İn this lesson you will learn what is the computer and how it works. How data flow in a computer, which program or companent run at first.When you switch on your computer what happens inside the tower.
How ROM keep these information without electricity?
Here is the an anology.
Week2 intro to computer (how comps work, types of comps)
What is a Computer?
What is a Computer?• A computer is an electronic machine that makes mathematical calculations and logical comparisons quickly and without any mistakes. Computers take data, process them according to a list of instructions, and show or store the results of the processing. They can store the results forever.
What is a Computer?• Computers consist of two parts, hardware and software. Hardware is the physical parts of the computer.• Software is the programs in the computer. Software tells the hardware what to do. The relation between hardware and software is like the relation between our body and our mind.
How do computers work?Booting Up Your ComputerWhen you switch on your computer, asmall initiating program BIOS (BasicInput/Output System or Built InOperating System) is loaded into memory(RAM). The BIOS software is written in aROM on the mainboard. The primaryfunction of the BIOS is to identify andinitialize system hardware devices and tocopy (load) the operating systemsoftware from permanent storage toRAM (Random Access Memory). Thisprocess is known as booting, or bootingup, which is short for bootstrapping.
How do computers work?Booting Up Your Computer• Computers can store information in two different ways: in permanent storage (for example, on a disk or a CD) and in temporary storage, also called the computer’s memory or RAM. Data in temporary storage only last as long as the computer is switched on.
How do computers work?Data Flow in a Computer• When you switch on a computer, first, a special software called the operating system is copied (loaded) from permanent storage to the RAM. The computer gets data from an input device, such as a keyboard, mouse, hard disk, or scanner, and makes all the calculations and the comparisons in the central processing unit (CPU).
How do computers work?Data Flow in a Computer• The CPU is like the computer’s brain. It uses the RAM to maintain the data. When the CPU has processed the data, it sends the results to an output device, such as a monitor or printer, or saves them in a permanent storage device, such as a hard disk.
TYPES OF COMPUTERS• Mainframe ComputersA mainframe computer is a big,powerful, and expensive computer.Many people can use the power ofa mainframe computer at the sametime, using either a PersonalComputer (PC) or a DumbTerminal. A PC performs a lot ofprocessing itself. A dumb terminaluses the mainframe computer todo all the processing and justshows the results on a screen.Large organizations, for example,banks and insurance companies,use mainframe computers.
TYPES OF COMPUTERS• MinicomputersLike mainframe computers, minicomputersare multi-user computers. They are verypowerful and expensive. Mainframes andminicomputers are used for very similarpurposes. Middle-sized companies useminicomputers.As microcomputers developed in 1970sand 1980s, minicomputers filled the mid-range area between low powered single-user microcomputers and high capacitymulti-user mainframes. Sincemicrocomputers have become morepowerful and the PC networks emerged in1980s and 1990s, the minicomputers rolehas been filled by microcomputers.
TYPES OF COMPUTERS• SupercomputersA supercomputer is a mainframe computer that is incrediblypowerful and has a very large capacity for processing data.Supercomputers are often used by the military services. They arealso used for such research as weather forecasting, in which a hugeamount of data must be processed rapidly.
TYPES OF COMPUTERS• MicrocomputersMicrocomputers are usually used only by one person at a time. AnIBM PC and Apple Macintosh are two kinds of microcomputers.There are desktop, laptop, palmtop, tabletop, pocket, tablet, andnetbook models of microcomputers.