20100906140913beriani pbl

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20100906140913beriani pbl

  1. 1. GROUP MEMBERS NURUL HIDAYAH BT MANSOR D20091034826 MOHD HELMEE BIN HUSSIN D20091034828 WIJAYANTI BT AKHMAD D20091034833 NORIZA BT ISHAK D20091034845 NABILAH BT YUSOF D20091034854
  2. 2. facts Idea Learning issues Action plan They grow crops such as oil palm, rubber tree and rice <ul><li>oil palm, rubber tree and rice are commercial crops </li></ul><ul><li>They live in rural areas which have fertile soil </li></ul><ul><li>Because of dry seasons, the production of crops will decrease. So effect the farmers income </li></ul><ul><li>The land in the village is suitable for growing crops </li></ul><ul><li>Why the farmers choose to grow these types of plants? </li></ul><ul><li>Which crops can survive during the drought seasons?why? </li></ul><ul><li>What condition that allow that plants to grow? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the photorespiration occur in C3 crops during drought? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the differences between crops that the farmer grow? </li></ul><ul><li>Surfing the internet </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse journal </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Why farmers choose to grow these types of plants? </li></ul>
  4. 15. <ul><li>Paddy plant </li></ul><ul><li>Palm oil plant </li></ul><ul><li>Rubber tree </li></ul>
  5. 16. <ul><li>Grow mainly in Asian – Swamp plant </li></ul><ul><li>Main source of food for nearly half the worlds’s population </li></ul>
  6. 18. <ul><li>The paddy are planted with aluvium soil and at low land areas and some at upland </li></ul><ul><li>The soils have dark colour ,loamy texture, high humus, high water holding capacity, high base exchange capacity, neutral to saline pH, humid or swampy nature and rich in potassium in most of the areas. The soils are suitable for crops that require humid soils </li></ul>
  7. 19. <ul><li>Minimum temperature 20 ⁰C </li></ul><ul><li>Grown partly submerged in paddy fields </li></ul><ul><li>Fields are flooded and then ploughed </li></ul><ul><li>Young rice plants are planted in the rich mud </li></ul>
  8. 20. <ul><li>with high rainfall minimum 1 600 mm/yr in tropical climates within 10° of the equator </li></ul><ul><li>Water table : at least 1m from the surface </li></ul><ul><li>Topography : flat lands to gently undulating </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature : 28 ⁰C -33⁰C </li></ul>
  9. 21. Suitable soil for oil palm <ul><li>Oil palm can be grown on a wide range of soils. </li></ul><ul><li>The most suitable soil would be one with a deep, well drained and well structured with unrestricted rooting medium of reasonably good water holding capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>flat or undulating land is more preferred </li></ul><ul><li>Oil Palm grow on a  wide range of soil types, provided good drainage and pH between 4 and 7. The plant tolerates periodic flooding or a high water table; many soils are alluvial in nature. Irrigation is generally not practiced. </li></ul><ul><li>the oil palms are normally planted on terraces as a means of soil conservation measure to prevent soil erosion </li></ul>
  10. 22. <ul><li>Climate : tropical rain forest </li></ul><ul><li>Sunshine : at least 5 hours per day </li></ul><ul><li>Soil : water-retaining alluvial soil </li></ul>
  11. 23. <ul><li>Soil- laterite, lateritic types, sedimentary types, nonlateritic red or alluvial soils </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall- 250 cm evenly distributed without any marked dry season and with at least 100 rainy days per year </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature - about 20°C to 34°C with a monthly mean of 25°C to 28°C </li></ul>
  12. 24. Suitable soil for rubber tree <ul><li>The soil requirement of the plant is generally well-drained weathered soil consisting of laterite or alluvial soils </li></ul><ul><li>Alluvial soil from which forests have been cleared is best suited for the growth of rubber plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Rubber also is cultivated on porous, well-drained laterite soil. </li></ul>
  13. 25. <ul><li>high atmospheric humidity of around 80% </li></ul><ul><li>bright sunshine amounting to about 2000 hours per year at the rate of 6 hours per day throughout the year </li></ul><ul><li>absence of strong winds </li></ul>
  14. 26. Does the photorespiration occur in c3 crops during the drought??
  15. 27. Light dependent reaction Light independent reaction
  16. 28. <ul><li>As its name suggests, RUBISCO catalyzes two different reactions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adding CO 2 to ribulose bisphosphate — the carboxylase activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adding O 2 to ribulose bisphosphate — the oxygenase activity. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 29. <ul><li>Which one predominates depends on the relative concentrations of O 2 and CO 2 with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high CO 2 , low O 2 favoring the carboxylase action, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high O 2 , low CO 2 favoring the oxygenase action. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 30. <ul><li>The light reactions of photosynthesis liberate oxygen and more oxygen dissolves in the cytosol of the cell at higher temperatures. Therefore, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high light intensities and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high temperatures (above ~ 30°C) favor the second reaction </li></ul></ul>
  19. 31. <ul><li>The uptake of O 2 by RUBISCO forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the 3-carbon molecule 3-phosphoglyceric acid — just as in the Calvin cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the 2-carbon molecule glycolate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The glycolate enters peroxisomes where it uses O 2 to form intermediates that </li></ul><ul><li>enter mitochondria where they are broken down to CO 2 . </li></ul>
  20. 32. <ul><li>So this process uses O 2 and ATP and liberates CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>O2 + RuBP phosphoglycolate + glycerate 3-phospahate </li></ul>
  21. 33. WHAT ARE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CROPS THAT THE FARMER GROWTH?
  22. 34. LET US NOW TAKE A CLOSELY LOOK AT C3 AND C4 PLANT.. C3 PLANT C4 PLANT PALM OIL BROMELIAD RUBBER TREE CACTUS
  23. 35. <ul><li>C3 plants- more than 95% of earth's plant species, use rubisco to make a three-carbon compound as the first stable product of carbon fixation. </li></ul><ul><li>C3 adapt in where light levels may be low, because the metabolic pathway is more energy efficient, and if water is plentiful, the stomata can stay open and let in more carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>However, carbon losses through photorespiration are high. </li></ul>
  24. 36. <ul><li>C4 plants possess biochemical and anatomical mechanisms to raise the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration at the site of fixation </li></ul><ul><li>This reduces, and sometimes eliminates, carbon losses by photorespiration. </li></ul><ul><li>C4 plants, which inhabit hot, dry evironments, have very high water-use efficiency, so that there can be up to twice as much photosynthesis per gram of water as in C3 plants. </li></ul><ul><li>C4 metabolism is inefficient in shady or cool environments. Less than 1% of earth's plant species can be classified as C4 </li></ul>
  25. 37. TEMPERATURE: C3 (10-25 °C) C4 (30-45 °C) C3 PLANT C4 PLANT dicotyledon plants monocotyledon stem are much more wider (2 nd growth) Less than C4 (no 2 nd growth) Short but wider leaf Leaves are much more longer more stomata particularly in the lower leaf surface (abaxial) C4 plants can have them on both surfaces In cool, wet, and cloudy inhabit hot, dry environments
  26. 38. C3 PLANT C4 PLANT bundle sheath cells do not contain chloroplasts bundle sheath cells contain chloroplasts carbon fixation and Calvin Cycle reactions occur in mesophyll cells ( presence of oxygen ) carbon is fixed in mesophyll cells, then transported to bundle sheath cells where Calvin Cycle reactions occur in the absence of oxygen C3 plants are more adapted to environments with more carbon dioxide C4 plants are more adapted to environments with more oxygen Less thicker than C4 plant C4 plants have thicker bundle sheath cell layers
  27. 39. ANATOMY OF THE C3 AND C4 PLANT
  28. 40. THANK YOU..

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