for salvation (Jn 3:5) </li></ul><ul><li>Baptism by water, since the promulgation of the Gospel, is necessary for salvation </li></ul><ul><li>Baptism by blood (martyrdom) and the desire for Baptism “brings forth the fruits of Baptism without being a sacrament” </li></ul>
  21. 22. Terms to know <ul><li>Anamnesis </li></ul><ul><li>Catechesis </li></ul><ul><li>Epiclesis </li></ul><ul><li>Ex opere operato </li></ul><ul><li>Lex orandi, lex credendi </li></ul><ul><li>Sacraments </li></ul><ul><li>Baptism </li></ul><ul><li>Catechumenate </li></ul><ul><li>Initiation </li></ul><ul><li>Mystagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Neophytes </li></ul><ul><li>RCIA </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>
  23. 24. Works of Mercy <ul><li>Charitable actions by which we come to the aid of our neighbors in their bodily and spiritual needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual Works of Mercy – instructing, advising, consoling, comforting, forgiving, and patiently forbearing </li></ul><ul><li>Corporal Works of Mercy – feeding the hungry, clothing the naked, visiting the sick and imprisoned, sheltering the homeless, and burying the dead </li></ul>