WHAT IS MOTIVATION?Motivation energises goal-directed behaviour.Why should I be bothered to do this?How can I get my colleague to help me?How can a manager improve employees’ productivity?How can a facilitator focus a group on project goals?
WORK MOTIVATION• Work motivation is crucial to productivity• So, lots of money was spent on finding answers• The state of the art is very advanced
WORK MOTIVATION• Work motivation is crucial to productivity• So, lots of money was spent on finding answers• The state of the art is very advanced different
WORK MOTIVATION• Work motivation is crucial to productivity• So, lots of money was spent on finding answers• The state of the art is very advanced different• Lots of credible theories• A tangle of issues• Researchers promote different philosophies Circular arguments + long what-if chainsSymptoms of over-investment
MANY THEORIESEquity Theory (Adams)Expectancy Theory (Vroom)Two-factor Theory (Herzberg)Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow)Job Characteristics Model (Hackman&Oldham)Emotional Labour (Hochschild)Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura)
JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODELHackman + Oldham did the first significant empirical workJob Characteristics Model:• contains 21 variables• including most ideas from previous theoriesJob Diagnostic Survey measures these 21 variables• Depends on people answering (moderately) truthfully• All the measures are different, but not independent• The results are replicable• Calibrated over 6,000 people, in a wide range of jobs• Moderate predictive validity
MOTIVATING IT STAFF1985 Couger + Zawaki surveyed software developers• Most motivation problems were in software maintenance1996 Warden + Nicholson surveyed UK IT staff• Problems were more widespread• Perhaps due to a less buoyant job market• Quality managers felt ostracised
MOTIVATION IMPROVEMENTMOTIVATION IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMDiagnosis• Explain improvement process and agree confidentiality• Administer Job Diagnostic Survey and analyse results• Feed back data and listen to reactions• Report on interpretations and recommend actionsImplementation:• Some things will have changed as a result of the diagnostic process• To sustain personal / cultural change, monitor progress occasionally• Visionary / sponsor promotes things that need management support• Cost-benefit analysis for things that cost money - include intangiblesVerification• Review repeats JDS and compares to assess long-term effects• Problems: no benefit to manager who commissioned original work• a second JDS isn’t an identical process
CORE JOB DIMENSIONS1. Skill variety - different activities requiring different skills2. Task identity - whole identifiable piece of work with visible outcomes3. Task significance - impact on the lives and work of others4. Autonomy - freedom, independence and discretion in: scheduling work, designing procedures, specifying criteriaFeedback - two measures:5. Job Feedback – information about performance is provided in the process of carrying out work6. People Feedback - supervisors, co-workers etc give performance info if their opinion is valued / respected
EMPLOYEE NEEDSStrength of this individual’s desire to obtain growth satisfaction from work• would-like needs - absolute• job - choice needs - relative• social needs - not in published JDS
JOB MATCHAggregate Measures• Person’s Growth Needs Strength GNS = Σ(growth needs)• Job’s Motivating Potential Score MPS = Σ(core job dimensions)• Job Match How well does GNS match MPS?
PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES• Experienced meaningfulness How worthwhile or important is the product/service in worker’s view?• Experienced responsibility Do workers believe they are personally responsible for outcomes?• Knowledge of results Can workers regularly discover whether outcomes are satisfactory?
WORK OUTCOMESJob match predicts work outcomes fairly well• Productivity e.g. Lines of code, per person, per day• Quality e.g. Number of revisions after delivery, per 10,000 lines of code• Absenteeism e.g. Average number of days off, per person, per year• Accidents e.g. Accident reports / claims for industrial injury, per year• Staff turnover e.g. Percentage of staff leaving this team, per year
PERSONAL OUTCOMES• General satisfaction• Growth satisfaction (often easy to fix with training)• Internal motivation• Pay satisfaction• Job security• Social satisfaction• Dealings with others• Supervisory satisfaction (JDS method doesn’t provide anonymity for team leader)
CONFIDENCE IN RESULTSOne team doesn’t give enough data points so we can’t expect statistical significance.We can ask the team members:• We see two clusters. Different jobs / people?• We see an outlier. Is this person/job different?• Why is this job dimension so low? What can we do to fix it?For a larger population, we can look for statistical significance• Are high GNS people given high MPS jobs?• Does seniority/age/gender influence any of the variables?• In what way are different job titles statistically different?
PLOT JOB-PERSON MATCHHigher GNS people should get higher MPS jobs
EXAMPLE ONEWhat situation does this plot show?
EXAMPLE ONEEveryone is near the ideal line.No problems.
EXAMPLE TWOWhat situation does this plot show?
EXAMPLE TWOTwo outliers are badly matchedReallocate tasks
EXAMPLE THREEWhat situation does this plotshow?
EXAMPLE THREEPeople are similar, but tasks are different.Re-allocate tasks to spread MPS more equally.
EMOTIONAL LABOUREmotional Work = facial & bodily display of emotion for personal purposesEmotional Labour = facial & bodily display of emotion for wagesFacilitation requires a lot of emotional labour
EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEESOutcomes depend on both employer & employee:Employers require specific behaviours (display rules)An employee creates personal behaviours that express his/her distinct identity
OUTCOMESEmotional labour can be simultaneously both liberating and oppressiveOppressive outcomes: emotional dissonance > emotional numbness, self-estrangement, effort to maintain self-esteem, feeling “phoney”, physical illness, guilt, burnoutLiberating outcomes: task effectiveness, creativity, self-expression, better interaction with customers, enjoying one’s own performance
STATEGIES for difficult episodesManagers’ strategies: Requiring adherence to display rules Verbal and non-verbal approval disapproval Joking and story tellingEmployees’ strategies: Blaming colleagues, to defuse an argument Blowing off afterwards to colleagues or family Feeling like altruistic service providers Thinking up better strategies for next time
Strategies for FACILITATORSFacilitation requires emotional labour• The best facilitators are always considerate They seem to not to experience dissonance Perhaps this is what makes them better They still feel angst about their mistakes• How can we manage our emotional labour? Use limited dissonance to practice behaviours Repeat, to feel these behaviours more genuinely Air genuine concerns to the group, constructively
SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORYAlbert Bandura• Focussed on individual’s conscious experience• Used introspective research methodsEmphasised:• Reciprocal determinism e.g. our environment influences us AND we influence our environment• Self-efficacy = our belief in our ability to achieve• Vicarious learning = we learn from observing others• Self-reflection = we make sense of our experience, explore our thoughts and adapt accordingly
APPLICATION OF BANDURA’S THEORYBandura’s theories: Model the reality of motivation at work rather well Used to help individuals change unhelpful habits Always quoted in lists of motivation theoriesAdvice to managers: Increase employees’ self-efficacy Increase employees’ job satisfaction Reduce employees’ role conflict and ambiguity
RECENT DEVELOPMENTSRecently, research into motivation has declined.New working conditions will require new theoriesFor a summary of recent work, see: Academy of Management Review volume 29, number 3Perhaps the term ‘motivation’ is falling into disuse, replaced by creativity, quality of working life, etc.
BACK TO EARLIER THEORIESEarly theories tell us what mistakes were being made.What are these mistakes?What outcomes could we expect?Such mistakes are still made.Assume that you are a facilitator, your delegates are being mismanaged as below what can you do to minimise the effect on your workshop?
OPERANT CONDITIONINGBefore the modern theories, behavioural psychologists promoted operant conditioning• Positive reinforcement strengthens a behaviour by giving a reward for doing a good job• Negative reinforcement strengthens a behaviour by removing a stressor when a job is well done• Extinction weakens a behaviour by withholding a reward even if the employee has put in extra effort• Punishment weakens a behaviour by punishing people who exhibit that behaviour
HAWTHORN EFFECTResearching effects of lighting level on productivity:Turn the lights up > productivity increases then slowly declinesTurn the lights down > productivity increases then slowly declinesConclusion: The effects are due to the researchers paying attention to employees’ needs
EQUITY THEORYPeople experience distress: if they are under-rewarded AND if they are over-rewardedIf overpaid on hourly-rate > people produce more widgetsIf overpaid on piece-rate > people produce better widgets
EQUITY THEORYPeople experience distress: if they are under-rewarded > anger if they are over-rewarded > guiltIf overpaid on hourly-rate > people produce more widgetsIf overpaid on piece-rate > people produce better widgetsIf underpaid on hourly-rate > fewer widgets, accidents, sick …If underpaid on piece-rate > worse widgets, accidents, sick …
EQUITY THEORYPeople experience distress: if they are under-rewarded > anger if they are over-rewarded > guiltIf overpaid on hourly-rate > people produce more widgetsIf overpaid on piece-rate > people produce better widgetsIf underpaid on hourly-rate > fewer widgets, absenteeism, sickness, ‘accidents’If underpaid on piece-rate > worse widgets, absenteeism, sickness, ‘accidents’
EXPECTANCY THEORYExpectancy Theory (Vroom)Motivation = expectancy (perceived probability that effort ⇒ performance ⇒ success) times instrumentality (perceived probability that success ⇒ reward) times valence (strength of preference for outcome)Advises:• Tie rewards to performance• Ensure rewards are deserved and wanted• Provide training to ensure that effort ⇒ productivity
TWO FACTOR THEORYHertzberg found two very different types of effect1. Hygiene factors – if missing will de-motivate status, job security, salary2. Motivating factors – give positive satisfaction challenging work, recognition, responsibilitySo, managers don’t gain from improving hygiene factors above moderately acceptable levels
HIEARACHY OF NEEDSWe usually satisfy lower level needs first.Once lower levels are satisfied, we work for next level upSometimes we forget about lower needs, or aspire to higher needs
NEEDS (McClelland)Each individual experiences many needs, notably:• Need for achievement• Need for affiliation• Need for power (control over environment)• Need for autonomyThe strength of each different need is a different personality factor.Not necessarily constant over time, but very different for different people
16 BASIC DESIRES (Reiss)Acceptance = need for approvalCuriosity = need to learnEating = need for food and drinkFamily = need to raise childrenHonour = need to be loyal to the traditional values of ones clan/ethnic groupIdealism = need for social justiceIndependence = need for individualityOrder = need for organized, stable, predictable environmentsPhysical activity = need for exercisePower = need for influence of willRomance = need for sexSaving = need to collectSocial contact = need for friends (peer relationships)Status = need for social standing / importanceTranquillity = need to be safeVengeance = need to strike back / to win