Research Presentation Utrecht


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The extended (a nice way to say too long) ppt I presented at the International Phd School on Economic Geography - Utrecht Uni.

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Research Presentation Utrecht

  1. 1. The Role of Innovation Intermediaries in Regional Innovation SystemsA Comparative Analysis Between Emilia-Romagna and Baden-WurttembergVer. 4.0<br />Andrea Cocchi - Doctoral Researcher<br />Newcastle University Business School<br />International PhD Course on <br />Economic Geography, <br />Utrecht, 21-24 Sep. 2010<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />2<br />Background<br />Issue: Innovation Intermediaries in evolution<br />Unit of Analysis<br />Unit of Observation<br />Research Presentation<br />Research Consistency<br />Research Questions<br />Interpretative Model<br />Problems to be addressed<br />
  3. 3. Background : The PlaygroundRegional Innovation Systems (RIS):<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />3<br />RIS have been represented and analyzed according to different logics<br />Bottom Up vs. Top Down (Howells, 99)<br />Governance Models for Technology Transfer (Braczyk et al., 98)<br />Taxonomies for Knowledge Base (Asheim et al., 2007)<br />Main Territorial Problems (i.e. distressed, rust belts, new knowledge) (Todling, Trippl, 2005)<br />Notwithstanding their “conceptual diffuseness”, RIS are used to design, deliver, evaluate, analyse and define regional innovation dynamics<br />
  4. 4. … and New Players<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />4<br />Universities: actors committed to generation and diffusion of scientific knowledge their roles (and expectations) are evolving rapidly. <br />Clusters: peculiar form of industrial organization based on the concept of proximity. Their role is to shape the demand for knowledge and address the investments.<br />Innovation Platforms: specialized in coordinating the demand for specific technologies.<br /><ul><li>Innovation Intermediaries: “An organization or body that acts an agent or broker in any aspect of the innovation process between two or more parties.” (Howells, 2006).</li></li></ul><li>What’s the point?VAN LENTE, H., HEKKERT, M., SMITS, R. & VAN WAVEREN, B. (2003) Roles of Systemic Intermediaries in Transition Processes. International Journal of Innovation Management, 7, 3 <br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />5<br />
  5. 5. There is a Need to Study Innovation Intermediaries?<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />6<br />Innovation is a distributed, non linear, process based on mutual learning. <br />Proximity and space are important elements of the regional (localized) innovation process.<br />Innovation Intermediaries are an emergent typology of actors providing knowledge based services.<br />
  6. 6. Diversity of Actors in IntermediationSource: VILJAMAA, et. Al. (2010) For and against? An exploration of inadvertent influences of policies on KIBS industries in the Finnish policy setting. The Service Industries Journal, 30, 71-84<br />
  7. 7. Innovation Intermediaries as aNew Actor<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />8<br /><ul><li>Different Definitions: Brokers, Gate-keepers, Boundary Organizations, Bridging Organizations, Bricoleurs, Reseacrh&Technology Organizations … Intermediaries</li></ul>General Aim: generation, use, and diffusion of new and economically useful knowledge<br />Observations<br />Defined by their position in networks (formal, informal): Essentialist perspective<br />Networks and Social Capital Studies: Component of Territorial/Technological Ecologies <br />Defined by their activities: Functionalist perspective<br />Business and Innovation studies: Actors in a System – aiming at address specific problems <br />
  8. 8. Evolution of Innovation Intermediaries?Institutions of Technological Infrastructures (ITI)(source Koschatzky and Stahlecker, (2010)The emergence of new modes of R&D services in Germany. The Service Industries Journal, 30, 685 – 700.<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />9<br />General Function: Provide R&D services<br />A) knowledge-intensive service firms (heterogeneous)<br />B) research- and innovation-oriented organizations (more institutionalized: RTOs, C-RTOs , ITIs)<br />Common Nature: subgroup of Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS) (cf. Strambach, 2001)<br />Observation 1: the division of labour in R&D services diminishes<br />Observation 2: this implies flexibility of resources (adaptation, change ... )<br />
  9. 9. Unit of Analysis: Institutions of Technological Infrastructures (ITI)<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />10<br />From the available literature:<br />Institutional Form: Public Private Partnerships<br /><ul><li>Shareholders: Mixed (Universities, Businesses, local and regional constituencies)
  10. 10. Stakeholders: Composite and Dynamic (local traditional/technological districts as well as Big Firms)
  11. 11. Governance model: agreed by shareholders
  12. 12. Remits: coordination, design and delivery of technology transfer activities
  13. 13. Source of revenues: Mixed (projects and public tutelage) </li></li></ul><li>How to study Intermediaries?Innovation Intermediaries as KIBS<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />11<br />Knowledge Intensive Business Services <br />services that involved economic activities which are intended to result in the creation, accumulation or dissemination of knowledge” (Miles et al., 1995). <br />Innovation Intermediaries as KIBS because:<br />they rely heavily on professional knowledge;<br />they can be source, user or carrier of knowledge and innovation;<br />the innovation process is defined by the relationship aimed at solve a specific problem;<br />their activity is mainly aimed at increase the competitiveness of firms, institutions and regions at large.<br />
  14. 14. Unit of Observation<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />12<br />Functions, organizational settings and tasks (ideal model)<br />Organizational routines: Activities, and processes (real model) <br />Human Capital: scholarity levels, technologies managed, mobility and affiliations<br />Systems of relationships developed: territory; sector or technology; typologies of organizations<br />Performances and outcomes obtained (comparing different perspectives: policy maker, managers and clients) – Gaps and Reinforcements<br />
  15. 15. Aim<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />13<br />Aim: of this research is to define the role of specific I.I. according to an evolutionary perspective<br />Propositions: <br />If division of labour in R&D services is diminishing, this evolution can be captured profiting from a actor-oriented perspective (and not subject oriented).<br />If this evolution leads toward a more flexible Intermediary, the analysis of Functions, Routines (activities) and systems of Relationship should be implemented (contextualized perspective).<br />Hypothesis: this emerging role should be explained by the emergence of institutional, organizational and professional paths. <br />
  16. 16. Research Rationale<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />14<br />Object of this research is to study the role and functioning of a specific actor - Innovation Intermediaries (I.I.) - in a Regional Innovation System.<br />Focus is on the organizational, strategic and relational aspects: activities, functions, networks and technologies (object perspective)<br />Main Research question: how can the emerging role be defined in a RIS?<br />Tentative Hypothesis: we have to look for the dynamics of Innovation Intermediaries. And then looking at their role in RIS. <br />
  17. 17. Research Design<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />15<br /><ul><li>Research Method: comparison between “critical case studies” (Emilia-Romagna and Baden-Wurttemberg ):</li></ul>Proved tradition in innovation and industrial policies<br />Well defined and sizeable Regional Innovation System<br />Defined industrial specialisation<br />Formulation and delivery of congruent innovation policies<br />Presence of Innovation Intermediaries <br /><ul><li>Critical Case Studies ?</li></ul>if happens here so this could be a new possible variety in a RIS (Micro to Meso level)<br />
  18. 18. Research Consistency<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />16<br />
  19. 19. Research Questions<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />17<br />Overarching Research Question: How can the role of Innovation Intermediaries in the regional innovation system be defined? <br />Sub Research Question 1: How does the regional policy mix impinges on Intermediaries’ strategy? <br />According to which rationale Innovation intermediaries are defined and used by regional innovation policy? <br />How does the policy mix impinges on innovation intermediaries’ strategy and behaviour? <br />How intermediaries’ activities and functions are evaluated, by in terms of quality, expectations and outcomes? <br />
  20. 20. Research Questions<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />18<br />Sub Research Question 2: What is the nature of the relationship between Intermediaries and regional innovation system?<br />Which kinds of services do Intermediaries provide? <br />How these services are provided? <br />How the client firm interact with the intermediaries? (cnf. KIBS literature)<br />Sub Research Question 3: How the intermediation activity is organised?<br />How the policy mix is exploited by I.I. management?<br />How the value proposition is created? <br />What are the actors involved? <br />How the clients are targeted and selected? <br />
  21. 21. Focus on Routines<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />19<br />
  22. 22. An Interpretative ModelSource: Zahra, Sapienza, Daviddson (2006)<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />20<br />Subtantive<br />Capabilities<br />Resources Skills<br />Performances<br />Dynamic Capabilities<br />Entrepreneurial Activity<br />Org. Knowledge<br />Learning Process<br />
  23. 23. Focus on Capabilities<br />Categories <br />(problem setting)<br />Processes <br />(problem solving)<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />21<br />Ability to perform basic functional activities<br />Perform dynamic improvements<br />Ability to recognise the value of other resources or develop strategies<br />Learning to learn capabilities <br />Reconfiguration: of available resources in specific processes<br />Transformation: replacing processes inside the organisation<br />Learning: outcome of experimentation<br />Creative integration: development of new resources <br />
  24. 24. Problems to be addressed<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />22<br />Undecided between routines and capabilities (even if capabilities are defined as routines): tricky field <br /><ul><li>Problem of self fulfilling prophecy : regarding the validity of findings
  25. 25. Distance between theoretical framework (IS and Evolutionary studies) and Intermediaries: appreciative theorizing normally implies quantitative and not experimental analysis
  26. 26. Definition of the level of “granularity”: where I have to stop digging? </li></li></ul><li>References<br />Andrea Cocchi - Newcastle University<br />23<br />Asheim, B. T. (2007): Differentiated Knowledge Bases and Varieties of Regional Innovation Systems. Innovation – The European Journal of Social Science Research, 20 (3), pp. 223-241 <br />Braczyk et al., (1998) Regional innovation systems: the role of governance in a globalized world. London and Pennsylvania: UCL <br />Howells J., (1999) Regional System of Innovation?, In Archibugi, D.Howells, J.Michie, J. (Eds), Innovation Policy in a Global Economy, Cambridge University Press<br />Howells, J. (2006) Intermediation and the role of intermediaries in innovation, Research Policy, 35(5), pp 715–28.<br />Koschatzky and Stahlecker, (2010) The emergence of new modes of R&D services in Germany. The Service Industries Journal, No.30, pp. 685 – 700. <br />Lumpkin, Dess (1996) Clarifying the Entrepreneurial Orientation Construct and Linking It to Performance , The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 21, No. 1, (Jan., 1996), pp. 135-172<br />Strambach S. (2001) Innovation processes and the role of knowledge-intensive business services. In: Koschatzky K, Zulicke M, Zenker A, (Eds) Innovation networks: concepts and challenges in the European perspectives. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag; 2001.<br />Todling, Trippl, (2005), ‘One size fits all? Towards a differentiated regional innovation policy approach’, Research Policy, Vol. 34, pp.1203-19.<br />van Lente, et Al. (2003) Roles of Systemic Intermediaries in Transition Processes. International Journal of Innovation Management, 7,3<br />VILJAMAA, et. Al. (2010) For and against? An exploration of inadvertent influences of policies on KIBS industries in the Finnish policy setting. The Service Industries Journal, 30, pp. 71-84<br />Zahra, Sapienza, Daviddson (2006) “Entrepreneurship and Dynamic Capabilities: A Review, Model and Research Agenda”, Journal of Management Studies, Vol 43, No. 4<br />