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  1. 1. You Will Learn… 13 About the Windows NT environment Week 6-7 and its architecture About the strengths and weaknesses of Windows NT Understanding and Supporting How to evaluate when Windows NT is the best choice a PC OS Windows NT Workstation How to install and customize Windows NT continued You Will Learn… Windows NT vs. Windows 9x 13 13 How to set up a Windows NT environment for a DOS or Windows 3.x application How to use some Windows NT troubleshooting techniques and tools Not All Hardware Devices Are Features of Windows NT Supported by Windows NT 13 13 Desktop performance Hardware profiles Internet Explorer Peer Web Services Security OS stability 1
  2. 2. The Windows NT Command The Windows NT Desktop Prompt 13 13 The Windows NT Command Choosing Between Windows 9x Prompt and Windows NT 13 13 Does Windows NT support all the hardware devices on your PC? Is the PC powerful and big enough to support Windows NT? Will the software you intend to use on the PC work better under Windows 98 or Windows NT? Is price a factor? Upgrading from Windows 9x to A Choice of File Systems Windows NT 13 13 No automatic upgrade path FAT16 file system No transfer of system settings Windows NT file system Requires reinstallation of each NT does not support FAT32 application 2
  3. 3. FAT16 File System Windows NT File System 13 13 Used by Windows 9x and its predecessors Works only with Windows NT To manage data on a logical drive, uses: Uses a database called the master file table (MFT) as its core component • Boot record • FAT Advantages of NTFS over FAT16 • Directories • Recoverable • Data files • Increased security Advantages of FAT16 over NTFS • Supports mirroring drives • Uses smaller cluster sizes • Less overhead • Supports large-volume drives • Compatible with other operating systems • Can boot PC from a disk to gain access to drive Master File Table Hard Drive Partitions 13 13 Windows NT Environment and The Dual Boot Architecture 13 13 The ability to boot from either Windows Goals of Windows NT NT or another OS • Room to grow • Portability to different platforms System partition must be FAT rather than NTFS • Compatibility with other OSs and legacy software • Security • Performance and reliability 3
  4. 4. The Modular Concept of DOS Analogy Windows NT 13 13 Isolate one process from another so that a change in one process has the least possible effect on other processes Windows 9x OS Analogy Windows NT OS Analogy 13 13 Most analogous to Windows 9x OS Core Components of Windows User Mode and Kernel Mode NT Architecture 13 13 User mode • Nonprivileged processor mode • Programs have only limited access to system information and can only access hardware through other OS services Kernel mode • Privileged processor mode • Programs have extensive access to system information and hardware 4
  5. 5. How Programs Interact with User Mode Subsystems 13 13 Divided into different modules called subsystems • Environment subsystems • Integral subsystems Executive Services Portion of Kernel Mode Kernel Mode 13 13 Combination of hardware abstraction layer (HAL) and executive services Windows NT Memory Model Processes and Threads 13 13 Process • A program or group of programs that is running, together with the system resources assigned to it, such as memory addresses, environmental variables, and other resources Thread • A single task that the process requests from the kernel, such as the task of printing a file 5
  6. 6. Virtual DOS Machine Windows NT Networking 13 13 Workgroup Isolates an application from the rest of • Logical group of computers and users that share the system by providing the entire DOS- resources like environment to the application • Control of administration, resources, and security Components of a NTVDM is distributed throughout the network Domain • Ntvdm.exe • A group of networked computers that share a • Ntio.sys centralized directory database of user account • Ntdos.sys information and security for the entire set of • An instruction execution unit computers A Windows NT Workgroup A Windows NT Domain 13 13 Primary Domain Controller User Accounts (PDC) 13 13 User accounts Control who has access to what programs, files, and other resources Group accounts Are stored in the SAM database that Computer accounts defines the NT user, including username, password, memberships, and rights 6
  7. 7. Creating a User Account Creating a User Account 13 13 Creating a User Account Creating a User Account 13 13 Creating a User Account Creating a User Account 13 13 7
  8. 8. Installing and Customizing Preparing for the Installation Windows NT 13 13 Preparing for the installation Preparing for Windows NT • Determine if hardware can support Step-by-step installation Windows NT by searching the HCL or using the NT Hardware Qualifier (NTHQ) Choosing the right file system (FAT16 vs. NTFS) What Happens During the Boot What Happens During the Boot Sequence Sequence 13 13 Files Needed to Successfully Troubleshooting the Boot Boot Windows NT Process 13 13 Last Known Good Configuration • Copy of hardware configuration saved from the Registry Windows NT boot disks (3) Windows NT emergency repair disk (ERD) • Contains information unique to the OS and hard drive (a backup of the Windows NT Registry on the hard drive) 8
  9. 9. Using the Boots Disks and ERD Why Applications Might Not to Recover from a Failed Boot Work with Windows NT 13 13 DOS applications that try to access hardware directly are shut down by Windows NT A 16-bit Windows application that uses virtual device drivers (VxD) will fail because these drivers attempt to access hardware directly A 32-bit application developed on a different hardware platform than the current PC might not run under Windows NT Some OS/2 applications are not compatible with Windows NT The Windows NT Registry How the Registry Is Organized 13 13 Hierarchical database containing all the hardware, software, device drivers, network protocols, and user configuration information needed by the OS and applications Ways to look at Registry organization • Physical organization • Logical organization continued Logical Organization of the How the Registry Is Organized Registry 13 13 9
  10. 10. The Windows NT Registry Physical Organization of the Editor Registry 13 13 Subtrees on the Windows NT Two Registry Editors Registry 13 13 Regedt32.exe Regedit.exe Registry Editor Backing Up the Registry 13 13 Use Rdisk.exe to create an ERD Make a new ERD so that the Registry backup is up to date 10
  11. 11. Installing Software and Installing Hardware Hardware 13 13 Use the Windows NT Control Panel Changes are made to the Registry Installing Hardware Windows NT Diagnostic Tools 13 13 Task Manager Event Viewer Windows NT Diagnostics The Task Manager The Task Manager 13 13 First introduced with Windows NT 4.0 Allows you to monitor processes and applications running on the PC, and to start and stop them Displays performance measurements (processor time, main memory and virtual memory size, number of threads) to help in diagnosing problems with poor performance 11
  12. 12. The Task Manager The Task Manager 13 13 The Event Viewer The Event Viewer 13 13 Used to view a log that Windows NT created because of a failed event Tracks events as they are performed by the applications, the OS, services, or processes, and by user actions The Event Viewer Windows NT Diagnostics 13 13 A graphical view of the Windows NT Registry showing hardware and OS data, which can be used to: • Resolve conflicts • Diagnose failed hardware • View information about drivers and services that are loaded 12
  13. 13. Windows NT Diagnostics Chapter Summary 13 13 Introduction to Windows NT (new technology) • Basic architecture • Installation • Maintenance • Troubleshooting continued Chapter Summary Chapter Summary 13 13 Windows NT is architecturally more like UNIX Two versions of Windows NT OS than other Windows operating systems • Windows NT Workstation Windows NT design Can be used on a standalone PC or can be • Emphasis on room for expandability (modular used as the operating system on a workstation approach) connected to a network • Intended to port to several non-Intel-based • Windows NT Server platforms • Provision of high level of security, performance, Can do the same, as well as provide a domain and reliability environment on the network • Offers strong networking features continued 13