George Boole and Truth


Published on

ICT Project by John Williams

Published in: Technology, Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

George Boole and Truth

  1. 1. John Martin WilliamsTable of Contents PageGeorge Boole picture 2Wall plaque 2George Boole’s timeline table 2George Boole’s personal history 2&3Boole family tree 3George Boole’s family history 3Boolean logic laws 4Moore’s Law 4Transistors on a microchip table 4Transistors on a microchip graph 4Truth tables 5Logic gate diagrams 5AND and OR Gates explained 6Acknowledgements 6 Page 1 of 6 17/08/11
  2. 2. John Martin WilliamsThe Unsung HeroIf you ask who George Boole was, most people would have no idea. Not only the operationof computers, but all today’s electronic devices that use logic chips (CPUs, Control units,ROM, RAM etc) depend on “Boolean (pronounced bOOlē-un) algebra” to function. GeorgeBoole is best known as the originator of Boolean algebra.George Boole Timeline DateBorn 2 November 1815Became Bread winner 1831Royal Society Gold Medal November 1844Boolean Law Developed 1854Married 1855Made Dean of Cork College (later Cork University) 1857Died (Pneumonia) 8 December 1864George was born at 34 Silver Street, Lincoln, the eldest of five children, his father JohnBoole was a cobbler. Though they were comparatively poor, John had a fine mind, with aninterest in science and mathematics in which he encouraged his son George. John wantedGeorge to have a practical education and together they built telescopes, cameras andsundials, as well as studying academic subjects including mathematics. There is a storythat they attempted to build a calculating machine, though how much truth there is in thisI can’t say.Like his father John Boole, George showed a prodigious intelligence at an early age. Thefamily was too poor to send George to grammar school where fees were charged, so he wasenrolled in Mr Bainbridge’s academy where of course he excelled and was soon assisting inlessons. Boole was linguistically gifted, he learned Greek and Latin at an early age and alittle later Italian, German and French; having a background in the classics he consideredjoining the clergy. Page 2 of 6 17/08/11
  3. 3. John Martin WilliamsIn 1831 John Boole’s business failed and George became the family bread winner. Hebegan working as an assistant teacher at Mr Heigham’s school in Doncaster. It was at thistime that George changed his focus from the classics to mathematics. At first heconcentrated on natural philosophy (applied mathematics) he later said that the reason forhis change to pure (theoretical) mathematics was due to the sale of his friend WilliamBlake’s library which he had free access to. George was required to buy his own books andconsidered maths books better value as they were generally thicker and took longer toread. George was an amateur in the best sense of the word, as he studied the subject purelyfor the love of it.George never attended university or gained a degree, but later in life was made Professorof logic and mathematics at Cork University in 18517 he was made Dean of the College.George continued his research and writing alongside his teaching for the rest of his life.In 1855 George married the then Mary Everest (pronounced E as in evil) the niece of SirGeorge Everest after whom the great mountain was misnamed in 1855. They were blessedwith five girls?George Boole Family Tree George Mary Boole Everest MargaretMary Boole Alicia Boole Lucy Boole Ethel Boole BooleEthel Lillian Boole became a novelist, she moved to Russia, while working as a governessfor the widow of the chamberlain of to the Tsar. Ethel met him and said they took aninstant dislike to each other. On seeing the poverty and injustice there, Ethel became arevolutionary. Toward the end of 1890 she met Wilfred Michael Voynich and after whatcan only be described as the plot from a mystery/romance thriller (please Ctrl click on thelink below for their full story) they lived as man and wife from 1890 before marrying in1902. Boole’s nephew also called George had a position as mining engineer at theTreharris mine in south Wales. He married Kate Eliza Thomas in Cardiff andhoneymooned in Ilfracoombe.Alicia Boole studied chemistry with the idea of becoming a chemist dispenser but ended upas a lecturer in chemistry. It is believed she was the first female professor of chemistry atThe Royal Free Hospital, London.George’s Boolean logic laws were developed in 1854; he published a paper with the catchytitle “Laws of Thought”, which was founded on a previous paper entitled “Mathematical Page 3 of 6 17/08/11
  4. 4. John Martin WilliamsTheories of Logic and Probabilities”. George’s influence on the world of mathematics wasmuch wider then in the field of electronics he made it possible to convert words and lettersinto numerical form for example E=MC2 which belongs to Albert Einstein.To illustrate this you can Ctrl click the link below for a short video if you don’t mind theadvert. and Logic GatesLogic gates need transistors to function; the amount of transistors on a chip has increasedimmensely.Gordon Moore (co-founder of Intel) stated in 1965 that the number of transistors put on amicrochip had doubled every year and in his opinion would hold true for the next tenyears; this has broadly held true to the present day and has become known as “Moore’s. Transistors on a chip Clock speed: ghz = Gigahertz Number of Date Name of Processor Trasistors Mar-91 486 1 200000 Mar-94 Pentium 3200000 Jun-95 Pentium 3300000 Aug-98 Pentium 2 7500000 Aug-99 Pentium 3 9500000 Jan-00 Pentium 3 28000000 Apr-01 Pentium 4 42000000 Jun-02 Pentium 4 55000000 Jul-06 Core 2 Duo 253000000 Nov-06 Core 2 Extreme QX6700 582000000 Number of Trasistors 700000000 600000000 500000000 400000000 Number of Trasistors 300000000 200000000 100000000 0 Pentium Pentium Extreme Pentium Pentium Pentium Pentium Pentium Core 2 486 Core 2 Duo 2 3 3 4 4 M M Jun- A A Jan- A Jun- Jul- N ar- ar- 95 ug- ug- 00 pr- 02 06 ov- Page 4 of 6 17/08/11
  5. 5. John Martin WilliamsLogic GatesTo access the video on logic gates in the link below please press the Ctrl key while clickingon the link below are various truth Tables that compliment the YouTube video.AND Gate Table AND Gate Diagram 2 Input AND Gate A B A.B 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1AND gates give out high output if all inputs are high, the [dot] in A.B is important as it isBoolean notation.OR Gate Table OR Gate Diagram 2 Input OR gate A B A+B 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1OR gates give high output if one or more inputs are high, the [+] in A+B is important it isBoolean notation.Not Gate Not Gate Diagram NOT Gate A -A 0 1 1 0NOT gates invert or reverses other gates in other words an AND becomes a NAND (notAND) and an OR becomes a NOR (not OR). Page 5 of 6 17/08/11
  6. 6. John Martin WilliamsThe differences between AND and OR gates might seem small but they are vital inchannelling the correct signals within a microchip. I have only mentioned AND, OR andNOT gates here but there are others, using them in combination enables modernelectronics to function. The main limitation is the physical size of the logic gates that canbe fitted on the microchip.For a more in depth description please Ctrl click on the link below. our purposes I have concentrated on his impact on electronics, we must rememberthat in his lifetime electricity was considered little more than a parlour game. So not only ishe an unsung hero but an accidental one because electronics probably wasn’t even atheory.George’s death was something of a tragic affair; he was caught in a downpour and becamedelirious. His wife who adhered to the strange but quite common belief that a moreextreme version of what made you ill would cure you. She is supposed to have thrownbuckets of ice cold water over him, after this treatment his daughter said he was leftshivering between the wet sheets. He suffered for three weeks, after which poor Georgedied.We can eulogise people like Tim Berners-Lee, Bill Gates, Steve Job and even Alan Turing,but without Mr George Boole, they could just be shelf stackers at Wal-Mart or Tesco’s. Ofcourse I am joking these are great men in their own right. But if the saying about standingon the shoulders of giants is true George Boole was definitely a giant.Acknowledgements • The plaque (photo on page 1) is on George Boole’s house in Cork, Eire • On Boole by Dale Jacquette. • Boole family history by Kevin Boole Australia. • • • Page 6 of 6 17/08/11