“Government by a little group of leaders. Incontrast to totalitarian regimes, authoritarianregimes have no distinct state ideology andgrant some amount of freedom (e.g.economic and cultural) as long as their ruleis not jeopardized. The most important goalof authoritarian regimes is the maintenanceof power and the personal enrichment oncost of the country and its population.”http://www.democracy-building.info/definition-democracy.html
A political system that deniespopular participation ingovernmentA political system that deniescitizens the right to participate ingovernment.Different to people’s needs andlacks the legal means to removeleaders from officeProvides people with little or noway even to voice theiropinions
CharacteristicsMay respondharshly if people tryto involvethemselves intopolitics.Allow people relativefreedom in the are ofreligion, cultural life,economic affairs.Limited by theirability and desire toexert control overcitizen.Operate within theframework of aconstitution or legalsystem.
characteristicsThe views of leader may betolerated and supported by fear.Conservative.A passive and active citizenry.Avoiding mobilizing popularsupport.Strong militaries and politicalparties take control over people.
How many AuthoritarianismGovernments exist in the world today?By using the Democracy Index from 2008 created by theEconomist:• There are more 51 countries• Example of countries;AfghanistanEgyptIranGermanySingaporeCubaBrazilNorth Korea ItalyChinaSingapore practices soft authoritarianism (thestate forbids smoking in public, bans eating onthe subway, imposes stiff fines for littering, andoutlawed the sales of chewing gum)
The function of AuthoritarianismBy: Syafiqah Kamaruddin
Definition of Authoritarianism• Authoritarianism is a form of socialorganization characterized by submissionto authority.• It is opposed to individualism and democracy.• In politics, an authoritarian government is onein which political power is concentrated ina leader or leaders, typically unelected, whopossess exclusive, unaccountable, and arbitrarypower.
The functions:– To rule the country using rule of men, not rule of law.– Rigged elections– All important political decisions made by unelectedofficials behind closed doors.– A bureaucracy operated quite independently of rules,the supervision of elected officials, or concerns of theconstituencies they purportedly serve.– The informal and unregulated exercise of political power.
The leaders of Authoritarianism1. Hugo Chávez (Venezuela)2. Paul Kagame (Rwanda)3. Hosni Mubarak (Egypt)4. Kim Jong Il (North Korea)5. Alyaksandr Lukashenka (Belarus)6. Mswati III (Swaziland)7. Robert Mugabe (Zimbabwe)8. Vladimir Putin (Russia)9. Muammar-al-Gaddafi (Libya)10. Than Shwe (Myanmar)
1. Hugo Chávez• President of Venezuela and he has ruled thecountry from 1999 – 2009.• He’s palled around with MahmoudAhmadinejad of Iran and Fidel Castro of Cuba inhis attempt to lead an anti-American coalition.• He launched an aggressive program tostifle dissent, arresting key politicalopponents, closing dozens of oppositionradio stations, and moving to closeGlobovisión.
2. Paul Kagame• President of Rwanda and he rules the country from2000 until now.• He is still a hero to many, helping to rescue hiscountry from the genocide that it had suffered in1994.
• There were some of the issues that accusedKagame, such as he had ordered the rocket attackthat caused the 1994 plane crash that killed JuvénalHabyarimana.• In the most recent election, in 2010, someopposition media outlets were repressed, andseveral individuals, including an independentjournalist and an opposition party leader, weremurdered.• Kagame vowed that neither he nor his regime wereinvolved in the killings.
3. Hosni Mubarak• Former president of Egypt.• He has ruled the country from 1981 – 2011.• The last pharaoh of Egypt.• He being cast aside in 18 days of protest.
4. Kim Jong Il• President of North Korea, the ailing dictatorwho took over for his late father, Kim Il-Sung theeternal president of North Korea.• He rules the country from 1994 until now.• He is son Kim Jong-Eunis who is his youngapprentice and dictator inwaiting.
5.Alyaksandr Lukashenka• President of Belarus and he rules the country from1993 until now.• He had persuaded voters to approve a newconstitution that gave him sweeping additionalpowers, including the right to prolong his term inoffice, to rule by decree, and to appoint one-third ofthe upper house of parliament.
6. Mswati III• His late father was King Sobhuza II, who died in1982 and he started to rules the country when hewas 18 and the coronation was held on April 25,1986.• His rule was autocratic and rife with corruption andexcess.• He has more than a dozen wivesand some more two dozen ofchildren.
7. Robert Mugabe• President of Zimbabwe and he rules the countryfrom 1980 until now.• Election in 2008 had made the oppositionMovement for Democratic Change, led by MorganTsvangirai won but Mugabe implied that he wouldnot give up power if he lost.• “I will never, never, never surrender.Zimbabwe is mine, I am a Zimbabwean.Zimbabwe for Zimbabweans.”
8. Vladimir Putin• President of Russia and now as the country’s primeminister when Dmitry Medvedev won the March2008 presidential election by a landslide, Putinannounced that he had accepted the position ofchairman of the United Russia party.• He had been the president from 2000-2008.
9. Muammar al-Gaddafi• President of Libya and he rules the country from1969 until now.• Protests against the rule of Muammar Gaddafibegan in February 2011 in the eastern Libyan city ofBenghazi.• The regime of Colonel MuammarGaddafi terrorised, oppressed anddivided the Libyan people.• Gaddafi said he wanted to“cleanse Libya house by house”. Using regimesecurity forces, he started doing just that.
• A notable exception is International Criminal Court(ICC) prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo, who Mondayannounced an arrest warrant for Gaddafi, his son Saifal-Islam and Libyan intelligence chief Abdullah al-Senussi.• The revolt against Gaddafis 42-year rule has made onlysluggish progress since NATO-led nations startedbombing three months ago, rebels are moving closer toTripoli and based in the Western Mountains regionsouthwest of the capital they made their biggestbreakthrough in weeks Sunday to reach the town of Biral-Ghanam, where they are now fighting pro-Gaddafiforces for control.
10. Than Shwe• President of Myanmar and ruled as head of amilitary junta since 1992.• He’s perhaps most famous for his curtailment of thefreedoms of Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung SanSuu Kyi, who has spent much of the past twodecades under house arrest, and for a brutalsuppression of the Saffron Revolution in 2007,when Buddhist monks led tens of thousands ofprotesters against the government’s decision toraise the price of gasoline and diesel fuel.
• In last year’s election, he oversaw the drafting oflaws that prohibited Aung San Suu Kyi fromstanding for election he divide and rule strategyworked, as her party promptly split, with somecalling for an election boycott.• He also ordered the building of a new capital, NayPyi Taw, erected from nothing in the middle of thejungle, to replace Yangon.• In addition to holding fakeelections, he’s also said tohave awarded himselfmedalsto wear on his chest.
TOTALITARIANISMTotalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a politicalsystem where the state recognizes no limits to itsauthority and strives to regulate every aspect of publicand private life wherever feasible.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Totalitarianisma system of highly centralized government in which onepolitical party or group takes control and grants neitherrecognition nor tolerance to other political groups.http://www.thefreedictionary.com/totalitarianism
ELEMENTS OFTOTALITARIANISMSinglepartyOrganisedterrorMonopoly ofcommunicationsControlledeconomyAll-powerfulleaderPseudo-democratic rule
Single Party•Totalitarianism imposes a singlemass political party that penetratesall aspects of state and society;•This disciplined party, which iscontrolled from above, coordinatesall sectors of society;•Real opposition is never tolerated.
Organised terror•Totalitarian rule is supported by the terroristicactivities of a special political police;•The Nazi Gestapo and the Soviet KGB were twosuch forces.•Political police report directly to the leader and isunder no legal restraint;•It may use intimidation, arbitrary arrest, tortureand execution
Monopoly of communications•Totalitarian state seeks to monopolize the flow ofideas•Means that the physical bases of communication– newspapers, radio stations, publishing houses –are either owned or completely controlled by thestate.•The purpose of control over communications is tosupport an official ideology;•In totalitarian states, political doctrine amountsto an official religion.
Controlled economy•Totalitarian state aspires to control a plannedeconomy•Public ownership, as in communism, or statesupervision of private enterprise, as in NaziGermany or fascist Italy;•A controlled economy is vital to the totalitarianstate;•Individual interests and goals (which are part of aliberal economy) must be subordinated to theimposed goal of social transformation.
All-Powerful Leader•Totalitarian regimes are characterized byan all-powerful, charismatic leader, butthe regime may endure after the death ofthis leader.•The loss of charismatic authority,however, tends to release demands fordemocratic reform.
Pseudo-Democratic Rule•The leader and party maintain their power byforce but rationalise their rule with pseudo-democratic arguments•Elections are often held, but the party oftennominates or approves all the candidates.•Other forms of political participation, such asmeetings, discussion groups, parades anddemonstrations take place, but are strictlycontrolled by the party.
• Subordinates all aspects of its citizens lives to theauthority of the state, with a single charismatic leader asthe ultimate authority.• Supplanting(replacing) of all political institutions and allold legal and social traditions with new ones to meet thestates needs, which are usually highly focused.http://www.answers.com/topic/totalitarianism• Control a variety of specialised functions that canbecome independent, nonpolitical centres of power• As a recruiting ground for the politicalcommissars(officers in the communist party especially inthe Soviet Union) in the army.• Nazis in the last period of their rule moved to partifytheir army
• Present in the sponsored organisations.Sponsored organisations that have been takenover:-trade unions-cooperatives-professionals-interest groupswww.docstoc.com/docs/18672932/psychological-functions-of-culture-in-totalitarian-and-post
• Totalitarian-Ego biases functions to preserveorganisation in cognitive structure(connectedwith mental processes of understanding).Ego’s cognitive biases are ego-centricity(selfthe focus of knowledge)http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/class/Psy394U/Bower/09%20Stereo,%20Social%20Mem/The%20Totalitarian%20Ego.pdf