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thesis in English

  1. 1. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado EFFECTIVENESS OF CLOZE – TEST AS INTEGRATIVE ASSESSMENT IN READING COMPREHENSION AT LAGUNA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY SAN PABLO CITY CAMPUS ACADEMIC YEAR 2012-2013 For more details call the authors: 09103240206 & 09297447542 A Research Paper Presented to the Faculty of the College of Teacher Education Laguna State Polytechnic University San Pablo City Campus San Pablo City In Partial of Fulfillment Of the Requirements in Methods of Research for the Degree Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in English CARIE JUSTINE P. ESTRELLADO & MARILYN ATIENZA MENDOZANo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  2. 2. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado October 2012 Republic of the Philippines LAGUNA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY San Pablo City Campus San Pablo City COLLEGE OF TEACHER EDUCATION Approval Sheet The Thesis entitled, ―EFFECTIVENESS OF CLOZE TEST AS INTEGRATIVEASSESSMENT IN READING COMPREHENSION AT LAGUNA STATEPOLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY ACADEMIC YEAR 2012 - 2013‖ is prepared andsubmitted by Marilyn A. Mendoza and CJPE in partial of fulfillment of the requirementsfor the degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education, Major in English, has been examinedand is recommended for acceptance and approval for oral examination. NELIA T. SALVADOR, Ed.D. Adviser PANEL OF EXAMINERS Approved by the Committee on Oral Examination with a rating of __1.77__. NELIA T. SALVADOR, Ed.D. ChairmanARNOLD ABAD C. TENORIO, M.D. ANGELA L. REGINALDO Subject Specialist StatisticianRUBY B. BRION, Ph.D. NERISSA Y. BILO, M.A.T. Technical Editor English Critic ELSA C. CALLO, Ed.D. Dean, College of Teacher EducationNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  3. 3. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. EstrelladoDate:___________Research Contribution no.__________ Acknowledgment The researcher would like to extend her deepest appreciation to those who havehelped and supported her throughout the conduct of the study: Daniel, her son who gave her the inspiration to continue despite life‘s difficulty; Prof. Nelia T. Salvador, Ed.D., her adviser for the guidance, fondness andconcern, without her this study would not be possible; Ms. Angela Reginaldo, Ms. Ruby Brion, Ms. Nerissa Bilo and Mr. Arnold AbadTenorio who gave her support in finishing this research; To all the respondents who were very cooperative in giving information needed inthe conduct of this research; Carrie Justine ‗ISPOY‘ Estrellado for his effort and unsolicited ideas that heshared; Friends, for providing support and concern in the best way they can; and Almighty God who gave her strength and knowledge to be able to accomplish thisrequirement.No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  4. 4. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado Dedication To her: Parents; Sister, Myla; Husband, Dennis & Affectionate son, Daniel Thank you for the Love, Memories, Time and Values - M.A. Mendoza ABSTRACTNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  5. 5. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado This study aims to know the effectiveness of cloze – test as integrativeassessment in reading comprehension at Laguna State Polytechnic University, San PabloCity Campus, Academic Year, 2012-2013. 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 1.1 Age; 1.2 Gender; and 1.3 Grade point in english subject? 2. What is the level of perception of the following assessment – related variables as perceive by the respondents: 2.1 Controllability; 2.2 Reliability and validity; and 2.3 Usability? 3. What is the mean score of the respondents in Cloze – test? 4. Is there a significant relationship between the assessment related factors and the mean score in Cloze – test? 5. Is the grade point average in English is significantly related to the result of Cloze – test mean score? This study used the descriptive type of research in determining the effectivenessof Cloze Test in measuring reading comprehension as a subject in secondary level. Thepossible solutions obtained through a questionnaire as well as interviews and observationNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  6. 6. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrelladomade by the researcher. This study used of the third year students in Laguna StatePolytechnic University as its respondents, the main source of data. The instrument usedwas a collaboration of information based on Crystal, David (2004). ContextualConstraints in Cloze Test. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53032-6.Some of its modifications were undertaken to adapt on the research problem and scope ofthe study.Findings Majority of the respondents are in age 15y/o with a frequency and percentage oftwenty (20) or 69%; seventeen (17) or 56.62% are female students; ten (10) or 34% of thegrade point average of 3rd year students lie between 87 – 89. All of the assessment – related variables such as Controllability (mean = 4.32),Reliability & Validity (mean = 4.53), and Usability (mean = 4.32) and interpreted as‗Strongly Agree‘. The Cloze test result has a frequency of two – hundred twenty one (221) and has amean of 0.28 which is overall interpreted as ‗Fair‘. The assessment related variables such as Controllability, Reliability and Validityand Usability are all ‗Significant‘ to result of Cloze test. Grade Point Average of the 3rd year students are ‗Not significant‘ to the result ofCloze test having a p value of 0.0676.No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  7. 7. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. EstrelladoConclusion Based on the findings posited in the study the following are hereby concluded: 1. The hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between the assessment related factors and their mean score in Cloze – test is ‗Rejected‘. 2. The hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between grade point average in English and their result of Cloze – test is ‗Accepted‘.Recommendations Based on the findings and conclusions made in the study, the followingrecommendations are hereby presented: 1. Institutions may provide proper and concrete assessment procedure since the manner of determining the complex ability of a child starts from the institution strongly claimed by Greene (2001) may endow materials such as Audio media since the respondents has low frequency rate in cloze test and specially provide good environmental atmosphere for learners. 2. For the concern of students‘ improvement, teachers may suit the interest particularly those specializing in Communication arts so that they will encourage students to study more. 3. Since the assessment – related variables are significant to the result of cloze test it is associated that parents are vital provocative when it comes to their children in assessing academics according to colloquium experts (International CognitiveNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  8. 8. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado studies Association, 2001) have been mentioned as one of the recommendations, to wit: ―Parents are direct response indicator for their young and influentially provide such learners‘ needs to gave interest; help them (children) to develop journal or diary and reading factual references in English; schedule periodic parent – teacher meetings so that parents can discern their progress; enforce rules frequently to limit them to play and provide a pleasant climate so that when they go to school predicaments is partially reduced in view of the fact also in assessment in academics‖. 4. Researchers must supplement more various factors that will help contribute to the proper assessment in English subject. 5. Finally, there is a need for more researches and case studies about effectiveness of cloze test so that implications can be drawn and adopted on a wider basis for the learners‘ needs.No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  9. 9. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado TABLE OF CONTENTS PageTITLE PAGE ................................................................................................................iAPPROVAL SHEET ....................................................................................................iiACKNOWLEDGMENT...............................................................................................iiiDEDICATION ..............................................................................................................ivABSTRACT ..................................................................................................................vNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  10. 10. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. EstrelladoTABLE OF CONTENTS ..............................................................................................ixLIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................xiLIST OF FIGURE.........................................................................................................xiiChapter I. THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction ...........................................................................................1 Background of the Study ......................................................................3 Statement of the Problem ......................................................................6 Significance of the Study ......................................................................7 Scope and Limitation of the Study........................................................7 Theoretical Framework .........................................................................8 Conceptual Framework .........................................................................10 Hypotheses ............................................................................................11 Definition of Terms...............................................................................12 II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES Related Literature..................................................................................13 Related Studies......................................................................................19 III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design....................................................................................24 Respondents of the study ......................................................................24 Research Instrument..............................................................................25No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  11. 11. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado Statistical Treatment of Data ................................................................25 IV . PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA ...........................................................28 – 38 V. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary of Findings ............................................................................39 Conclusion ............................................................................................42 Recommendations .................................................................................43BIBLIOGRAPHY .........................................................................................................44APPENDICES ..............................................................................................................46CURRICULUM VITAE ...............................................................................................56 List of TablesTable Title Page 1. Distribution of Respondents According to Age ...................................................28 2. Distribution of Respondents According to Gender ..............................................29No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  12. 12. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado 3. Distribution of Respondents According to Grade Point Average ........................29 4. Respondents‘ Perception on Controllability As a Factor of Integrative Assessment .................................................................30 5. Respondents‘ Perception on Reliability and Validity As a Factor of Integrative Assessment.................................................................31 6. Respondents‘ Perception on Usability As a Factor of Integrative Assessment.................................................................32 7. Distribution of Results in Cloze Test ...................................................................34 8. Correlation between Assessment – related Variables And Cloze Test .....................................................................................................36 9. Correlation between Grade Point Average in English And Cloze Test ....................................................................................................37 List of FigureFigure Title Page 1. Research Paradigm ........................................................................................11No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  13. 13. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado Chapter I The Problem and Its BackgroundIntroductionNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  14. 14. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado The cloze procedure is considered by many as an integrative method ofassessment, in contrast with discrete point methods, The Cloze procedure deals withseveral linguistic components at once, focusing more on language use, and typicallyrequiring the examinees to read and comprehend a substantial amount of discourse. Muchresearch has been devoted to the validity and the reliability of Cloze tests. Cloze tests arereported to have moderate to high correlations with standardized tests and their subtestssuch as listening comprehension and reading comprehension. The report on highcorrelations between Cloze tests and International Journal of Human and Social Sciencestests of listening comprehension, writing, reading comprehension, and oral interview. Thefindings of these researchers reveal a relation between the scores on Cloze and globallanguage ability tests. As for C-test, since its inception in 1981, its principles have been applied to morethan 20 languages. C-tests have been used in numerous contexts and for various purposes.C-tests, then, figure prominently in the fields of language testing and assessment. C-tests, like the classic Cloze test, are an operationalization principle of reduced test.Although there are weaknesses in the reliability of cloze procedure, it is widely used inEnglish teaching. As Legenza and Elijah (2001) point out, many studies have beenconducted on cloze procedure concerning the construction of cloze tests, the relationshipbetween cloze and reading comprehension, and the usefulness of cloze as a teachingtechnique. Cloze procedure has been used in English teaching in accordance tocommunication subject for decades since 1953. It was firstly used as an instrument forassessing the readability of written materials for school children in the United States(Brown, 2002). Then it was used in teaching for different purposes.No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  15. 15. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado Cloze procedure is not only valuable in providing information as to how readablethe particular texts are for the students who are going to have to use them, but alsoinvaluable as a means of comparing different text. Cloze procedure is also used fortesting purposes. It seems that a wide range of skills like vocabulary, grammar, structure,and reading skills are involved in the process of completing a cloze procedure. Manyresearchers indicate that cloze procedure is a good test of overall English languageproficiency and in History. For example, Ahluwalia (2005) claims that cloze procedure isan integrative, global measure of language competence. She explains that cloze testsmeasure the grammar of expectancy underlying the skills of thinking, understanding,speaking, reading, understanding and writing. For Cohen (2001 cited in Ahluwalia, 2005)cloze procedure measures global language competence consisting of linguisticknowledge, textual knowledge, and knowledge of the world. As it calls on examinee touse knowledge such as vocabulary, grammar, sentence construction, text structure,cohesion and the reader‘s prior background knowledge. Askes (2002) regards cloze procedure as one of the integrative tests (global tests)that integrate language components into a total language event, which requires anintegrated performance from the learner in a meaningful context. Thus for Steinman(2002), a cloze can replace the sections on test structure, written expression, vocabulary,and reading comprehension not only in English subject as well as different areas oflearning. The reason behind giving a Cloze test and obtaining a test score is interpretingthat score as an indicator of what a test taker knows or what he/she can do with thatNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  16. 16. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrelladoknowledge. Furthermore, our interpretation of that test score forms the basis for decisionmaking. As such, when using a test score, we make an implicit link between testperformance and a domain of language knowledge the test taker has or something the testtaker can do with language in some language use domain beyond the test itself. In otherwords, when we use test scores, we are essentially reasoning from evidence, using thetest score as the evidence for inferences or interpretations and decisions we want to make.Yet, we cannot simply draw on test score to make inferences and decisions withoutefficient justification. If we want to use a test score for a particular purpose, we mustjustify it through a rationale and supporting evidence. As Bachman (2005) puts it, "Weneed to demonstrate, with logical argumentation and empirical evidence, that theintended interpretations and uses are valid." Validity in testing and assessment hastraditionally been understood to mean "discovering whether a test measures accuratelywhat it is intended to measure", or uncovering the "appropriateness of a given test or anyof its component parts as a measure of what it is purposed to measure".Background of the Study Cheng (1999) claims that the term ‗cloze procedure‘ was first developed byWilson Taylor in 1953. He explains that the term cloze derived from the Gestaltpsychology concept of ‗closure‘. It describes a tendency that humans have to complete afamiliar but not-quite-finished pattern. Ellis (2004) further explain that it refers to thetendency of individuals to complete a pattern once they have grasped its overallsignificance. Rye (1982) explains that Cloze procedure is essentially a cognitive task. Thereader has to reason and construct suggestions to fill the gap on the basis of the evidenceNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  17. 17. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrelladoderived from the context the completion of meaning, based on understanding andreasoning is a cognitive task. Brown (2002) claims that it is not difficult to get people totake a cloze test because of the compulsive human need to fill gaps. Clarke (2001) was the first to study cloze procedure for its effectiveness as aninstrument for determining the readability of materials in the reader‘s native language in1953. After that initial study, it was investigated for its appropriateness as a measure ofreadability of L1 and L2 materials. In the 1960s, studies focused on cloze tests as ameasurement of reading comprehension in L1 and L2. During the 1970s, cloze testsbegan to be used as a measurement of overall L2 proficiency (Ahluwalia, 1992:82).Today, cloze tests are widely used in some places (such as China) and as part of somelarge-scale language. What is a cloze test? A standard cloze test is a passage with blanksof standard length replacing certain deleted words which students are required tocomplete by filling in the correct words or their equivalents. During traditional clozetesting, every fifth word is removed from a 250-500 word reading passage, and isreplaced by a standard-length blank space (Helfeldt et al, 1986:216). Usually, no word isomitted either in the first or the last sentence of the passage. Students are required tosupply either the original word of the author or an appropriate equivalent in the blankspace. Many studies show that the reliability and the validity of cloze tests are affected byfactors like the rate of deletion, nature of the text and scoring systems, etc. ‗Deletion rate‘refers to the frequency of deleting words. As Steinman (2002:293-294) explains, there aretwo options in designing a cloze test according to its deletion rate: a random cloze or arational cloze. A random cloze deletes every nth word consistently, so that all classes andtypes of words have an equal chance of being deleted. A rational cloze is the one inNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  18. 18. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrelladowhich a specific type of word is deleted according to a linguistic principle, such as nouns,verbs, adjectives, etc. Alderson (2000) cited by Yamashita (2003:269) clearly differentiates betweenthese two types of format by calling the rational cloze ‗gap-filling tests‘ and confining theterm ‗cloze‘ only to the random cloze. Ahluwalia (1992:83-84) states that differentdeletion rates would result in either increasing the difficulty of the text or inunpredictable differences in the difficulty. Another factor that would affect the reliabilityand the validity of the cloze is the nature of the text. The nature of the text such as itsfamiliarity level and difficulty level would improve or hamper cloze performance(Ahluwalia, 1992:86-88). However, Alderson (1980, 1983 cited in Ahluwalia, 1992:86) and Yamashita(2003:286-287) argue that cloze test performance is not directly related to the difficultylevel of the text; it involves other factors such as scoring procedures, and contentfamiliarity for the readers. Different scoring methods include: exact word method,multiple-choice scoring method and contextually acceptable word method. 16‗Exactword method‘ requires the examinee to provide the original word deleted from the textwhile ‗contextually acceptable word method‘ allows for the words that fit the gap eitherto be synonyms of the deleted.Statement of the Problem This study aims to know the effectiveness of cloze – test as integrativeassessment in reading comprehension at Laguna State Polytechnic University, San PabloCity Campus, Academic Year, 2012-2013.No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  19. 19. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado 6. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 6.1 Age; 6.2 Gender; and 6.3 Grade point in english subject? 7. What is the level of perception of the following assessment – related variables as perceive by the respondents: 7.1 Controllability; 7.2 Reliability and validity; and 7.3 Usability? 8. What is the mean score of the respondents in Cloze – test? 9. Is there a significant relationship between the assessment - related factors and their mean score in Cloze – test mean score? 10. Is the grade point average in English is significantly related to the result of Cloze – test mean score?Scope and Limitations This study focused on the effectiveness of cloze test in measuring performancerelated to English subject.No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  20. 20. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado It is limited only to twenty - nine (29) respondents of the third year students whoare enrolled in Academic Year 2012-2013 at Laguna State Polytechnic University – SanPablo City Campus, they were purposively selected. In this study, the researcher used instruments such as survey questionnaireintended for students and 25 items for measuring their performance using Cloze type oftest which served as the main instrument of the study.Significance of the Study The study will be significant to the following: Teachers and instructors especially for those specializing English, for it willbenefit them in a way of identifying the factors underlying proper assessment; Students, for it will help them to improve and be competent in studying Englishand provoke their interest. Parents, to furnish and give aid for their children an interest to learn thecomplexities of motivating a child in reading; And finally, for researchers, for it will help them gain satisfaction for knowingsome insights about the given problem and develop research skills to be more productivein the field that they had chosen to belong in the future.Theoretical framework Cloze technique, developed by Taylor (1952), is firstly designed as a tool formeasuring readability of texts, and now it has been used widely as an exercise or testNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  21. 21. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrelladomethod in foreign language teaching and testing. ―It works on the principle of closure andanticipation, in that the reader is required to reconstruct systematically mutilated passage‖(Hofman, J. E. & Habib-Allah, M., 1982:276). Actually, as early as 1971, John Olleradvocated that cloze testing was an excellent integrative test. Joseph Boyle and PeterFalvey (1994) claims that cloze test is one variant of integrative tests, too. And theybelieve that ―for cloze test, it is pragmatic expectancy grammar that constitutes the traitthat reflects linguistic competence‖. In addition, many researches from 1970s to 1980s oncloze test supply people with an objective viewpoint that cloze test is a reliable and validtest method to investigate the difficulty level of the text and the test-takers‘ capability inreading comprehension. It can be used as a part of standard integrative languageproficiency testing and a subsidiary tool for language teaching. Cloze is originally called ―cloze procedure‖, whose theoretical foundation is Gestaltpsychology. Those psychologists believe that when people observe the shape of an object,they will unconsciously fill in the broken part. Such is the case in reading process. Asentence or a passage, deleted some words, is just like a broken picture. People willcomplete it unconsciously according to their comprehensive language knowledge. TheGestalt theory also claims that the more familiar with the picture the easier for people torecognize it. Expounded in language learning, the case is that the higher languageproficiency the higher ability to complete the broken passage. Besides the Gestalt theory, researchers try to use Redundancy Information theoryand Expectancy Grammar theory to explain the cloze test. In Longman Dictionary ofLanguage Teaching and Applied Linguistics, redundancy is defined as ―the degree toNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  22. 22. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrelladowhich a message contains more information than is needed for it to be understood.Languages have built-in redundancy, which means that utterances harbor moreinformation than is necessary for comprehension. And 50% of normal language is said tobe redundant‖. Li Xiaoju (2001) also approves that in cloze test, people use theredundancy information of natural language to complete the broken language. Actually,this theory is crucial for Chinese learners when learning English. The process ofaccumulating language knowledge is the process of recognizing the redundancyinformation in English language. However, the information is necessary in that it canmake the meaning of the text much more accurate, although it is regarded as more than isneeded. For Chinese students, the recognition of the redundancy information is helpfulfor them to improve their sensitivity to the English language environment and theirability to understand the inner relationship in language itself and the consistency of itsusage, which enhances the students‘ language proficiency. Therefore, the cloze testremoves some redundancy information from the completed text to examine whether test-takers obtain the capability to comprehend the broken passage and to fill in the blanks ornot. Expectancy Grammar was firstly advocated by Oller in 1976. Later Carter (1998)believes that it refers to language user‘s comprehensive language ability to use syntax,semantic and discourse knowledge. In reading process, the reader can use the ability topredict in what way the sentence will end and to what trend the text will develop. Clozetest investigates the very ability acquired by language learners through long-term learningand perception, and proficient mastering of language structure as well as basic useNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  23. 23. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrelladoprinciple of the target language. In a broken passage, according to the context and theirlanguage ability, students can predict the syntactic and semantic function of the deletedword, along with the relationship between the word and the other part within thesentence.Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework of this study is presented to give view of the work tobe done. The inputs or the independent variables are the profile of the respondent mainly3rd year high school students and their perception regarding the effectiveness of a testwhich composed of Controllability, Reliability and Validity and Usability. The process is the strategy to be used such as generating data through the use ofquestionnaire. The possible output or the dependent variable is the result or theirperformance in English by means of using Cloze Test. It is assumed to be affected by theindependent variable.ParadigmNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  24. 24. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado Independent Variables Dependent Variable I. Profile of the respondents Age Gender Cloze – Test Grade in English II. Assessment – related factors Controllability Reliability & Validity Usability Figure1. Shows the relationship between the independent variables and thedependent variable.Hypotheses 3. There is no significant relationship between the assessment related factors and the mean score in Cloze – test. 4. There is no significant relationship between grade point average in English and their result of Cloze – test.Definition of TermsNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  25. 25. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado For a better understanding of this study, the following terms areoperationally defined.Age. Refers to how old or young a particular person was.Cloze Test. Refers to integrative assessment in measuring higher cognitive task, dealswith several knowledge components at once, focusing more on cognitive language used,and typically requiring the examinees to read and comprehend having a substantialdiscourse.Controllability. It refers to the level of manipulation of effectiveness of Cloze type oftest.Gender. It refers to a particular person whether s/he is a male or a female.Grade Point Average. Refers to the recent average grade of 3rd year high school studentsduring 2012 – 2013.Reading Comprehension. Refers to intellectual capacity of the respondents regardingthe passage of History of Cat.Reliability. Refers to the consistency of Cloze test in assessing English subject.Validity. Refers to what purports to measure in a given context.No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  26. 26. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado Chapter II Review of Related Literature and Studies The chapters presents a selection of literature and studies that has abearing on present study. Most of the literature gathered comprises Cloze Testprocedure.Related Literature Cloze test has been changing and developing. According to different deletion andfill-in-blank methods, it can be mainly classified to fixed-ratio cloze, rational cloze,multiple choice cloze, C-test and banked cloze.No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  27. 27. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado Fixed-ratio cloze was proposed by Oller in 2005. It is constructed by deleting wordsaccording to a fixed pattern, either at even numbers (4, 6, 8, 10, etc.) or at odd numbers(5, 7, 9, 11, etc.). ―This procedure is intended to sample regularly various variants ofwords, some of which are governed by local grammatical constraints and wide disciplinevocabularies in sorted areas of History, Mathematics, Statistics, others of which aregoverned by long-range textual constraints‖. The advantages of this cloze variant areconvenience and high consistency, while there are also a lot of problems such as some ofthe blanks being too easy or too difficult, the broken passage sometimes arousing test-takers‘ dislike and resulting in a dilemma for testers to choose subjective or objectivescoring method, and being lack of control which possibly leads to examine the languagepoints the designer doesn‘t want to test actually. Rational cloze can also be called opencloze or gap-filling. The test developer control over the types of the words deleted suchas functional words, verbs or nouns, and thus the language traits measured. This selecteddeletion changes the random of cloze testing into objectivity and practicality. Just like infixed-ratio cloze, test-takers have to fill in the blanks in rational cloze according to theircomprehension capability. ―Rational cloze research and practice rests on the assumptionthat different cloze items can be explicitly chosen to measure different language traits‖(Chapelle & Roberta, 1990:122). The understanding advantage of rational cloze is thatthe test designer can select particular item to determine test-point. However, it isconfronted with the problem that subjective or objective scoring method, either. In order to solve the scoring problem of fixed-ratio and rational cloze, testdevelopers design multiple-choice cloze. This cloze test format requires test-takers toNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  28. 28. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrelladoselect the correct answer from the provided options. It offers four or five options to eachblank, while only one is the correct answer and the others are distracters. There are noaccepted answers which get rid of scoring controversies. Generally speaking, highreliability is the specialty of multiple-choice cloze. However, the inappropriate options orexplanation of new words will give test-takers some hints, which possibly reduce thedifficulty level and the validity of test. Therefore, multiple-choice cloze demands testdevelopers‘ enough attention and obeying some strict rules. A cloze test (also cloze deletion test) is an exercise, test, or assessment consistingof a portion of text with certain words removed (cloze text), where the participant isasked to replace the missing words. Cloze tests require the ability to understand contextand vocabulary in order to identify the correct words or type of words that belong in thedeleted passages of a text. This exercise is commonly administered for the assessment ofnative and second language learning and instruction. The word cloze is derived from closure in Gestalt theory . The exercise was firstdescribed by W.L. Taylor in 1953. Words may be deleted from the text in question either mechanically (every nthword) or selectively, depending on exactly what aspect it is intended to test for. Themethodology is the subject of an extensive academic literature; nonetheless, teacherscommonly devise ad hoc tests. A Cloze test removes certain words from a sample of your text and asks users tofill in the missing words. Your test participants must rely on the context as well as theirNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  29. 29. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrelladoprior knowledge of the subject to identify the deleted words. It‘s based on the Gestalttheory of closure—where the brain tries to fill in missing pieces—and applies it to writtentext.It looks something like this:If you want to __________ out whether your site __________ understand your content,you __________ test it with them. It looks a lot like a Mad Lib, doesn‘t it? Instead of coming up with a sentence thatsounds funny or strange or interesting, participants must guess the exact word the authorused. While Cloze tests are uncommon in the user experience field, educators have usedthem for decades to assess whether a text is appropriate for their students, particularly inEnglish-as-an-additional-language instruction.Here‘s how to do it:Take a sample of text—about 125-250 words or so.Remove every fifth word, replacing it with a blank space.Ask participants to fill in each space with the word they think was removed.Score the answers by counting the number of correct answers and dividing that by thetotal number of blanks. A score of 60% or better indicates the text is appropriate for the audience.Participants who score 40-60%, will have some difficulty understanding the original text.It‘s not a deal breaker, but it does mean that the audience may need some additional helpNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  30. 30. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrelladoto understand your content. A score of less than 40% means that the text will frustratereaders and should be rewritten. It might sound farfetched, but give this method a try before you dismiss it. In agovernment study on healthcare information readability, an expert panel categorizedhealth articles as either easy or difficult. We ran a Cloze test using those articles withparticipants—who had low to average literacy skills—and found that the results reflectedthe expert panel‘s findings. The average score for the ―easy‖ version was 60, indicatingthe article was written at an appropriate level for these readers. The average score for the―difficult‖ version was 39: too hard for this audience. Cloze tests are simple to create, administer, and score. They give you a good ideaas to whether the content is right for the intended audience. If you use Cloze tests—eitheron their own or with more traditional usability testing methods—know that it takes a lotof cognitive effort to figure out those missing words. Aim for at least 25 blanks to getgood feedback on your text; more than 50 can be very tiring.When to test Test your content at any point in your site development process. As long as youhave content to test, you can test it. Need to convince your boss to budget for contenttesting? Run it through a readability formula. Got content but no wireframes or visualdesign? Run a Cloze test to evaluate content appropriateness. Understands the contentkey to a task or workflow? Display it in context during usability testing.No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  31. 31. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. EstrelladoWhat to test You can‘t test every sentence on your site, nor do you need to. Focus on tasks thatare critical to your users and your business. For example, does your help desk get callsabout things the site should communicate? Test the content to find out if and where thesite falls short.So get to it While usability testing watches what users do, not what they say they do, contenttesting determines what users understand, not what they say they understand. Whatever your budget, timeline, and access to users, there‘s a method to testwhether your content is appropriate for the people reading it. So test! And then, eitherrest assured that your content works, or get cracking on that rewrite.A language teacher may give the following passage to students:“ Today, I went to the ________ and bought some milk and eggs. I knew it was going to rain, but I forgot to take my ________, and ended up getting wet on the way ________. ” Students would then be required to fill in the blanks with words that would bestcomplete the passage. Context in language and content terms is essential in most, if notall, cloze tests. The first blank is preceded by "the"; therefore, a noun, an adjective oran adverb must follow. However, a conjunction follows the blank; the sentence would notNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  32. 32. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrelladobe grammatically correct if anything other than a noun were in the blank. The words"milk and eggs" are important for deciding which noun to put in the blank; "supermarket"is a possible answer; depending on the student, however, the first blank could eitherbe store, supermarket, shop or market while umbrella or raincoat fit the second. The definition of success in a given cloze test varies, depending on the broadergoals behind the exercise. Assessment may depend on whether the exercise is objective(i.e. students are given a list of words to use in a cloze) or subjective (i.e. students are tofill in a cloze with words that would make a given sentence grammatically correct).“ I saw a man lay his jacket on a puddle for a woman crossing the street. I thought that was very ______. ” Given the above passage, students answers may then vary depending on theirvocabulary skills and their personal opinions. However, the placement of the blank at theend of the sentence restricts the possible words that may complete the sentence;following an adverb and finishing the sentence, the word is most likely an adjective.Romantic, chivalrous or gallant may, for example, occupy the blank, as wellas foolish or cheesy. Using those answers, a teacher may ask students to reflect on theopinions drawn from the given cloze. In addition to use in testing, cloze deletion can be used in learning, particularlylanguage learning, but also learning facts. This may be done manually – for example, bycovering sections of a text with paper, or highlighting sections of text with a highlighter,No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  33. 33. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrelladothan covering the line with a colored ruler in the complementary color (say, red ruler forgreen highlighter), so the highlighted text disappears; this is popular in Japan, forinstance. Cloze deletion can also be used as part of spaced repetition software, andthe Super Memo application features semi-automated creation of cloze tests, particularlyas part of its incremental reading feature.Related Studies The Cloze test is used primarily to determine a student‘s level of reading ability.A student is first tested for reading level; in this case the Slosson oral has previously beenadministered. After a student‘s reading level has been determined, a reading selection istaken from a book of like grade level. As is standard, every fifth word is removed andreplaced by a blank space, in this assignment there were 20 blanks in the selection. In thisassignment, as was suggested, a paragraph of text preceded the actual test material.Evaluation of the test determines a student‘s reading level; an independent reading levelindicates that the student could read the selected book on their own, instructional levelmeans that the student can read the book with assistance and frustration level means thatthe book is difficult for the student to read and is likely above the student‘s reading gradelevel. For the purposes of this assignment, the following scale was assigned forevaluation: the independent reading level is based as 50% or more of the blanks filled incorrectly, instructional level is 30% - 50% and frustration level. On Friday, October 6, 1995, I administered a Cloze test to a student namedNatalie at Stivers Middle School in Dayton, who I had administered a Slosson oral test toNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  34. 34. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrelladothe previous week. On the Slosson oral, Natalie scored in the 8th grade reading level(8.95 to be exact). Taking her Slosson score, I set out in search of a text book involvingAfrican American studies, an area she is very interested in. After much searching, Isecured the book African American History at the Wright State ERC and submitted it toFry Graph analysis (attachment 1). Taking three 100 word samples randomly from thebook I computed the approximate reading grade level of the book. Sample 1 consisted of7.3 sentences and 149 syllables, sample 2 had 9.2 sentences and 155 syllables and sample3 had 8.5 sentences and 158 syllables. The average of the samples was 8.33 sentences and154 syllables. I plotted this point on the graph, and fortunately it fell within the 8th gradereading level. I then constructed a Cloze test to be administered. The test was administered to Natalie during the 4th period in the same conferenceroom Mrs. King had selected for me to give Natalie the Slosson oral test the previousweek. I explained the test to Natalie and gave her the test to fill out (attachment 2). WhileNatalie was taking the test, I either sat down at a nearby table or walked to a nearbywindow. Natalie finished the test in about eight minutes, and I quickly compared it to mymaster copy (attachment 3). I then sat down with Natalie and asked her why she hadchosen each of her selections, the correct and incorrect ones alike. I recorded herresponses, and thanked her for helping me and she returned to class.Natalie correctly filled in 11 of the 20 blanks (55%) and placed in the independentreading level. Below is a chart of error, indicating the correct response, the responsegiven, the reason the answer was given, if there was a change in grammar and if therewas a change in the meaning of the statement. Following the chart will be a more detailedNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  35. 35. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrelladoaccount of why each incorrect answer was given for different items. I asked Natalie why she chose each of her selections, and asked her if otherwords would make sense in the context of the sentence. I did this for all 20 selections;including the ones she got right as well as the ones she got wrong. For example onselection 1, which she filled in correctly, I asked her if ‗is‘ would have worked. Shepromptly told me that everything was in the past, so ‗is‘ would be wrong. In her first mistake on the test, Natalie substituted ‗food‘ for the word‗literature‘. I asked Natalie if the word ‗literature‘ would fit better, and Natalie told methat most likely books would be together with art. On the second mistake, Natalie usedthe phrase ‗brought on‘ instead of ‗stimulated‘. I asked her about using ‗stimulated‘ and Iwas promptly asked what the word meant. The third mistake made was the substitution ofthe phrase ‗in many‘ instead of ‗of‘. When I asked Natalie about this, she read thesentence back with ‗of‘ in its place and said it didn‘t sound right. On this I really had toagree. The fourth mistake made was the usage of ‗racism‘ instead of ‗oppression‘.When I asked Natalie about this I was met with the same response I got for ‗stimulated‘:what does it mean? Natalie‘s next mistake came when she used ‗art‘ instead of ‗society‘in the selection. Again I asked her about using society in the sentence, and Natalie said itseemed right to her since art had been used before in the paragraph. Natalie‘s sixth error was in putting ‗something‘ in the selection instead of‗things‘. When I asked her about the possibility of using ‗things‘, she simply told me thatNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  36. 36. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrelladonobody used that word that way. Again, I would have to agree with her since I have heardfew people ever say ‗things new‘. The seventh mistake was the use of ‗movement‘instead of ‗Renaissance‘. As I had done several times before, I asked her about her choiceand asked if ‗Renaissance‘ would have worked. Natalie‘s response was that it wouldn‘twork because a renaissance is something really old. I could understand this reasoning,since the only time students really hear this term is in early European history. The eighth mistake made on the Cloze test was the use of the word ‗racist‘instead of ‗this‘. I really didn‘t understand this substitution, and when I asked about itNatalie said that she couldn‘t think of anything else, that she had used ‗racist‘ before inthe selection and ‗racist‘ was the only thing she could associate with New York in thecontext of the sentence. The ninth, and final, mistake Natalie made was the use of thephrase ‗period for‘ instead of ‗by‘. By this time Natalie seemed tired of all this andsimply said she couldn‘t think of any other word to use. She wanted to return to her class,so I thanked her for putting up with me and my tests and let her return to the room. From my perspective, most of Natalie‘s errors on the Cloze test could beattributed to two things: she was unfamiliar with some of the vocabulary used and thetext in some places was written in a way in which few students (or adults for that matter)speak. So, what can be done about it? If this had been an actual textbook assignment, onething that could be done is to provide the students with a list of vocabulary words they donot understand completely strongly affirmed According to most researchers in Europe.No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  37. 37. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado Chapter III Research Methodology This chapter describes how the study was conducted and the researcher used ingathering the necessary data for the completion of the study. This includes the researchdesign, the population and sampling, sampling procedure, data gathering procedure,research instrument and the statistical treatment of data.Research Design This study used the descriptive type of research in determining the effectivenessof Cloze Test in measuring reading comprehension as a subject in secondary level. Thepossible solutions obtained through a questionnaire as well as interviews and observationmade by the researcher. This study used of the third year students in Laguna StateNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  38. 38. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. EstrelladoPolytechnic University as its respondents, the main source of data. The instrument usedwas a collaboration of information based on Crystal, David (2004). ContextualConstraints in Cloze Test. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53032-6.Some of its modifications were undertaken to adapt on the research problem and scope ofthe study.Respondents of the Study This study was conducted at Laguna State Polytechnic University, San Pablo CityCampus Academic Year 2012-2013. The researcher gets a representative for 3rd year highschool department to suit the twenty - nine (29) respondents needed for the study. A purposive sampling as a sampling technique was utilized.Research Instrument The main instrument used in the study is a questionnaire which was used to knowperson related factors such as age, gender, and grade point in English during secondsemester A.Y. 2012- 2013. And an integrative assessment in reading comprehensioncomprises of twenty – five (25) items using Rational Cloze Test procedure. After readingand studying samples of questionnaire from related studies, the researcher adopted arational cloze test which based on Crystal David’s educational research: Cambridgeyear 2004. She also consulted some knowledgeable people and sees to it that there wereenough items to collect data to cover all aspects of the problem and to answer all thespecific questions under the statement of the problem.No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  39. 39. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. EstrelladoStatistical Treatment of Data The data were gathered from the respondents treated and interpreted using thestatistical tools. The following statistical analysis was coded in the study:Survey Questionnaire Age Legend: 14y/o below – 1 15y/o – 2 16y/o and above – 3 Gender Legend: Male – 1 Female – 2 Current Grade Point in English Legend: 93 and above – 1 90 – 92 – 2 87 – 89 – 3 84 – 86 – 4 81 – 83 – 5 80 and below – 6No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  40. 40. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado Cloze test Legend: correct – 1 incorrect - 0 Percentage distribution was utilized to describe the person related variables interms of, age, gender, and grade point in English. For the assessment – related factors, the researcher utilized the mean and standarddeviation using a Likert scale, 5 being the highest, denotes ‗strongly agree‘ and 1 beingthe lowest, denotes ‗strongly disagree‘. To find that if there is a relationship existing between the independent anddependent variables, Pearson Product Moment of Correlation Coefficient was used to tellhow well two sets of continuous data correlate to each other at 0.05 level of significance.No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  41. 41. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado Chapter IV Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation of Data This chapter presents the findings of the study in illustrative tables and analysis aswell as the interpretation based from the treatment of the data. Table 1 Distribution of Respondents According to Age Age Frequency Percent 14 y/o below 8 28 15y/o 20 69 16y/o and above 1 3 TOTAL 29 100 Table 1 shows the distribution of respondents according to their age, the majority of therespondents are 15y/o having twenty (20) or 69% of the total respondents.No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  42. 42. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado This implies though the inability to randomize the selection because the research haslack of features of the true experiment and based on the experimental values the respondentsare equipped subject for experimental condition since they undergone English as subject. AsDatta (2002) mentioned Cloze tests require the ability to understand context and vocabulary inorder to identify the correct words or type of words that belong in the deleted passages of atext most of the studies underlies puberty period. This exercise is commonly administered forthe assessment of knowledge and second language complex learning and instruction. Table 2 Distribution of Respondents According to Gender Gender Frequency Percent Male 12 41.38 Female 17 56.62 TOTAL 29 100 Table 2 clearly shows that female outnumbered the male having a frequency of 17 or56.62% and the male has 12 frequency or 41.38%. This implies that more female are subjectedin the study. Table 3 Distribution of Respondents According to Grade Point in English Grade point Frequency Percent 93 and above 0 0 90 – 92 6 21 87 – 89 10 34 84 – 86 8 28 81 – 83 5 17 80 and below 0 0No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  43. 43. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado TOTAL 29 100 Table 3 shows the grade point average in English of the respondents. The highest gradepoint average that the respondents attained ranged from 87 – 89 having a frequency of ten (10)or 34% second ranging from 84 – 86 having a frequency of 8 (eight) or 28% followed by 90 – 92having six (6) or 21% subsequent to that is ranged from 81 – 83 and the grade point average of93 and above and 80 below has zero frequency. Table 4 Respondents’ Perception on Controllability as a Factor of Integrative Assessment Standard Indicators Mean Remarks Deviation 1. The Cloze test procedure can easily adjust Strongly 4.59 0.56 the instructional planning. Agree 2. It can limit the learners the extension of Strongly 4.72 0.58 different vocabularies. Agree 3. Can easily manipulate by the teachers and Strongly 3.72 0.83 learners as well. Agree 4. Placement of the blank at the end of the Strongly sentence in the passage restricts the possible 4.59 0.56 Agree words that may complete the sentence. 5. The instructors can readily assume the 4.0 0.74 Agree fairness in the interpretation results. Strongly TOTAL 4.32 0.65 AgreeLegend:4.21 – 5.0 : Strongly Agree3.41 – 4.20 : Agree2.61 – 3.40 : Fair1.81 – 2.60 : Disagree1.0 – 1.80 : Strongly DisagreeNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  44. 44. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado Table 4 shows the respondents’ perception on Controllability as a variable ofassessment related factors. As we observed item number four reigns the other indicators havinga mean of 4.49 and interpreted as Strongly agree by the respondents on cloze test. Along withthe total average resulted with 4.32 and interpreted as Strongly agree over all. This implies astrong affirmation on the effectiveness of cloze test in assessing reading comprehension. However, Alderson (1980, 1983 cited in Ahluwalia, 1992:86) and Yamashita (2003:286-287) supported that cloze test performance is not directly related to the difficulty level of thetext; it involves other factors such as scoring procedures, and content familiarity for the readersto be able them to manipulate their cognitive concerns. Table 5 Respondents’ Perception on Reliability and Validity as a Factor of Integrative Assessment Standard Indicators Mean Remarks Deviation 1. Cloze test have adequacy and Strongly 4.55 0.56 representativeness of learning outcomes. Agree 2. The passage measures what it purports to 4.14 0.59 Agree measure. 3. Cloze test must first consider the errors of Strongly 4.31 0.70 measurement. Agree 4. It can easily interpret the test results to Strongly 4.76 0.73 improve teaching and learning. Agree 5. It has a value of testing as a tool to improve Strongly 4.90 0.55 instruction and learning performance. Agree Strongly TOTAL 4.53 0.63 AgreeLegend:4.21 – 5.0 : Strongly Agree3.41 – 4.20 : Agree2.61 – 3.40 : Fair1.81 – 2.60 : Disagree1.0 – 1.80 : Strongly DisagreeNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  45. 45. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado Table 5 shows the respondents’ perception on the reliability and validity of cloze test inassessing knowledge in english. As the total mean yields 4.53 and is interpreted as Stronglyagree, which implies the elevating consistency and efficiency in english assessment treatment. . Much research has been devoted to the validity and the reliability of Cloze tests.Cloze tests are reported to have moderate to high correlations with standardized tests andtheir subtests such as listening comprehension and reading comprehension. The report onhigh correlations between Cloze tests and International Journal of Human and SocialSciences tests of listening comprehension, writing, reading comprehension, and oralinterview. The findings of these researchers reveal a relation between the scores on Clozeand global cognitive ability tests (Greene, 2001). Table 6 Respondents’ Perception on Usability as a Factor of Integrative Assessment Standard Indicators Mean Remarks Deviation 1. It manifests strong retention constructed – 3.48 1.04 Agree response type. 2. Creates critical reasoning for learners on Strongly 4.62 0.89 how to arrive on precise conclusions. Agree 3. Learners can employ to assess vocabulary, understanding facts, seeing, relationships, Strongly drawing inferences, detecting author‘s style, 4.48 0.56 Agree and approximating the patterns of language structure. 4. The test provides communicative skills in Strongly 4.55 0.97 understanding such areas of learning. Agree 5. Contributes logical argumentation and empirical evidence for learners such as Strongly 4.46 0.62 resourceful in resolving authentic problems Agree in studying english. Strongly TOTAL 4.32 0.82 AgreeNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  46. 46. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. EstrelladoLegend:4.21 – 5.0 : Strongly Agree3.41 – 4.20 : Agree2.61 – 3.40 : Fair1.81 – 2.60 : Disagree1.0 – 1.80 : Strongly Disagree Table 6 shows the level of perception of 3rd year students with regards to the usability ofcloze test in assessing reading comprehension. Based on the statistical treatment the overallmean is 4.32 and the standard deviation is 0.82 and interpreted as ‘Strongly agree’ which alsoimplies cloze test useful in measuring complex cognitive ability of the respondents. As Greene(2001) claimed that sentence or a passage, deleted some words, is just like a broken picture.People will complete it unconsciously according to their comprehensive knowledge. The Gestalttheory also claims that it is very useful in recognizing evaluative range of knowledge since themore familiar with the picture the easier for people to recognize it. Expounded in languagelearning, the case is that the higher language proficiency the higher ability to complete thebroken passage and promotes higher order thinking skills but also more on life – relatingtendencies which could be applicable to further level of a child.No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  47. 47. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado Table 7 Distribution of Result in Rational Cloze Test Item no. Frequency Percent Mean Interpretation 1 13 52 0.45 Satisfactory 2 13 52 0.45 Satisfactory 3 8 32 0.27 Fair 4 9 36 0.31 Fair 5 13 52 0.45 Satisfactory 6 12 48 0.44 Fair 7 2 8 0.06 Needs improvement 8 12 48 0.17 Fair 9 5 20 0.51 Needs improvement 10 15 60 0.51 Satisfactory 11 15 60 0.37 Satisfactory 12 11 44 0.06 Fair 13 2 8 0.34 Needs improvement 14 10 40 0.04 Fair 15 12 48 0.27 Fair 16 8 32 0.41 Needs improvement 17 12 48 0.17 Fair 18 0 0 0 Needs improvement 19 5 20 0.51 Needs improvement 20 0 0 0 Needs improvement 21 8 32 0.27 Fair 22 11 44 0.06 Fair 23 6 24 0.22 Needs improvement 24 6 24 0.22 Needs improvement 25 13 52 0.45 Satisfactory TOTAL 221 100 0.28 FairNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  48. 48. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. EstrelladoLegend:24 – 25 : Outstanding20 – 23 : Very Satisfactory13 – 19 : Satisfactory8 – 12 :Fair0 – 7 : Needs Improvement This table shows the result of the cloze test of 3rd year high school, as we observed bothitem number 10 and 11 has a high frequency which interpreted as ‘Satisfactory’ based on thescale values above having a 60% of the total correct answer. As we look generally there aremore results ranged from 8 – 12, thus the mean score of the respondents based on theexperiment is interpreted as ‘Fair’. This implies that the respondents performed the test even-handedly since the totalinterpretation is said to be ‘Fair’ with regards to this Legenza (2001) reasoned behind giving aCloze test and obtaining a test score is interpreting that score as an indicator of what a testtaker knows or what he/she can do with that knowledge. Furthermore, our interpretation ofthat test score forms the basis for decision making. As such, when using a test score, we makean implicit link between test performance and a domain of knowledge the test taker has orsomething the test taker can do with schema in some area use domain beyond the test itself. The advantages of this cloze variant are convenience and high consistency, while thereare also a lot of problems such as some of the blanks being too easy or too difficult, the brokenpassage sometimes arousing test-takers’ dislike and resulting in a dilemma for testers to choosesubjective or objective scoring method, and being lack of control which possibly leads toNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  49. 49. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrelladoexamine the language points the designer doesn’t want to test actually. Rational cloze can alsobe called open cloze or gap-filling. Table 8 Correlation between Assessment – related variables and Cloze Test Variables r - value p - value Interpretation Controllability .789 .0376 Significant Reliability and .076 .0167 Significant Validity Usability .098 .0092 SignificantLegend:p >.05 : not significantp <.05 : significant Table 8 clearly shows that all of the assessment related variables are interpreted as‘Significant’ since their p – values are less than 0.05 level of significance. This procedure is intended to sample regularly various variants of words, some ofwhich are governed by cognitive constraints and wide discipline vocabularies in sortedareas of History, Mathematics, Statistics, others of which are governed by long-rangeNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  50. 50. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrelladotextual constraints (Datta, 2002). Also supported by Greene (2001) Much research hasbeen devoted to the validity and the reliability of Cloze tests. Cloze tests are reported tohave moderate to high correlations with standardized tests and their subtests such aslistening comprehension and reading comprehension. Table 9 Correlation between Grade Point Average in English and Cloze Test Variable r - value p - value Interpretation Grade Point Ave. -0.565 .0676 Not SignificantLegend:p >.05 : not significantp <.05 : significant Table 9 shows the correlation between the grade point average of third year studentsand their results in cloze test. Clearly observed that the grade point average in english isinterpreted as Not Significant to the result in cloze test since the p – value is greater than 0.05level of significance. Askes (2002) regards cloze procedure as one of the integrative tests (global tests)that integrate language components into a total language event, which requires anintegrated performance from the learner in a meaningful context. Thus for SteinmanNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  51. 51. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado(2002) a cloze can replace the sections on test structure, written expression, vocabulary,and reading comprehension not only in English subject as well as different areas oflearning. The reason behind giving a Cloze test and obtaining a test score is interpretingthat score as an indicator of what a test taker knows or what he/she can do with thatknowledge. Furthermore, our interpretation of that test score forms the basis for decisionmaking. As such, when using a test score, we make an implicit link between testperformance and a domain of language knowledge the test taker has or something the testtaker can do with language in some language use domain beyond the test itself. In otherwords, when we use test scores, we are essentially reasoning from evidence, using thetest score as the evidence for inferences or interpretations and decisions we want to make.Yet, we cannot simply draw on test score to make inferences and decisions withoutefficient justification. If we want to use a test score for a particular purpose, we mustjustify it through a rationale and supporting evidence. Chapter VNo part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.
  52. 52. This research is welcome for any clarity /supplementation>> copyright 2013By:Laguna State Polytechnic University-San Pablo City CampusWith Marilyn Atienza Mendoza & Carie Justine P. Estrellado Summary, Conclusions, And Recommendations This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusions, andrecommendations related to the effectiveness of cloze test in assessing readingcomprehension.Summary This study aims to know the effectiveness of cloze – test as integrativeassessment in reading comprehension at Laguna State Polytechnic University, San PabloCity Campus, Academic Year, 2012-2013. 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 1.1 Age; 1.2 Gender; and 1.3 Grade point in english subject? 2. What is the level of perception of the following assessment – related variables as perceive by the respondents: 2.1 Controllability; 2.2 Reliability and validity; and 2.3 Usability? 3. What is the mean score of the respondents in Cloze – test? 4. Is there a significant relationship between the assessment related factors and the mean score in Cloze – test?No part of this research may be altered or modified without the written permission fromthe publisher. TechAd Group of Publications, 4000 Laguna, PH.

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