Diversity Of Cell Life

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chapter 7 section 4 notes

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Diversity Of Cell Life

  1. 1. Diversity of Cell Life Chapter 7 Section 4 Pp 190-193
  2. 2. All living things…. <ul><li>Composed of cell(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Same basic chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Same organelles </li></ul><ul><li>Follow same genetic code </li></ul><ul><li>But are all living things the same? </li></ul>
  3. 3. NO! <ul><li>Differences come from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ways cells are specialized to do certain jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Way cells work with other cells to make a multicellular organism </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Unicellular <ul><li>Make up most life on earth </li></ul><ul><li>When a cell IS the organism </li></ul><ul><li>Single-celled/ unicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Do everything living thing does: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respond to stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transform energy </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Yeast
  6. 6. Volvox aureus
  7. 7. Leptospira interrogans
  8. 8. Multicellular Organism <ul><li>Organism made up of many cells </li></ul><ul><li>Variety </li></ul><ul><li>Depend on 2 major things about cells: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell Specialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process in which cells throughout an organism perform different tasks </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Specialized Animal Cells <ul><li>Many specializations, for example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red Blood cells (rbc): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized to transport oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RBC have protein that binds to oxy in the lungs are carries it all over the body </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><ul><li>Muscle cells: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized in movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What oragnelle is going to be big and important in these cells? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cytoskeleton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of the protein actin and myosin </li></ul></ul></ul>Specialized Animal Cells
  11. 13. <ul><ul><li>Liver cells: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized in detoxification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have lots of what organelle? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth ER </li></ul></ul></ul>Specialized Animal Cells
  12. 15. <ul><ul><li>Pancreas cells: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized in making proteins (enzymes) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes enzyme that are needed by digestive system to break down food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What three organelles are pancreatic cells loaded with (if their main function is making proteins)? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ribosomes. Rough ER, Golgi Apparatus </li></ul></ul></ul>Specialized Animal Cells
  13. 17. Specialized Plant cells <ul><li>Lots of chemical activity all the time </li></ul><ul><li>Exchanges carbon dioxide, water vapor, oxygen, and other gases through tiny pores called…? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STOMATA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found underside of leaves </li></ul></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>Guard Cells: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly specialized cells that regulate process of gas exchange at the stomatas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They monitor plants internal conditions and regulate stomata accordingly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If plant needs gas exchange, what will happen to the stomata? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>open </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 20. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Makes it easier to describe cells in a multicellular organism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells- basic unit of living things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissues- group of similar cells that perform a specific function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organs- group of tissues working together to perform a specific function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organ systems- group of organs that work together to perform a specific function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ORGANISM </li></ul></ul>
  16. 23. Osmotic Pressure <ul><li>Pressure exerted by osmosis on the HYPERTONIC side of a semi-permeable membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause serious problems for cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell is full of sugar, salts, proteins, molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inside of cell is Hypertonic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osmotic pressure should make fresh water go…? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In or Out? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell will become inflated/swollen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much  cell will burst like a balloon </li></ul></ul>
  17. 24. Why don’t all our cells burst? <ul><li>What are our cells (animal) contained in? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh water? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No…..blood or other fluids, which are ISOTONIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The conc. Of sugars, salts, proteins and molecules in these fluids is the same as the conc. in the cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Bacteria and plant cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They DO come in contact with fresh water…what do they have PROTECTING them? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CELL WALL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent cells from expanding even when there’s a lot of osmotic pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But, cell walls are prone to injuries when there is too much osmotic pressure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 26. <ul><li>Which is a RBC in isotonic solution? </li></ul><ul><li>RBC in hypertonic solution? </li></ul><ul><li>RBC in hypotonic solution? </li></ul>
  19. 28. Study for Chapter 7 Test!!!

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