IMD102 Chapter 1


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IMD102 Chapter 1

  1. 1. History and Basic Concepts of Information Science Chapter 1 CHAPTER OVERVIEW 1.0 History and basic concepts of information science 1.1 Evolution of information science What is information science 1.2 The boundaries of information science  The basic structure of information science  Foundational disciplines of information science  Related field of study in information science 1.3 Information Lifecycle  Information lifecycle management  Explanation of the information lifecycle management 1.4 Spectrum of Knowledge  Is there a hierarchy of data, information and knowledge?  Knowledge and information  Comparison and differences between information and knowledge  Data and information 1
  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES After completing this chapter, you should be able to:- 1. Define information science, information lifecycle and information spectrum. 2. Explain the information lifecycle management. 3. Differentiate between data, information and knowledge 4. Describe the knowledge spectrum. WHAT IS INFORMATION SCIENCE? Our perception of the concept of information science all organisms is based on the assumption that are information systems. The information system is an environment of person, machines, and procedures that develop human biology potential to acquire, process and act upon data, thus improves our chances for survival. 2
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS Science Any system of knowledge that is concerned with the physical world and its phenomena and that involve unbiased observations and systematic experiment (research). Information science A discipline that deals with the processes of storing and transferring of information. Fundamentally it covers all theories, concepts and methods in the collection, organization, storage, retrieval and use of information. THE BOUNDARIES OF INFORMATION SCIENCE Basic structure of information science • Technology and Systems - the application of IT • Impact of IT on society - problems of information society, copyrights, personal privacy, plagiarism, etc. • Resources - the human resources needed to sustain the activities of the science worldwide, encouragement of R&D, training, etc. 3
  4. 4. THE BOUNDARIES OF INFORMATION SCIENCE Foundational Disciplines Philosophy - provides infor. Sc. with the understanding of inquiry system (state of the world) and the foundation of the social sciences that are relevant to infor. system. Mathematics (statistics). - the foundation of statistics which is the tools used by infor. Scientist. Linguistics - the study of language, which is important to infor. Scientist as tool to represent events. Behavioral science - include psychology and sociology, important part for user study. RELATED FIELD OF STUDY IN INFORMATION SCIENCE Informatics – the study of automation and automated technologies in document retrieving. Information Engineering – refers to various aspects of infor. System design. Knowledge Engineering – artificial intelligence & expert system. Cybernetics – the science of control, include communications & system theory. Bionics – the understanding of the functions & characteristics of living systems & biomechanical systems. 4
  5. 5. INFORMATION LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT Information life cycle management (ILM) is a comprehensive approach to managing the flow of an information system's data from creation and initial storage to the time when it becomes obsolete and is deleted. ILM involves all aspects of dealing with data, starting with user practices. ILM enables more complex criteria for storage management than data age and frequency of access. 5
  6. 6. INFORMATION LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT 1. Collection • Acquisition • Research • Analysis 2. Processing • Validating 3. Recording • Documentation 4. Storage 5. Retrieval 6. Dissemination • Distribution 7. Use • Reuse 8. Restoring 9. Revalidation 10. Reprocessing 11. Disposition FIVE PHASE OF ILM IN BUSINESS RECORDS Process of managing the information once it has been created or received. Includes internal and external distribution. Record from the organization itself. Create 2. Distribution by member of the organization or receipt of Takes place after information from an information is distribute external source. Examples:- internally, can generate reports, drawings, computer business decisions, input/output etc. document further actions or serve other purpose. 1. Creation and Receipt 3. Use Handling the information that is less frequently Management of the accessed; relocate to an information. Example filing, inactive records facility. If retrieval and transfers. no longer valuable will be disposed. 5. Disposition 4. Maintenance 6
  7. 7. Case Study:- Find one situation in your daily life or business environment and discuss the process of information lifecycle involved for that situation. Definition of Information The term information has a number of different meanings and connotations when used in a number of different contexts. It is generally recognized as processed data, text, voice and/or image and is synonymous with knowledge or intelligence. Many information scientists accept the standard definition of information as: “Data which is used in decision making” (Ralston, Anthony) 7
  8. 8. Definition (cont..) Fritz Machlup (1983) carefully assessed the different meanings associated with the information. Some interpretations from these sources are as follows: – Something one did not know before. – A clue. – Something that affects what one already knows. – How data is interpreted. – Something useful in some way to the person receiving it. – Something that reduces uncertainty. – The meaning of words in sentences. – Something that provides more than what is stated. – Something that changes what a person who receives believes or expects. abs.UiTM Johor The representation of information Signals – a sign with an emphasis on some consequential action. Sign – a physical evidence of the immediate physical of the thing or event present. Symbols – special kind of sign. They represent an object, idea or event and elicit the same response as if things they refferred to were immediately present. Languange – the principal method of human communication. 8
  9. 9. Information Explosion The universe of recorded information and the number of knowledgeable human beings are have expanded at such a rate and in so short time a phenomenon knows as information explosion will happen. Information Overload Occurs when the amount of information we receive exceeds our ability to process it in a meaningful way. 9
  10. 10. Factors contribute to information overload Personal factors • Lack of time • Poor self-organization • Personal inefficiency Organizational factors • Poor communication • Ineffective use of information technology • An organizational culture not geared up to handling information Consequences of information overload Personal • Stress and ill health • Less free time • Less job satisfaction • Poor decision-making Organizational • Loos of productivity • Waste of resources • Loos of competitive advantage • Duplication and overlap of work 10
  11. 11. A model for managing information overload Use Store Discard Process Filter Pass to others Incoming Information Throw away Function and Use Information is a key resource and an important factor in national progress and development. It used to be regarded as playing only a supportive role in the various national development programs like education, economic planning, agriculture, medicine and the transfer of science and technology. Now, however its importance is being increasingly recognized and its acquisition has emerged as a matter of national policy. 11
  12. 12. Characteristics of Information Expandable – Facts are never all in, we are constantly aware of information overload. Compressible – While the amount is expanding exponentially, it can be concentrated, integrated, summarized, miniaturized for easier handling. Substitutable – It can replace capital or physical materials, information is a commodity and on the current scene that means power. Transportable – At the speed of lights, as quick as pushing a button. Diffusive – It tends to leak and in that regard cannot be possessed. Shareable – Sharing transactions. Source of Information •Personal •Commercial •Computer •Production of INFORMATION SYSTEM contact orgn based services litery work or •Writings •Educational that provides written artistic ORGANIZATION •Governmental information works as form of expression LITERATURE •Society and or ideas. PEOPLE professional organization •Novel, Books, articles, pamphlets etc 12
  13. 13. SPECTRUM OF KNOWLEDGE The hierarchical transformation of data, information, knowledge, wisdom and enlightenment What are the elements that trigger the transformation? Intrinsic: the influence within oneself that turns these elements into other entities on several basis like our experience, background, education, belief, lifestyles etc. Extrinsic: the external influences that turn these entities into other form. For example the information that we have through reading materials might may turn something that we are aware of to be something that we really understand its concept. 25 IS THERE A HIERARCHY OF DATA, INFORMATION, AND KNOWLEDGE? To determine whether the transformation is hierarchical we need to • understand the concept of information, knowledge, wisdom and enlightenment in details. • be able to understand the differences between these entities. Knowledge and Information A close and firm link between information and knowledge has always existed . Distinctions between information and knowledge have been proposed chiefly on the followings:  Information is fragmented, particular, whereas knowledge is structured (well-thought of), coherent (logical), and often universal.  Information is timely, transitory, whereas knowledge is 26 of enduring significance. . 13
  14. 14. Continue…  Information is a flow of messages, whereas knowledge is a stock, largely resulting from the flow, in the sense that the "input" of information may affect the stock of knowledge by adding to it, restructuring it, or changing it in any way  Information in the sense of telling and being told is always different from knowledge in the sense of knowing: The former is a process, the latter a state.  Data are the things given to the analyst, investigator, or problem-solver; they may be numbers, words, sentences, records, assumptions - just anything given, no matter in what form and of what origin.  essentially raw data. Knowledge is interpreted data. 27 Comparison And Differences Between Information & Knowledge  Knowledge may be considered as storage of information by way the information makes changes to the structure of the knowledge.  Information is acquired by being told, whereas knowledge can be acquired by thinking. Thus, new knowledge can be acquired without new information being received.  Neither knowledge nor information needs to be useful or valuable to merit its designation. People speak of "useless information" and "useless knowledge" 28 14
  15. 15. Continue..  Nor is it a requirement of normal language use that information is correct and knowledge is true.  When a new discovery or a new theory is announced in newspapers and news broadcasts, this will be information to most recipients but new knowledge to specialists. Data and Information There is no need to establish either a hierarchy or a temporal sequence in discussing data and information. For example, consider the following three outputs: 29 Continue..  a printout that gives us exactly what has been fed into the memory of the computer  a new arrangement of the data, after sorting (chronological or alphabetical ordering, or selecting on the basis of detailed instructions)  an output different from the stored data as a result of an analysis made by the computer using a highly sophisticated piece of software. Should all three printouts still be called data or should they be referred to as information? 30 15
  16. 16. Continue..  For some definers, information, to be information, has to have value.  Sometime it is proposed that information must reduce uncertainty on the part of those getting informed.  Information may in the ordinary sense is received by people without any effect on their uncertainty; and some news items may even raise uncertainty in several aspects. FORMS OF INFORMATION  Information touches all human activity. It comes in a multitude of different shapes –  speech, pictures, video,  office work, software,  great art and kitsch,  invoices, music, stock prices, tax returns, 31 Characteristics of Information Information has several characteristics that make information very different than other commodities: 1. It is reproducible. 2. The cost of reproduction is low. 3. It can be transported easily. 4. Its lifetime can be brief. 5. Its value is not additive. 32 16
  17. 17. Value of Information  One suggestion is that information has economic value to people only if it can lead then to the acquisition of tangible goods. Therefore, value of information is a matter of form, not of amount.  Also, value of information often depends on the preexisting form of the receiver as on the message itself.  Similarly, information has intangible value if it can enable them to satisfy less tangible human desires.  An encyclopedia publisher, for instance, will find a mailing list of prospective buyers useful because it might increase sales.  Watching a soap opera has value for those people who want to experience heartrending emotions. 33 Continue…  Watching a soap opera has value for those people who want to experience heartrending emotions.  Because information leads to goods only indirectly, it seems reasonable to value it as a fraction of the worth of the tangible goods to which it leads.  Therefore the economic value of all sprawling computer-and-network complexes may be estimated as a fraction of the tangible goods to which they will lead.  Value of US computer hardware and software, including the work needed to run computer systems within organizations, at almost a tenth of its GNP - roughly about $500 billion. 34 17
  18. 18. Continue…  Yet because some 60 percent of the work forces have jobs that involve information, the value of computerized information handling may well grow to an even larger fraction of the global economy.  In spite of its importance, information is secondary to people's principal needs - food, shelter, health and human relationships 35 18