Unix Administration 1


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Unix Administration 1

  1. 1. ITI-481: Unix Administration Rutgers University Internet Institute Instructor: Chris Uriarte <chrisjur@cju.com>
  2. 2. Meeting Times and Locations <ul><li>Per Syllabus </li></ul>
  3. 3. Prerequisites <ul><li>Either ITI-480 Unix Fundamentals or equivalent user-level knowledge of Unix. </li></ul><ul><li>You MUST know how to use a UNIX text editor (i.e. pico, vi, emacs) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Course Overview and Goals <ul><li>The purpose of this course is to teach you how to install a UNIX operating system and perform system administration activities in a hands-on environment. </li></ul><ul><li>The course objective will be achieved through a combination of lecture, demonstrations, and hands-on exercises. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Major Topics <ul><li>Installing UNIX and Linux </li></ul><ul><li>X-Window Configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Installing Software </li></ul><ul><li>Account Management </li></ul><ul><li>Booting and Shutting Down </li></ul><ul><li>Network Configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Core System Services </li></ul><ul><li>System Monitoring and Logging </li></ul><ul><li>File System Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Configuring Specific Services: NIS, SSH, Sendmail,Telnet, FTP, Printing </li></ul><ul><li>Securing your Server </li></ul>
  6. 6. Course Resources <ul><li>Textbook: To be announced </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor Website at http://www.cju.com/classes/ (see link to ITI 481 at bottom of page) </li></ul><ul><li>Workstation where each of you will install a copy of Linux. </li></ul><ul><li>User account on Linux server iti.rutgers.edu. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Today’s Agenda <ul><li>Introduction to UNIX, UNIX distributions and some background concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Installing Linux on your own workstation. </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is UNIX <ul><li>UNIX is an operating system that originated at Bell Labs (NJ) in 1969. </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX is actually a trademark, but often used as a generic term to describe “UNIX-like” operating systems. </li></ul><ul><li>There are numerous different flavors of UNIX – all of which utilize similar UNIX operating system concepts, but may have different features or run on different hardware. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The UNIX Umbrella RedHat, Mandrake † , SuSe, Debian, Caldera, Yellowdog † FreeBSD, BSDI*, NetBSD OpenBSD Sun Solaris, HP HP-UX*, Compaq True 64 UNIX*, IBM AIX*, IRIX*, MAC OSX* SCO UNIX (now Caldera/Tarantula) Hardware Vendors BSD Flavors Linux Distributions Other * = Commercial distribution (i.e you must pay for it) † = Derivative of RedHat
  10. 10. Popularity vs. Maturity Popular Mature Sun Solaris HP-UX Compaq True 64 UNIX RedHat Linux / Linux Mandrake Debian Linux SuSe Caldera Linux FreeBSD / NetBSD / OpenBSD, etc. SCO UNIX RedHat Linux AIX Irix Darwin (Mac OSX)
  11. 11. What makes UNIX Unique? <ul><li>UNIX is a multi-user, time-sharing operating system: every user gets a piece of the CPU. </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX flavors generally adhere to some types of standards (I.e. POSIX) </li></ul><ul><li>UNIX standards allow for portability of software across multiple UNIX distributions. </li></ul>
  12. 12. What is Linux? <ul><li>A Unix-like operating system initially developed in the early 1990s by Linus Torvold. </li></ul><ul><li>Initially developed to run on PC hardware but has been ported to other architectures as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed under a GNU General Public License – “free” software. </li></ul><ul><li>Kernel is its distinguishing feature. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally packaged in various distributions. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Linux Distributions <ul><li>Vary according to included software packages, package management systems, installation process, and Window Managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Distributions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red Hat Linux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caldera OpenLInux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux Mandrake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corel Linux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SuSE Linux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TurboLinux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debian GNU/Linux </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slackware </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Why Linux? <ul><li>Linux has matured greatly over the past 5 years and has positioned itself as the most flexible UNIX distribution today. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be run on very low-end, generally available hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of software available. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible – the same Linux distribution used by a hobbyist on low end hardware can be used by an enterprise on high-end hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s the first UNIX flavor to hit retail store shelves and is easily obtainable across the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Administration skill sets transfer easily to and from other UNIX flavors. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s free! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Planning for Your Linux System <ul><li>Is your hardware supported? </li></ul><ul><li>Will it be a workstation or a server? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there special services that you want to run (web server, email server, DNS server, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Will you need to store user and/or application data? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Checking Hardware Compatibility <ul><li>It’s very important that you make sure you hardware is fully supported by your UNIX distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware Compatibility Lists (HCLs) contain the hardware supported by your OS vendor. They can be obtained at the vendor’s website. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, it’s good to know some specifics about the hardware you’re using: amount of system RAM, brand of video card, brand of NIC brand of sound card, etc. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Hardware Compatibility, con’t. <ul><li>Some particularly good things to know about your hardware: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video card: brand and chipset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard drive: total amount of hard drive space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound card: brand and model of sound card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Card: brand and model of NIC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some vendors have searchable hardware compatibility database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RedHat: http://www. redhat .com/support/hardware/ </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Disk Partitioning <ul><li>Disk Partitioning is the concept of dividing your hard disk into logical partiations, making one hard drive appear as if it’s actually multiple drives. </li></ul><ul><li>There’s several reasons why we partition disks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of storage management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. UNIX Disk Partitioning <ul><li>In UNIX, a physical disk partition is associated with a directory path, sometimes referred to as a mount point . </li></ul><ul><li>All files that are in directories associated with a mount point are stored on the mount point’s physical partition. </li></ul><ul><li>If a directory path is not explicitly associated with a physical disk partition, its files are stored under the root ( “/” ) partition. </li></ul>
  20. 20. UNIX Partition Example /usr 2GB / (root) 1.5GB /home 4GB swap Example Partitioning Scheme: Total Hard Drive Space: 8GB Contains all files under the /usr directory (I.e. /usr/local/bin/pico, /usr/bin/vi, etc.) Contains all files under the /home directors (I.e. /home/chrisjur, /home/iti1234) Contains all other files and directors, such as /var, /opt, /sbin, etc. [HARD DRIVE]
  21. 21. Partition Naming <ul><li>In UNIX, the system gives each partition a special device name. </li></ul><ul><li>In Linux, standard IDE hard drives are named /dev/hd x , where x is a unique letter given to identify the hard drive, starting with the letter a (e.g. /dev/hda) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, the first hard drive on the system is called /dev/hda . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partitions are given a name with the format /dev/hd x# , where /dev/hd x is the hard drive the partition is on, and # is a uniquely assigned partition number, starting with 1 (e.g. /dev/hda1). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, the first partition on the first hard drive on the system is called /dev/hda1 . </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Figuring out Your Partitions <ul><li>You will have to partition your disk during a typical UNIX installation. </li></ul><ul><li>Common partitions include: </li></ul><ul><li>/ (called ‘root’), /usr, /home, /var </li></ul><ul><li>Typical uses for specific UNIX partitions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/usr – software packages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/home – user home directories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/var – log files and configuration files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/opt – software package and application installed (esp. on Solaris) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. What do you need to Install UNIX? <ul><li>At minimum, you need a CD media containing the UNIX distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>You may be able to set your computer to boot directly from the CD-ROM, which will start the install program. </li></ul><ul><li>If your computer cannot boot directly from the CD-ROM, you must create a boot floppy disk, which will boot the computer and load the installation program from CD-ROM. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Exercise: Installing Linux On Your Workstations <ul><li>Refer to the distributed instructions. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Note: Linux and Other Operating Systems on a Single PC <ul><li>Yes, Linux can run on a PC that is running one or more other operating systems. However, there are a number of caveats: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux needs to be installed after Microsoft operating systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You need to have unused partitions on your existing PC hard drive to install Linux. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux needs to be installed on one or more of its own partitions. The kernel needs to be on a primary partition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-booting is not recommended for servers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommendation: If you really want to dual-boot Linux with another operating system, use a commercial software package like PartitionMagic and BootMagic (by PowerQuest) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Homework <ul><li>Homework this week: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As noted in class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Next week: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to the X-Windows system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software installation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Booting and Shutdown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency boot procedures </li></ul></ul>