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Trust-aware Process Design - BPM 2019

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Slides presented at 17th International Conference on Business Process Management, BPM 2019, Vienna, 3 September 2019

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Trust-aware Process Design - BPM 2019

  1. 1. Trust-awareProcessDesign Michael Rosemann Queensland University of Technology 3 September 2019
  2. 2. Process Design Foci 1) Engineering Excellence 2) Corporate Excellence 3) Customer Excellence 4) Societal Excellence
  3. 3. • The Problem • Trust has eroded in many industries (Edelman 2019), and business processes are a root cause of this • The Opportunity • Digitalization has led to new (decentralized) forms of trust • Trusted processes can unlock commitment and loyalty • The Gap • The related body of BPM knowledge is very limited • Tradition of x-aware BPM, but so far x = trust Trust-aware Process Design Michael Rosemann – m.rosemann@qut.edu.au | T: ismiro BPM 2019 Conference Vienna, 3 September 2019
  4. 4. How can trust be embedded in the design of business processes?
  5. 5. • Trust is comprehensively studied in a variety of scientific disciplines (e.g., sociology, psychology, economics, game theory) • Trust worthiness = ability, benevolence and integrity (Mayer, Davis, Schoorman 1995) • Trust in BPM: B2B processes (Kamers 2015), process outsourcing (Greenberg et al 2008), trustworthy processes (Mohammadi & Heisel 2016), process visibility (Berner et al. 2012) and the trust impact of Blockchain on processes (e.g., Mendling et al. 2018) Research Context Trust-aware Process Design Michael Rosemann – m.rosemann@qut.edu.au | T: ismiro BPM 2019 Conference Vienna, 3 September 2019
  6. 6. • Identification of foundational theories • Information asymmetry (Akerlof 1970); Diffusion of innovation (Rodgers 2003) • Explorative case studies • Consular service • Financial service • Conceptual design • Four stage model • Meta model Research Method Trust-aware Process Design Michael Rosemann – m.rosemann@qut.edu.au | T: ismiro BPM 2019 Conference Vienna, 3 September 2019
  7. 7. Confidence in the relationship with uncertainty What is Trust? Trust-aware Process Design Michael Rosemann – m.rosemann@qut.edu.au | T: ismiro BPM 2019 Conference Vienna, 3 September 2019 Rachel Botsman
  8. 8. The Two Levers of Trust-aware Process Design Uncertainty Confidence Trust-aware Process Design Michael Rosemann – m.rosemann@qut.edu.au | T: ismiro BPM 2019 Conference Vienna, 3 September 2019
  9. 9. 1) Identify Moments of Trust 2) Reduce Uncertainty 3) Reduce Vulnerability 4) Build Confidence Four Stage Model of Trust-aware Process Design Trustworthiness } Trust-aware Process Design Michael Rosemann – m.rosemann@qut.edu.au | T: ismiro BPM 2019 Conference Vienna, 3 September 2019
  10. 10. 1) Where does trust materialize along the process? -> moments of trust 2) What are the requirements? -> trust concerns 3) Who are the stakeholders? -> trust persona 1) Identify Moments of Trust
  11. 11. • Quality of a process activity: Will the forecasted balance of my account be correct? • Process success rate: Will my application to re-naturalize be successful? • Resource expertise: Does the person dealing with my case have the specific expertise needed? • Resource goal: Can I trust the organization to incentivize their broker so that they recommend the right product to me? • Resource availability: Will I get my appointment at 9.30am, or do I have to consider waiting for a while? Trust Concerns as per Explorative Case Studies
  12. 12. 2) Reduce Uncertainty Operational Uncertainty Perceived Uncertainty Behavioral Uncertainty Trust-aware Process Design Michael Rosemann – m.rosemann@qut.edu.au | T: ismiro BPM 2019 Conference Vienna, 3 September 2019
  13. 13. • Uncertainty grounded in business processes and systems • Reduced operational (systemic) uncertainty leads to • Consistency • Reliability • Predictability • Compliance • Trust patterns: • Reduce process complexity (e.g., lean, process standardization) • Reduce process variation (e.g., Six Sigma, liquid resources) • Increase process compliance (e.g., RPA, process mining) 2a) Operational Uncertainty Trust-aware Process Design Michael Rosemann – m.rosemann@qut.edu.au | T: ismiro BPM 2019 Conference Vienna, 3 September 2019
  14. 14. • Uncertainty grounded in behavioral differences among staff • Reduced behavioral uncertainty leads to • Sincerity • Commitment • Honesty • Benevolence • Trust patterns: • Outcome-based process metrics (e.g., mortgage brokers) • Benevolence > compliance, if needed • Convert behavioral into systemic uncertainty 2b) Behavioral Uncertainty Trust-aware Process Design Michael Rosemann – m.rosemann@qut.edu.au | T: ismiro BPM 2019 Conference Vienna, 3 September 2019
  15. 15. • Uncertainty grounded in information asymmetry • Increasing the line of visibility leads to • Transparency • Comprehension • Clarity • Information symmetries • Trust patterns: • Transparent process design (e.g., published business rules) • Transparent process execution (e.g., parcel tracking, open kitchen) • Predictive process monitoring (e.g., Uber ETA) 2c) Perceived Uncertainty Trust-aware Process Design Michael Rosemann – m.rosemann@qut.edu.au | T: ismiro BPM 2019 Conference Vienna, 3 September 2019
  16. 16. 3) Reduce Vulnerability Vulnerability = cost to the trustor in case the trustee (process) does not perform as expected Vulnerability trust patterns • Process compensation • Reimburse for delays (transport) • Free return of products (e-commerce) • Process postponement • Value-based pricing (professional services) • Process insurance • Pay rent after x weeks (real estate) Trust-aware Process Design Michael Rosemann – m.rosemann@qut.edu.au | T: ismiro BPM 2019 Conference Vienna, 3 September 2019
  17. 17. 4) Build Confidence Provide additional confidence-building information Sources of confidence • Institutional Trust: Trust the organization • Democratic Trust: Trust the majority • Specific Trust: Trust someone like you • Local Trust: Trust your network • Global Trust: Trust the expert • Robotic Trust: Trust the machine • Experiential Trust: Trust the past Trust-aware Process Design Michael Rosemann – m.rosemann@qut.edu.au | T: ismiro BPM 2019 Conference Vienna, 3 September 2019
  18. 18. A B C Institutional Democratic Specific Local Global Robotic Experiential 4) Build Confidence at a Moment of Trust Trust-aware Process Design Michael Rosemann – m.rosemann@qut.edu.au | T: ismiro BPM 2019 Conference Vienna, 3 September 2019
  19. 19. 2) Match Confidence – Process Democratic Trust Low service specificity, high process volume “Most popular choice is…”; “Average delay is 5 mins” Local Trust High situational specificity; high service complexity “4 of your trusted connections used this service” Special Trust High customer specificity, medium-high process volume “92% of applicants like you…” Trust-aware Process Design Michael Rosemann – m.rosemann@qut.edu.au | T: ismiro BPM 2019 Conference Vienna, 3 September 2019
  20. 20. Meta Model
  21. 21. • Trust is becoming a primary design concern, but is insufficiently reflected in BPM body of knowledge • Proposed four staged approach provides guidance on how to design trusted processes (uncertainty/vulnerability min!, confidence max!) • Meta model provides semi-formal trust conceptualization • First proposals for trust patterns and relevant process types Summary Trust-aware Process Design Michael Rosemann – m.rosemann@qut.edu.au | T: ismiro BPM 2019 Conference Vienna, 3 September 2019
  22. 22. • Narrow scope (B2C, trust concerns) • Only explorative case studies and secondary data • Trust patterns and trust-process match are untested hypotheses • Experiential trust out of scope Limitations Trust-aware Process Design Michael Rosemann – m.rosemann@qut.edu.au | T: ismiro BPM 2019 Conference Vienna, 3 September 2019
  23. 23. Future Research • Taxonomy for trust concerns and opportunities • Framework for trust patterns / trust scaffolding • Trust monitoring and mining • Trust governance
  24. 24. Michael Rosemann School of Management Queensland University of Technology e m.rosemann@qut.edu.au w www.michaelrosemann.com t ismiro

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