TEFL Uncovered


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The Perfect eBook to Get You TEFLing – Free!
Check out TEFL Uncovered: the hottest book to hit the TEFL scene!

Order your free copy of TEFL Uncovered today and discover if the world of teaching English abroad is right for you! This is your chance to explore your course options, job opportunities abroad and the entire TEFL industry… you’ll learn about the entire TEFL world without even leaving your home!

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  • Great to see you enjoyed the book! For more information on where you could teach you may want to take a look at http://www.onlinetefl.com/tefl-jobs-abroad/ - this will give you an idea of what teaching abroad is actually like.

    Also you can take a look at www.onlinetefl.com/tefl-chalkboard where you can talk to people who are teaching abroad at the minute - they will be able to give you help and tips about TEFL.
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  • I really enjoyed the book, when I originally ordered it I hadn't even heard of 'TEFL', only through a friend who had recently done a TEFL course I didnt think it would really be for me but thought I wold read up on it anyway. I am now determined to complete a TEFL course and teach abroad, but i'm not sure where I want to go just yet.

    Thanks for a great read!
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  • http://www.onlinetefl.com/ Hi everyone - hope you enjoy the book - if you have any suggestions of what we should cover for our next eBook, leave a comment! Oh, thought you also might like to see an interview with the author, James Jenkin:
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TEFL Uncovered

  1. 1. TEF UN L C OVE RED O TEACH HOW T UR WAY YO A BROAD L H TEFBy WIT Written in enk JamesEJ ited By d ally Mike Sc y B issioned -i Comm i- to
  2. 2. About the Author James Jenkin has been teaching English as a foreign language since 1994, having managed English language programmes in Vietnam, China and Australia. His classroom career has included teaching Sudanese refugees,Vietnamese government ministers and Chinese airline pilots. As well as developing English language programmes and training teachers, James is also the proud author of Lonely Planet’s Russian Phrasebook! Needless to say, he has had invaluable experiences in the TEFL and travel world and can offer you a whole world of TEFL-Travel advice. With his extensive teaching experience, as well as ten years’ experience as a teacher-trainer on Cambridge CELTA Courses and i-to-i’s Classroom TEFL Courses, he truly understands the needs, fears and hopes of people entering the TEFL world. Qualifications: l Cambridge CELTA l Bachelor of Arts Degree in Russian and Latvian l Master’s Degree in Applied Linguistics What James Has To Say How and why did you get into teaching English overseas? “I’d studied languages and I thought I’d be a good teacher because I knew about grammar. I used to stand in the front and lecture. I wish I’d done some worthwhile teacher training before I started – it took me a couple of years to realize that being a good teacher is about helping ‘learners’ get involved and practise with each other and develop their skills.” James with one of his students What do you most enjoy about TEFL training on the Classroom TEFL Course? “It’s a thrill to see people develop such confidence in such a short period of time.” Any tips for first time TEFL/TESOL teachers? “Get the students talking! The less time you’re up in the front About the Author talking, the better. They need the practice, not you!” l 02
  3. 3. Contents Foreword Foreword 04 The World’s First TEFL Self-Help Book 06 1 Welcome To TEFL 07 Introduction 08 A Life Changing Choice 11 Your Opportunities 16 What Is Teaching English Like? 19 Types Of English Teaching 25 2 Qualifications Introduction 30 31 Do You Need A Qualification? 33 Qualifications Demystified 37 3 Finding Good Work Introduction 42 43 The Internet 44 Job Placements & Agents 47 Networking 50 Conditions 53 4 Getting Good Work Introduction 58 59 Personal Contact 60 Application Letter Or Email 62 Creating A Teaching Resume 67 5 Resources 73 Introduction 74 Print Resources 76 Online Resources 80 Teaching With No Resources 84 6 Instant TEFL 87 Introduction 88 Making A Contribution 90 What Do Students Want? 95 Getting Students Talking 99 Being An Effective Teacher 104 7 Country Guides Introduction 107 108 Country Guides 109 8 Are You Ready To Start TEFL-ing? 137 Introduction 138 Contents 9 Glossary Teaching Terms 140 141 Language Terms 142 The TEFL Profession 143 l 03
  4. 4. Foreword They say that ‘meaning’ is the new ‘money’. Recent research into ‘happiness’ suggests that the key components in pursuit of it are: l being involved in activities that have ‘meaning’ for us l having opportunities to use our skills to make a difference The research also suggests that we become happier by promoting the well-being and happiness of others. Surely, therefore, the world of TEFL offers huge opportunities for the pursuit and promotion of happiness. The material that follows opens up to us a world in which bright, committed people are making a contribution to the concept of ‘one world’ by reducing barriers, engaging respectfully with different cultures and passing on learning that expands the horizons of its recipients. These ‘TEFL people’ are taking part in life-changing experiences themselves and are inviting millions of their students to do the same. Each of us is a unique individual. Nobody else has our combination of DNA, upbringing, experiences, education, skills, values, ambitions, or aspirations. Nobody else has ever carried that uniqueness into this particular time in an ever-evolving world. The world of TEFL offers unique opportunities to unique individuals to make unique interventions in the lives of others. As a result, there is therefore no blueprint or guidelines that would work for everybody. What follows is not a blueprint but pages of wisdom and learning drawn from the experiences of many who have gone before. What follows is yours to engage with, to reflect on, to select from and to apply what fits to support your purpose and plans. It is a book ‘to do’ rather than to read. The most effective teachers are not those who lecture others on what must be learnt. They are rather those who provide opportunities for learners to access and assess information, reflect on its relevance to them, their world and their needs, to select, absorb, ‘own’ and apply. That is what is on offer here.You will only get out of it as much as you put into it. You won’t find ‘the’ answers, but hopefully you will find ‘your’ answers in the thoughts it provokes, the awareness it creates, the clues it supplies and your choices it informs. It will reward reflection, motivation, and honesty with oneself. To get the best out of it, plan your study for times when you are at your best, tackle it in ‘bite-size Foreword chunks and note the things that occur to you (thoughts, feeling, ideas, questions etc.). ‘Harvest’ your thoughts and your awareness because this is your learning and the basis for your planning and decision-making. Talk through the things that occur to you with someone who knows you well, and get their reaction and feedback as a contribution to your decision-making. l 04
  5. 5. You could be on the brink of a great adventure and a life-changing experience. The hope is that the material in this book will be an introduction to the most creative and rewarding time in your life and that you (and those you teach) will be happier as a result! Mike Scally (Author of ‘Lifeskills Teaching’) Please note ; Any information and advice in this book is offered in good faith, but it cannot and should not replace the reader’s own need for judgment of its relevance and value in their context and the need for each of us to be responsible for our own risk assessment and decision-making. Foreword l 05
  6. 6. The World’s First TEFL Self-Help Book! i-to-i commissioned TEFL Uncovered: How to Teach Your Way Abroad to help you understand TEFL and all your opportunities around the world… With 16 years’ in the TEFL industry, i-to-i’s expert TEFL team is committed to making the TEFL world real and accessible to you, so you can understand TEFL as well as the experts do! Teaching English as a foreign language is as simple as you’ve probably heard – you only need to speak English fluently to teach English abroad; however, understanding the global TEFL industry, as well as the most effective teaching methods, can be a bit more complex as all countries, schools, job requirements and people are different. Therefore, i-to-i felt strongly about creating a book that told you exactly what you needed to know about the industry, courses and opportunities before you dove straight in and possibly got lost! Interestingly enough, hundreds of thousands of people have been teaching English abroad for decades with nothing more than their knowledge of the English language. But as the market has become far more competitive, requirements and restrictions have increased and peoples’ general concerns have broadened. Today, understanding TEFL is not so simple and eager travellers are more than keen to understand the market inside and out. This book will serve as a perfect guide for you to begin your TEFL endeavours. It is a truly unbiased view of the TEFL world based on our experiences (16 years!) teaching abroad and training people to teach abroad too. We hope you enjoy this first step into your TEFL career abroad. All the best! The i-to-i TEFL Team Book Introduction the i-to-i team l 06
  7. 7. Section 1 Welcome To TEFL Introduction A Life Changing Choice 1 Explore how the experience of living and working abroad is very different from being a tourist and how TEFL can transform your future. Your Opportunities 2 Take a look at the number of job opportunities in the TEFL industry and the types of conditions you can expect. Section 1: Welcome to TEFL 3 What Is Teaching English Like? Decide whether a TEFL classroom is right for you and learn about the activities you might need to do with your students. 4 Types Of English Teaching From outdoor activities with primary students to teaching technical English to oil and gas engineers – there are all sorts of teaching opportunities overseas. 07 l7
  8. 8. Introduction to Section 1 1 Welcome! If you think … l TEFL allows you to travel almost anywhere l TEFL is exciting and rewarding l TEFL will change your view of the world … you are right! This book will show you how to make your dream of teaching abroad come true.You will have a clear understanding of what being a TEFL teacher is like – the many positives and the challenges – and the sorts of opportunities there are for you. 2 Is TEFL For You? Before we look at opportunities in TEFL, let’s reflect on what you want in your life. 2.1 - What made you think about teaching English abroad? Tick the things that are true for you and add some more if you like. I like travelling I like mixing with people I want to experience other cultures I think I would teach English well I want to help people Section 1: Welcome to TEFL I’d like to explore something I’m interested in English completely new and different I’m eager for a break from my career and life at home I’d like to travel and earn I like languages l 08
  9. 9. See what TEFL-Travellers have to say! Ashley Griffiths from the UK ‘ Back in 2007 I was in a job I hated and was very much part of the rat race! I had always enjoyed helping and guiding my employees and loved travelling, so the decision was easy! Don’t worry about the stress of adjusting to another culture, that’s part of the fun! ‘ Which do you think are the most important reasons for you – and for your students? For yourself: ___________________________________________________________ - For the people you will teach: ______________________________________________ 2.2 Imagine you could be somewhere different in three months. Complete the sentence. I would like to be in _________________ because _____________________________________________________________________ 2.3 Answer yes, no or not sure to the following: l There are TEFL jobs in my dream destination l I can secure a job there before I go l I do not need a teaching qualification to teach there l I don’t need to know the local language to teach there l I will be there in three months Section 1: Welcome to TEFL Let’s look at the facts to see if you were right. l 09
  10. 10. 3 TEFL – The Situation English is the international language of business, politics, science and communications. The British Council estimates there are over a billion people learning English worldwide.* About three quarters of these people live in non-English-speaking countries. In other words, every country needs English teachers (there are even foreign TEFL teachers in North Korea). Asia Europe 300,000,000+ 200,000,000+ learners learners South America Middle East 150,000,000+ 50,000,000+ learners learners Most language schools advertise on the internet and many like to arrange a contract in advance. There are hundreds of websites dedicated to TEFL jobs. It’s estimated that there are over 20,000 new TEFL jobs listed each month. One of the best known, www.eslcafe.com, has over 2,000 listings at any time. The demand for TEFL is so huge that many schools will employ teachers with no teaching qualification or degree. This does depend on the country – you may need to be qualified to get a work visa in some countries (we will see which ones later). Also, the question of whether you want to teach without some training needs serious consideration. Most English language schools are English language environments.You will use English for all interactions at work. However, knowing some basic phrases in the local language shows respect for people and will add considerably to your cultural experience. You could actually be teaching in one of many countries tomorrow.You will need to decide whether you want to simply arrive in a country and approach schools or arrange a job before you go. We will Section 1: Welcome to TEFL look at the pros and cons of each later. * British Council Learning. August 1 2009. < http://www.britishcouncil.org/learning-faq-the-english-language.htm>. l 10
  11. 11. 1 A Life Changing Choice ‘ See what TEFL-Travellers have to say! I put my TEFL qualification to use within a few months as I went to Japan to work for an English language company that deals with teaching children. What I intended to be a six month working holiday turned into an 18 month odyssey! I had so much fun and so many enjoyable moments with all some ‘ 300 students that I saw on a regular basis. And yes, I learned everyone’s name! It’s my driving ambition to return to my Tel Porter from Australia Japanese home as soon as I can. ? DID YOU KNOW? l It is easy to find a job and teach in another country l Teaching abroad will probably be like nothing you have ever experienced 1 First Thoughts Let’s first look at why you are considering TEFL. 1.1 How is being a tourist different from living and working somewhere? Think of the pros and cons of both. - Section 1: Welcome to TEFL Being a Tourist Living and Working in a Country Pros Cons Which has the greater appeal for you? __________________________________________ l 11
  12. 12. 1.2 In what ways might teaching abroad change your life for the better? Write down your thoughts about this. _______________________________________________________________________ - _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ How do you feel about those possibilities? __________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2 The Facts Now let’s look at the experience of living and teaching abroad in more detail – both the plusses and the challenges. 2.1 Do you agree or disagree with the following statements? If you know anyone who - has taught or worked abroad, reflect on their experiences. Fill in the following Agree Disagree Living abroad is the most memorable experience many people have had. Teaching is just a means to an end – to be able to travel. You can lead a luxurious life teaching abroad. Locals look up to you as a foreigner. Section 1: Welcome to TEFL Some expats suffer severe culture shock when they live overseas. It’s too late if you’re locked into a contract and you don’t like the place. TEFL experience will be useful for my future, even if I stop teaching. l 12
  13. 13. ! We Suggest: l Yes. Teaching in a country means you can experience complete cultural immersion.You can gain a deep understanding of another culture and a new awareness of your own.You have a genuine reason to interact with interesting people, and you can develop very deep and long-lasting relationships. l There are many stories of people working for little or no pay and using their savings to live and teach somewhere, simply because the experience is so rewarding. l Teaching can simply be a means to an end. But TEFL needs dedicated, passionate teachers, so we hope you will want to make a serious contribution to the profession. l Teaching will almost certainly not be a luxurious life! Teachers are not paid like expat executives. In many countries you’ll receive something like a local salary, which will enable you to have a comfortable life, but not a cushy one. l No they won’t – respect and appreciation have to be earned! l Yes. Almost everyone will experience some form of culture shock. Make sure you are mentally and emotionally prepared for a very big change in lifestyle. It can help to start teaching in a country or culture you are familiar with before moving abroad. l No. Teachers do break contracts. Schools tend to offer incentives for teachers to stay to the end of a contract instead (e.g. paying a bonus or airfare). l Overseas teaching experience is regarded by employers in many fields as unique and valuable. It demonstrates initiative, responsibility and intellect. 2.1 It’s essential to be mentally prepared. What problems do you think could arise in the following areas? How could you deal with them? - Possible Problems How Could You Overcome Them? Low Salary Food Accommodation Section 1: Welcome to TEFL Sanitation Culture Government Security Away from Family/Friends l 13
  14. 14. Every person staying for a length of time in a new country will experience culture shock. At first, everything around you will seem exciting and stimulating. However, this can suddenly change. Often triggered by a single negative experience, you may start to feel on edge, depressed, or even angry. However, this will pass.You will reach a state where things seem normal. Some of the excitement of the honeymoon phase will return, along with a deeper appreciation of the cultural environment. The best way to adjust to culture shock is to be aware of what’s happening to you. Remind yourself that it’s natural to feel this way, that everyone experiences it, and it is temporary. Importantly, don’t isolate yourself. Try actively to meet local people and embrace the culture. Explore, enjoy the food, and learn the language. Interestingly, once people have adjusted to a new culture, they usually feel reverse culture shock coming back to their home country! 3 Reflection & Action 3.1 Think seriously. Is living abroad still right for you? - Why? ___________________________________________________________________________ 3.2 Where would you like to go and for how long? Plus, do you have all the information you would need to make this decision yet? ___________________________________________________________________________ 3.3 How can you find out more about living in that country? ___________________________________________________________________________ Section 1: Welcome to TEFL = SUMMARY l Teaching abroad has been a life-changing experience for many people l Be realistic and be prepared for challenges l 14
  15. 15. E KEY RESOURCES A useful introduction to the issues: http://teachertipstraining.suite101.com/article.cfm/qualifying_as_an_efl_teacher For an overview of the plusses and challenges of teaching abroad: http://www.transitionsabroad.com/listings/work/esl/index.shtml For a range of articles on teaching and living abroad: http://teaching-abroad.suite101.com/ See what TEFL-Travellers have to say! ‘ ‘ It has been fantastic. Both living abroad and teaching in Spain have proven to be extremely rewarding. Definitely the best choice I could have made after graduating from college. What would be better than a year away to find myself? Peter Wickman from the USA Section 1: Welcome to TEFL l 15
  16. 16. 2? l l Your Opportunities DID YOU KNOW? One billion people are learning English as a foreign language By 2025 this should double to two billion l There are more people learning English in China than there are native English speakers in the USA l Over 100,000 people do a TEFL certificate course each year.Yet there are clearly not enough graduates to meet demand 1 First Thoughts This part will give you a clear overview of TEFL job opportunities worldwide. 1.1 Do you agree or disagree with the below facts? I am optimistic about finding a job. - _______________________________________________________________________ The internet is the best place to look for opportunities. _______________________________________________________________________ It is easy to get a job in any country. Section 1: Welcome to TEFL _______________________________________________________________________ Requirements for qualifications are the same worldwide. _______________________________________________________________________ Schools are unwilling to give contracts. _______________________________________________________________________ Conditions are quite similar across countries. _______________________________________________________________________ l 16
  17. 17. 2 The Facts 2.1 Let’s find out if your ideas were on the right track. Look at two of the best-known TEFL websites: www.eslcafe.com and www.tefl.com. Make some notes on the following: - The Number of Jobs ___________________________________________________________ Qualifications _________________________________________________________________ Nationality Requirements _____________________________________________________ Contracts Available ___________________________________________________________ Conditions _________________________________________________________________ ! We Suggest: l There are 20,000 TEFL jobs advertised every month. l Certain countries require a degree, a TEFL qualification, or both. l Western Europe is the strictest regarding nationality: you normally need an EU passport (or a working holiday visa for people aged 18-30). It is unlikely a school will sponsor you unless they know you. l Schools typically want teachers to stay for as long as possible. l Conditions vary dramatically. It is possible to save money in Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Western Europe and the Middle East. In China, Russia and Eastern Europe, salaries will be high by local standards and enough to live very comfortably on, but not to make money. 2.2 In view of the above, which countries look attractive to you? Why? - Section 1: Welcome to TEFL Top 3 Countries . Why? 1. _______________________________________________________________________ 2. _______________________________________________________________________ 3. _______________________________________________________________________ l 17
  18. 18. Consider that the most rewarding positions may have the most difficult conditions. For example, teaching in a rural school with few facilities may be making a real difference in students’ lives. 3 Reflection & Action 3.1 - Look at job adverts from the countries you chose. What are the questions you’ d want to ask? ______________________________________________________________________? ______________________________________________________________________? ______________________________________________________________________? We will answer your questions when we look in detail at job adverts and contracts in Section 3: Finding Good Work. = SUMMARY l There are thousands of opportunities for TEFL teachers l Conditions and requirements vary greatly E KEY RESOURCES Key job websites: http://www.eslcafe.com http://www.tefl.com See what TEFL-Travellers have to say! ‘ Section 1: Welcome to TEFL From my experience in Hungary, schools are always looking for new teachers. To have any ‘street cred’ a school needs native speakers, at least as teaching assistants, and as most native speakers are travellers and only staying for a set period, there is a high turnover in teaching staff! I had no problem at all changing jobs. All I had to do was look for local language schools on the web and send my resume to places that looked promising. Also, because schools are used to ‘ Adrian Thurnwald from Australia dealing with itinerant native sorts, they often have some kind of system in place for accommodation. Not always, though! l 18
  19. 19. 3 What Is Teaching English Like? ‘ See what TEFL-Travellers have to say! I’ve taught some fantastic classes in South Korea… been thrown into some interesting deep ends, eh....teaching science, mass and density to be exact, to a bunch of 5 year olds, oh and of course the rules of soccer (!) and the American Revolution to my 12 year olds! The kids never ‘ cease to amaze me with their questions: ‘Teacher, what’s your blood type?’ and ‘Teacher, what’s the difference between Jennifer Maxwell from Ireland an alligator and a crocodile?’ But I love it! I have a million stories to tell about my time here. ? DID YOU KNOW? l TEFL, more than any other field of teaching, has ‘tried and tested’ approaches to running a class l There are great materials for teaching English readily available l TEFL, EFL, TESOL, ESOL and ESL are often used interchangeably. However, as a rule, TEFL is teaching in a non-English speaking country, and ESL is teaching migrants in an English-speaking country 1 First Thoughts Let’s start by thinking about what happens – and should happen - in a language class. Section 1: Welcome to TEFL 1.1 Think about when you learnt a language (if you haven’t studied a language, think of any school subject). What did you like? What didn’t you like? Why? - I liked … I didn’t like … l 19
  20. 20. 1.2 - What should students spend most of their time doing in class? Rank the following from 1 (most time) to 6 (least time). listening to the teacher talking about grammar listening to the teacher talking about the world listening to audio recordings reading writing speaking in pairs or groups Why did you prioritise them in the way you did? Is it because they help students’ language development, or is it some other reason? Do any of the activities have risks – for example, could students get bored, or could they learn bad habits? Shortly we will look at what students actually need. It may surprise you. 1.3 What do you find daunting about teaching? Is it being in front of a large group of people? Answering grammar questions? Make some notes. What worries me about teaching is… - _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ We’re going to suggest that a TEFL class may be vastly different from any class you’ve experienced – and that an awareness of the role of an effective TEFL teacher should significantly reduce your anxiety and help you feel excited about getting into a classroom. Section 1: Welcome to TEFL 2 The Facts When we think about teaching, we understandably think primarily about ourselves. However, TEFL challenges you to turn that around. It’s essential to think about your students’ experience and what they need. This should shape what happens in your class. l 20
  21. 21. 2.1 Look at these real quotes from students. Do they make you reconsider your priorities for the classroom? What would you change? We always did grammar at middle school. It’s very boring. We had an Australian teacher who talked for hours about Australia. I wanted to go to sleep. I’m too shy to speak. I can understand the teacher but not other English speakers. I need English for my job. I need to talk on the telephone and write emails. Games are fun. 2.2 Give your opinion about the following questions and say why. Is learning a language more like going to history lectures or learning to drive a car? - _____________________________________________________________________ Which of the four skills (reading, writing, listening & speaking) is most important for students to develop? _____________________________________________________________________ How can you ensure students get lots of speaking practice in class? Section 1: Welcome to TEFL _____________________________________________________________________ Is listening to the teacher the most useful listening practice you can provide? _____________________________________________________________________ Do students need to learn a lot of grammar? _____________________________________________________________________ l 21
  22. 22. ! We Suggest l Speaking a language is a skill, like driving or cooking. Knowing rules doesn’t mean students can produce sentences. They need to practise as much as possible. l All skills are important. However students will have different abilities in different skills. Many students from China have had little speaking practice, so they need much more speaking practice in class; whereas, many students from Saudi Arabia are confident in speaking, so they need to work on their writing. l You can maximise speaking practice by getting students to practise in small groups. The teacher standing at the front talking to one student at a time is not efficient. l Listening to the teacher is not rich practice. It’s the same voice in the same context every time. Students need to listen to a wide range of speakers in different situations (on CDs, DVDs, the internet, etc). l Students do need to know how to put together a sentence accurately. But we need to keep grammar in perspective. For example, bad pronunciation makes someone much harder to understand than bad grammar. l Students may be interested in you. And of course you want to open up to your students to build rapport and trust. But this is not the same as spending a lot of time telling the class about you. Find out what interests your students, and choose topics with which they will engage. 2.3 If you aim to have lots of student-to-student interaction in class, what will you be doing while students are speaking in groups? Look at 1.2 in Part 3 again. How can a student-centred approach reduce your anxiety? ! We Suggest l ‘Monitor’ students (i.e. move around the class and listen to students) as they practise. Give students space – as far as possible let them work out difficulties themselves. Don’t pounce on every error as that inhibits students. However, do give help to individual students when they ask for it. l A student-centred approach means the less time you’re out in the front under the spotlight the better! It’s not about you – it’s about the students having a go, and you’re there to assist Section 1: Welcome to TEFL and guide. l 22
  23. 23. 3 Reflection & Action 3.1 Choose from this list what you would like to happen in your class. students role play in pairs (e.g. shop assistant and customer) the teacher tells the class about his/her likes and dislikes students play interactive speaking games students do life-like tasks they need in their jobs students read out one sentence of a text in turn the teacher lectures about grammar students discuss topics in small groups one student at a time stands out in the front and talks for three minutes about a topic students work out grammar rules together in pairs A teacher of a student-centred class would choose the activities that involve meaningful student- student interaction: role-plays, speaking games, life-like tasks, small-group discussion and students working out rules themselves. 3.2 Do you think you could make those things happen if you walked into a class today? If not, what knowledge, skills or resources would you need? _____________________________________________________________________ - _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Section 1: Welcome to TEFL 3.3 Go and see a real class run by an experienced teacher! You can ask at a local English school or search for ‘TEFL classroom’ on www.youtube.com. Explore the link(s) over leaf to find out more about teaching methods and lesson plans. l 23
  24. 24. = SUMMARY l Students need to practise l Move around the room and help students l Choose material that will interest your students E KEY RESOURCES For an overview of communicative approaches to teaching: http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/knowledge-wiki/communicative-approach See what TEFL-Travellers have to say! ‘ I was traveling through Laos last summer as part of an around the world trip. When I arrived in central Laos to work at an organic farm, I was told about a building that was constructed to teach the local villagers. They had no transportation to the school in the nearby town and the children from the four villages received schooling only when someone was available. The farmer asked if I would be ‘ Larry Shorthell from the USA interested and I started that evening. Section 1: Welcome to TEFL l 24
  25. 25. 4 Types Of English Teaching ‘ See what TEFL-Travellers have to say! I’m in France for two years with my husband (for his job) and am teaching English to business people, part-time. I’m doing mostly telephone lessons and some face to face work. Telephone lessons are popular with business people as they don’t have to leave their work-place and are good practice for conducting business on the phone. Before coming to France I worked as a Health Visitor (a sort of community nurse) for more than twenty years and really wanted a ‘ Jackie Podmore from the UK change of career. Teaching English is great fun, although a huge challenge for me; I’d like to continue with it when we get back to the UK if possible. ? DID YOU KNOW? l English is the international language of business, science, technology, diplomacy and aviation l At a time when learning English was a fashionable pastime in some countries, it was called TENOR – ‘Teaching English for No Obvious Reason’ 1 First Thoughts Let’s consider first of all why so many people are learning English. 1.1 Brainstorm all the reasons you can think of why people learn English. - Section 1: Welcome to TEFL compulsory at school better future opportunities jobs in tourism business purposes l 25
  26. 26. 1.2 Which, do you think, are the main reasons? - _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ 2 The Facts 2.1 There are numerous branches of TEFL teaching, outlined below. General English An English class with no specific goal except to raise students’ English level (however, consider that each student will have particular goals – to travel, to write emails, to emigrate, etc). Many students study General English at lower levels and then specialise later. Young Learners Children (generally refers to primary age). Tutoring One-on-one or small group. Volunteering Teaching for no nominal payment. EAP EAP is a pre-university course that takes students to the level they need for (English for their degree. It often involves study skills as well as language. Some schools Academic offer specialised streams (e.g. business, art and design) depending on the Purposes) student’s future course. Test Preparation A course to help students pass or attain the score they need in an English test. Two important tests for university admission are IELTS (in the UK, Australia and New Zealand) and TOEFL (in the US). EOP General workplace English relevant to a range of jobs. (English for Occupational Purposes) ESP Specialised workplace English such as ‘English for Engineering’ or ‘English for IT’. (English for Specific Purposes) Section 1: Welcome to TEFL Business English English for business students or businesspeople. Business English can be seen as a branch of EAP or ESP, but it’s so enormous it’s usually seen as a category of its own. l 26
  27. 27. The terms may differ from school to school and country to country – for example, ‘English for Occupational Purposes’ might be called ‘English for the Workplace’, ‘English for Work’, ‘Workplace English’ etc. 2.2 What do you think? Choose a or b as your answer to each of the following: The most English spoken every day is between: - a native speakers and non-native speakers b non-native speakers and non-native speakers Most learners of English want to: a use English for a practical purpose b sound like native speakers Most learners of English: a don’t know what they need to learn b are very aware of what they need to learn ! We Suggest l The most English spoken every day is between (b) non-native speakers and non-native speakers. For example, Korean and Japanese businesspeople and Russian pilots and Chinese air traffic controllers use English to communicate with each other. l Most learners of English want to (a) use English for a practical purpose. Since English is just a tool, the ideal of sounding like a native speaker is irrelevant to most learners. The ‘native speaker’ as an ideal is dead and buried. l Most learners of English (b) are very aware of what they need to learn. Students know why they need English – whether it’s to pass an exam, do business, fly a plane, or work in a joint-venture mining company. Our aim is to help students develop specific language for their real-life goals. - Section 1: Welcome to TEFL 2.3 Do you agree or disagree with these statements? Agree Disagree You have to be an engineer to teach engineering English. Teaching small classes is easier than large classes. Teaching business is more serious so there will be less interaction. Teaching young learners is tiring. l 27
  28. 28. ! We Suggest l No. Obviously the students are the experts, and, in fact, they don’t want you to teach them about the subject matter (studies have shown this). They want you to help with language they need for work. So choose topics, types of written texts, dialogues etc. that are relevant to their field. Ask your students to show you examples of what they need to read and write, and to tell you the words they need to pronounce (however it helps if you have an interest in the subject matter e.g. don’t teach English for accounting if you hate maths!). l It depends. If you organise lots of small-group work, it really makes no difference whether you have a class of 10 or 30. Teaching one-on-one can be really hard work – it’s a good idea to tutor two students at once so they can practise with each other. l No. Just choose interaction patterns that are relevant to their work – e.g. salesperson and client, socialising at a function, presenting their company. l It depends! Young learners need a lot of different short activities or they get bored. If you’re energetic and love children, it can be extremely rewarding, and the day flies! 3 Reflection & Action 3.1 What areas of English could you teach? Choose three that appeal to you. Consider developing a niche – it’s very marketable. General English (lower levels) General English (higher levels) English for Young Learners Tutoring Tertiary Students Tutoring Businesspeople English for Business English for Academic Purposes English for Aviation English for IT English for Finance English for Science & Technology English for Nursing English for Engineering English for Hospitality Section 1: Welcome to TEFL Retail English Military English 3.2 Go to a specialist TEFL bookseller. Look at the resources you can buy to teach specialised areas of English. You’ll be amazed at the range and quality, and how easy it is to teach without background knowledge in the subject matter. l 28
  29. 29. = SUMMARY l Most learners have a clear real-life purpose for learning English l We should find out what that purpose is, and focus our teaching on it E KEY RESOURCES For an overview of English for Specific Purposes: http://www.usingenglish.com/teachers/articles/teaching-english-for-specific-purposes-esp.html Links for teaching young learners: http://www.ihes.com/bcn/tt/yl-sites.html Section 1: Welcome to TEFL l 29
  30. 30. Section 2 Qualifications Introduction Do You Need A Qualification? 1 Gain a better understanding about qualification requirements to teach English as a foreign language. 2 Qualifications Demystified Compare the different courses and qualifications available and find out which one is right for you. Section 2 : Qualifications l 30
  31. 31. Introduction to Section 2 1 What Do You Think? What are your initial thoughts about getting a TEFL qualification? Tick the statements with which you agree. - A qualification will help me teach with confidence and know-how I don’t need a qualification due to the high demand for English teachers overseas I could get a better ELT (English Language Teaching) job with a qualification I need a qualification to teach in certain countries I speak English, so I can teach English I’d rather do a course online than face-to face Write down any thoughts you have about getting TEFL qualified: _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Section 2 : Qualifications _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ l 31
  32. 32. 2 Qualifications – The Facts It is true that you can jump on a plane today with no TEFL qualification and get a job in a lot of countries. But just consider the below: Learning to Teach l A course shows you how to teach effectively (for your students’ benefit and your own peace of mind) l Face-to-face TEFL training usually gives you the opportunity to practise teaching and receive helpful feedback – increasing your confidence in the classroom Finding Quality Job Opportunities l Having a qualification puts you in a stronger position to get the best jobs possible l Many schools ask for a TEFL qualification l A course is a great opportunity for networking and finding your job abroad Visa Regulations l Some countries require a TEFL qualification to teach (and even a certain type) and/or a degree – see Section 7 Types of Courses l A basic TEFL qualification (not higher) is the standard for entering the profession l There are many online and face-to-face options l Courses range in length from 20 to 160 hours Section 2 : Qualifications l 32
  33. 33. 1 Do You Need A Qualification? ‘ See what TEFL-Travellers have to say! I worked mainly in a private school in Hanoi. Some of the children were real trouble and wouldn’t listen, but once you asserted your authority they were eager to learn and to impress, especially when you had stickers! The TEFL ‘ taught me the basics but even if you don’t remember that, it all comes back to you, and the real training is in the classroom when you’re up at a board with 30/40 faces looking up at you! Elizabeth Cox from the UK ? DID YOU KNOW? l There’s a huge demand for English Language Teachers, even without a TEFL certificate l Different countries have different requirements l Some countries require a bachelor’s degree (in any field) rather than a TEFL certificate 1 First Thoughts Here are the typical options available for an entry-level TEFL qualification. 1.1 But before we move further, let’s explore your initial thoughts. Make sure you consider your current budget and time constraints when answering. What would increase your potential in the TEFL world? No course - Section 2 : Qualifications A book on how to teach English for £30/US$50 A 20 hour face-to-face course for £300/US$500 A 60 hour online course for £300/US$500 A 120 hour combined online & face-to-face course for £600/US$1000 A full-time four-week course where you practise teaching real students for £1500/US$2600 l 33
  34. 34. 1.2 What kinds of questions would you want to ask before you signed up for a course? - Is the qualification recognised internationally? _______________________________________________________________________? _______________________________________________________________________? _______________________________________________________________________? _______________________________________________________________________? 2 The Facts Here are the general qualification requirements worldwide. 2.1 You’ll see in many regions a TEFL certificate is ‘preferred’ – so it may get you more (and better!) opportunities. However, many employers asking for ‘TEFL/TESOL qualifications’ (as it’s usually phrased) will still employ people without one. Region General Requirements North Asia Degree required; TEFL certificate preferred South-East Asia TEFL certificate preferred Western & Mediterranean Europe Degree & EU passport/working holiday visa required Central & Eastern Europe TEFL certificate preferred Central & South America TEFL certificate preferred Middle East Degree required Subcontinent Degree & TEFL certificate required Africa EFL certificate preferred English-Speaking Countries Degree & CELTA/Trinity CertTESOL required (see Part 2) There is variation within each region, of course - we look in detail at individual countries in Section 7. 2.2 Do you think the following statements are true or false? - Section 2 : Qualifications Requirements for volunteering are different from paid work Different teaching experience or qualifications may be seen as equivalent to a TEFL qualification All schools and teachers obey the law l 34
  35. 35. ! We Suggest l There are not many requirements for volunteering (usually), so the decision to do a course is solely about your desire to develop your classroom skills before you start teaching. l In countries where a TEFL qualification is ‘preferred’, you can certainly aim to sell your qualifications as equivalent, and any teaching experience will be valued. However English- speaking countries are strict about the qualifications they require. l As you’d expect, no. For better or worse, the field is market-driven. Wherever demand for English is high, there are teachers working without the required qualifications and work visa and being paid cash-in-hand. This is a dangerous thing to do – teachers risk being exploited and getting caught. If you’re caught in the EU, for example, you will be deported and probably never get another visa to that country again. We know a certificate can make finding work easier. But there are of course professional benefits from studying a TEFL course. 2.3 Which of these experiences would make a course seem worthwhile to you? I became more confident about my grammar. We practised teaching lessons to the other tutees in the course. I now feel confident walking into a classroom, as I know We learnt how to teach exactly what to do. engaging lessons. I now have 17 colleagues I will stay in touch with. We taught lessons to real English students. Section 2 : Qualifications We learnt how to teach beginners. The next part will tell you what individual courses will bring you and which courses will fulfill your needs. l 35
  36. 36. 3 Reflection & Action 3.1 Think back to your dream destination in Section 1. Do you think you have the required qualifications for that country? If not, will you: l Change your destination? l Consider studying? 3.2 Your TEFL Assessment Tick the statements that are true for you. - I already know people teaching who can help me find work I’ve already been offered a job I’ve done tutoring I’m a very experienced teacher I feel confident about teaching I’m a confident person I’ve studied a language to a fairly high level I’m not planning to teach in an English-speaking country SCORES 4-8 If you ticked 4 – 8 boxes, you’re probably ready to go straight away! Perhaps consider a TEFL course along the way. 0-3 If you ticked 0 – 3 boxes, you’d probably benefit from a course before you go. A course will give you a feel for the TEFL industry, help develop your classroom skills, and give you the chance to make some valuable contacts. = SUMMARY l Employers like teachers to have a TEFL qualification, but it is often not essential Section 2 : Qualifications l Consider a TEFL course for the professional benefits it will bring you E KEY RESOURCES Overviews of, and opinions regarding,TEFL certificates: http://www.tefl.net/teacher-training/faq.htm http://www.eslbase.com/courses/ l 36
  37. 37. 2 Qualifications Demystified See what TEFL-Travellers have to say! ‘ I took the TEFL class on line just for fun and because our church offered an English class to Hispanic people who had moved to the area. I thought that by taking the class, I could improve my own English and be better able to assist with the class. Less than one week after completing the TEFL class online and receiving my certificate, I received a call from our church denomination’s National Foreign Missions Board chairperson, asking if I might be interested in going to Taiwan for two weeks to help with an English camp there. Because I Julie Tipton from the USA. had a part time job and was pretty tied down, any thing long term was out, so I saw this as a perfect opportunity to practise what I had just learned! I said “yes”, and soon was on a plane to Taiwan! I spent two weeks as one of two Americans on a team of twenty native Taiwanese who were planning an English camp to a remote fishing village in southwestern Taiwan. I had a blast and found the Taiwanese extremely friendly, helpful, and ‘ very motivated to learn English. ? DID YOU KNOW? l The qualification you need to start teaching is a certificate – you don’t need a diploma or master’s degree Section 2 : Qualifications l There are hundreds of face-to-face and online certificate courses, but only a few are well-recognised l TEFL, TESOL, ESOL, EFL and ESL are not names of qualifications – they are fields of teaching l 37
  38. 38. 1 First Thoughts Have you heard of different TEFL course types or providers? What do you know about them? 1.1 Make some notes. Qualification Details - _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2 The Facts 2.1 Here are some of the options available: Online Courses l Courses are generally 20-100 hours l Input covers language analysis & teaching methodology l Often optional specialised modules available (e.g. business English, teaching children) l Better courses incorporate videos of real classes and interaction with a tutor Short Face-to-Face Courses l Courses are generally 20-40 hours in person l Input covers language analysis & teaching methodology l Better courses incorporate peer-teaching with tutor feedback Cambridge CELTA (Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults) & Trinity CertTESOL l 4 weeks full-time in person (sometimes part-time is offered) Section 2 : Qualifications l Around 60 hours of input (language analysis & teaching methodology) l 6 hours of teaching real students with tutor feedback l 6-8 hours of observing experienced teachers l Written assignments It’s worth remembering that a lot of courses are offered worldwide. So you can do a course in Moscow, Barcelona or Shanghai – a great way to check out a new lifestyle and look for work as you travel. l 38
  39. 39. 2.2 What do you believe are the advantages and disadvantages of each course type? Pros Cons - Online Courses Short Face-to-Face Courses CELTA/Trinity Courses ! We Suggest: Online Courses Pros Cons l Some online courses are high quality l Some providers are not well- l Flexible recognised – choose carefully l Inexpensive l No personal contact with TEFL teachers or other students l No teaching practice Short Face-to-Face Courses Pros Cons l Some short courses are top quality l Content can be superficial training and recognised worldwide l Not much attention to language l Get a feel for the industry – meet analysis TEFL teachers and other students l No teaching practice with real l Can be a fun learning experience students l May include peer-teaching practice l A quick way to get qualified CELTA/Trinity Courses Section 2 : Qualifications Pros Cons l High prestige l Very intensive l Can use it to teach in English- l Can be stressful speaking countries (with a degree) l Inflexible delivery model l Audited – universally high-standard l Expensive l Practical content l Teaching real students and getting feedback l 39
  40. 40. See what TEFL-Travellers have to say! ‘ I had several interviews with schools around Seoul. I began to teach kindergarten and elementary kids. It was very daunting at first, but I remembered what I had learned in my TEFL course and after a few weeks it became so much fun that I hardly felt like I was working at all; I felt as though I was getting paid to have a great time. I enjoyed it so much I spent three years in Seoul, and I’m still teaching but this ‘ time I’m in the Czech Republic. Daniel Deacon from the UK Many prospective teachers ask, ‘But really which is the best course to do?’ It’s honestly hard to answer – it depends on your personal needs and teaching plans. Competition is stiff, and all of the well-known courses, whether online or face-to-face, provide useful content. Nevertheless, CELTA and Trinity are still the best known and most highly regarded. They are just about the only certificate courses that will allow you to teach in an English-speaking country, primarily because they are over 100 hours, and they include six hours of observed and assessed teaching. However, they are quite expensive and stressful, so be certain about your TEFL plans before committing your time and money to this course. You can always start with a less demanding option and teach for a while to see what it’s like. If you really enjoy it and want to stay in the field, you can then consider a CELTA or Trinity course. 3 Reflection & Action 3.1 Which courses will you now explore? _______________________________________________________________________ - _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 3.2 Google the reviews of the courses you are interested in. See what people who have done the courses think. Section 2 : Qualifications = SUMMARY l There is a wide range of certificate courses, online and face-to-face, ranging from 20 to 160 hours l Cambridge and Trinity CertTESOL are the most prestigious, and the only certificates that allow you to teach in English-speaking countries l 40
  41. 41. E KEY RESOURCES For an overview of certificate courses: http://www.esljobs.com/tefl-certificate-programs-overview.htm Cambridge CELTA: http://www.cambridgeesol.org/exams/teaching-awards/celta.html Trinity CertTESOL: http://www.trinitycollege.co.uk/site/?id=201 i-to-i: http://www.onlinetefl.com TEFL Worldwide: http://www.teflworldwideprague.com/ See what TEFL-Travellers have to say! ‘ My TEFL course gave me the skills I needed to be confident in the classroom. Since coming back to the UK I have continued to teach EFL and am now involved in running a ‘ language school! Amanda Gillies from Scotland Section 2 : Qualifications l 41
  42. 42. Section 3 Finding Good Work Introduction 1 Do You Need A Qualification? With hundreds of TEFL job sites on the internet, find out exactly where to start with your job search and how to identify the better opportunities available to you. 2 Job Placement Services & Agents Understand all the benefits and possible risks involved in using a third party to find your job abroad. 3 Networking Discover how to develop international networks with both teachers and schools. 4 Conditions How do you know if a job is good? What should you look for in a job advert or contract? What should you ask? Find out all the answers to these key questions. Section 3: Finding Good Work l 42
  43. 43. Introduction to Section 3 1 How Do People Find Work? Reflect on how you or people you know have found work. Circle the items below (or add your own). - Through A Friend Newspaper Job Advert Family Notice In A Window Agency Internet Job Post 2 Finding Good TEFL Work – The Situation The principles for finding any sort of work are the same. So in order to find your TEFL job, you can: l Use the internet l Visit schools l Use an agency or job placement service l Start networking Section 3: Finding Good Work The only challenge with TEFL work is that the jobs are in another country! This section will suggest some ways of becoming an effective international job seeker. By the end of this section you should feel excited by the incredible range of opportunities, and have developed the skills to proceed wisely. l 43
  44. 44. 1 The Internet ‘ See what TEFL-Travellers have to say! I took the TEFL course ... My wife and I decided to move to Hong Kong. I searched for a job online. I struck some luck and within that same week I had landed myself a teaching post in a center teaching ages from 4-12. ... I managed to strike a perfect schedule working seven days a week, I think the TEFL ‘ certificate played a large part in landing myself with a job as a teacher, because it is highly regarded by schools and centers. As long as you’re a native English speaker and Ben Casey from the UK have a TEFL qualification then you can get a job quite easily! ? DID YOU KNOW? l There are thousands of jobs advertised on the internet on any given day l There are five main types of positions advertised l Adverts are usually upfront about conditions 1 First Thoughts 1.1 Google “TEFL Jobs” and choose three websites to explore. l Site What do you like/dislike about each of the websites? Enter your findings in the chart below. I liked … I didn’t like … - Section 3: Finding Good Work www.esljobs.com Easy to navigate; Not so many jobs spells out job details clearly Find a job that looks exciting to you on each site. l 44
  45. 45. 2 The Facts 2.1 There are five basic types of positions: Types of Positions Examples Government Schools e.g. ‘Hangzhou No. 14 Middle School’, ‘Lompok Elementary School’ While government schools advertise directly, some countries such as Japan, South Korea and Taiwan have centralised government-funded schemes to allocate teachers to schools Universities/Colleges e.g. ‘King Saud University’, ‘Sichuan Engineering Vocational College’ Small Private Schools These schools have eccentric names like ‘Joy English College’ or ‘Banana School’ Private Chain Schools Private Chain Schools have branches in many cities and countries. You’ll see many ads for organisations such as EF (English First), IH (International House), Shane, Wall Street, Berlitz, Language Link, etc Volunteering Development projects, working with migrants, underprivileged communities and refugees 2.2 Go back to the three websites you looked at. Find examples of these different types of positions. 2.3 What do you notice about typical contracts and conditions? Make some notes. Types of Positions Conditions - Government Schools Universities/Colleges Small Private Schools Private Chain Schools Volunteering Section 3: Finding Good Work ! We Suggest: l Conditions vary greatly between countries, and between city and rural areas within one country. l Contracts at government schools and colleges, as you’d expect, coincide with semesters. In developing countries, they are usually not able to offer high salaries but may offer free accommodation. l 45
  46. 46. l Private schools, especially the chain schools, may offer considerably higher pay than government schools. Contract periods vary but they tend to want you to stay as long as possible and may offer incentives, such as an end-of-contract bonus. l Volunteering, of course, takes commitment. While you may, in fact, need to pay to be a volunteer, the rewards (in terms of learning, achievement and contribution) can be huge. 2.4 You would have noticed that there are hundreds of job websites. Here are the top three sites recommended by TEFL teachers as the perfect starting point. Site Details www.eslcafe.com l The biggest TEFL job site l Searchable teacher forums where you can get inside information on schools l Site posts helpful warnings about less reputable schools www.tefl.com l Fewer positions listed, but they’re generally high quality l Excellent database search engine l Country cost guide www.transitionsabroad.com l Links to country-specific job sites l Detailed country-specific information – e.g. typical jobs, conditions, visa regulations, tax etc We will also be looking at country-specific websites in Section 7. 3 Reflection & Action 3.1 Use the three websites recommended and find five jobs that you would love to have. Bookmark them – we will be looking at them later in this section. = SUMMARY l Start with some of the larger ‘tried and tested’ websites E KEY RESOURCES Section 3: Finding Good Work Recommended job sites: www.eslcafe.com www.tefl.com www.onlinetefl.com/tefl-jobs-abroad/ Country information: www.transitionsabroad.com l 46
  47. 47. 2 Job Placements & Agents ‘ See what TEFL-Travellers have to say! I travelled to Lopburi, Thailand on a paid teaching placement. I wouldn’t have felt comfortable travelling alone to a new country and culture without the back up that I received from i-to-i. The staff made the whole experience so easy, advising ‘ me on everything from vaccines to visas, and knowing there was always someone available at the end of the phone. Shelly Whelan from Ireland ? DID YOU KNOW? l There are job placement services and agents who will offer to help with contacting schools, organising paperwork, and supporting you in-country l Thanks to the internet, it’s very easy to make direct contact with schools, rather than going through a middle person 1 First Thoughts Out of Persons A, B and C, which one are you most like? Section 3: Finding Good Work The internet job ads look I’m going to jump on I’m a bit nervous about fine, so I’ll give them a a plane and find a job finding a job on my own. shot on my own. when I’m already abroad. Person A Person B Person C If you’re most like Person C, you should consider the facts overleaf. l 47
  48. 48. 2 The Facts Keep your wits about you. Do you believe that a person or organisation, acting on commission, is going to look after you? Always be suspicious of agencies that charge advance fees and operate exclusively by email. 2.1 Before you sign up, ask yourself whether job placement services or agents meet the following criteria: I can actually speak with them - They have a good reputation Conditions are spelt out clearly The conditions are better than jobs I can apply for independently There are clear benefits in using their service – e.g. they have an in-country representative who will support me in an emergency If you have doubts about any of the above, perhaps reconsider using their services. 2.2 You’ll notice many agents or ‘consulting firms’ advertising on the job websites, offering to arrange work for you in schools. Why do you think many make statements like the below: Reputable & Reliable Recruiter Trust us to find you a good job ! We Suggest: l There are reputable agents and disreputable agents. Section 3: Finding Good Work l There are many critical stories about agents on teacher forums (e.g. withholding pay, disappearing). l Consider carefully – is there a need to go through one when you can contact schools directly? What value do they add? l Agents receive a signing commission that can be as much as one month’s salary and often a percentage for every hour you work. This will often mean the jobs they arrange have lower rates of pay. l 48