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Refuting Misconceptions Women in Islam

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Refuting Misconceptions Women in Islam

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Refuting Misconceptions Women in Islam

  1. 1. 1Rasoulallah.net
  2. 2. 2The Seduction of the Woman and Likening her to the Devil .............. 3Is the Voice of the Woman Private? What is meant by creating her from aCrooked Rib? .................................................................................. 6Does Islam allow Wife Beating? ...................................................... 10Why is the Marriage of a Muslim Woman from a Non-Muslim Man prohibited..................................................................................................... 14Polygyny in Islam & the Other Religions-By Jamal Mohammad Al-Zaki 16
  3. 3. 3 Rasoulallah.netThe Seduction of the Woman and Likening her to the Devilthe seduction (fitna) of the woman… what is the meaning of likening the woman tothe devil?some people are inquiring why islam describes the woman as (fitna) and what is themeaning of likening her to the devil?concerning the first question, it is important to understand the meaning of (fitna). thisword (fitna) was mentioned in the holy quran and the prophetic traditions in severalmeanings, but the mostly used meaning for such word (fitna) was “test or the trial”.in fact, i do not know whether such people, who accuse islam of describing womanas fitna, realize the true meaning of the word “fitna” or not. did they read the holyquran or not?the holy quran demonstrated to us that all the circumstances we experience in ourlife, whether good or evil, are fitna i.e. a test or a trial. allah the almighty said: {andwe shall make a trial of you with evil and with good, and to us you will be returned}(al anbia’ 35) and said also: {he] who created death and life to test you [as to] whichof you is best in deed - and he is the exalted in might, the forgiving} (al mulk 2), andsaid further: {and know that your properties and your children are but a trial and thatallah has with him a great reward} (al-anfal 28).therefore, “the woman is a fitna” means that the woman is a test or a trial to theman. in other words, will the men devote their full time to their women and forgettheir lord and his worship? will the men disobey allah the almighty for the sake ofthe women? will they make the forbidden looks to the women? will they establishillegal relationships with them? or shall they keep their modesty and establish theirrelationships according to the manner which satisfies allah the almighty?likewise, the man is the test & trial for the woman; accordingly, if a beautiful and richman, but not observing the orders of allah, came and asked the marriage form anywoman, will she then be seduced with such beauty or richness and takes him as ahusband? or will she even take him as a boy friend and disobey the orders of allahthe almighty? or shall she realize that she is under a test and should refuse marriageto such man until he observes his religion and marries her according to the mannerallowed by allah the almighty?
  4. 4. 4 Rasoulallah.netmoreover, the children are a test for their parents; will such children distract theirparents from the worship of allah? will the parents bring up their children accordingto the islamic manners? or will they bring them up according to the western behaviorswhich violate the teachings and manners of islam? in fact, nothing can be construed as an insult to the woman when we describe her asfitna; allah the almighty described children as fitna, so, is this calculated as an insultto the children? of course no, because we know that the meaning of fitna is “test”or “trial”; accordingly, the term “fitna” applies to all of us, as mentioned by allah thealmighty in this verse: {and we have made some of you [people] as trial for others -will you have patience?} (al-furqan 20); therefore, every one of us is a trial (fitna” forthe people around him.------------------------------------------------------------the second issue is: does islam looks to the woman as a devil? of course no. this iscompletely false allegation because if we argue – which is not true - that islam looksto the woman as a devil, then the man also will be considered a devil according tosuch perspective, because the prophet – peace be upon him – said: “the men andwoman are alike” i.e. alike in being subject to the same islamic teachings, orders andprovisions. accordingly, if we argue that women are devils, then the men will be devilstoo, because they are alike!!!in fact, this allegation (i.e. looking to the woman as devil) was fabricated by somepeople in order to make others hate islam – as they are doing always. they areinterpreting the prophetic traditions in a manner contradicting the original intentionsand meanings thereof for the purpose of distorting the meaning. the prophetic tradition– which mentioned this issue – is true and right, and was narrated by muslim, andhere is the text: the prophet – peace be upon him – said: [the woman, while goingand coming, is as seducing as the devil; so, if one of you saw a woman and admiredher, let him then copulate with his wife so that he can satisfy his desire (in the legalmanner)].dr. abdul hakim sadeq al fetouri said: “there is nothing insulting in this text, there isnothing disregarding the woman or disgracing her; contrary, the meaning of the textis that the men have affection and desires toward women and they enjoy looking towomen; therefore, such looking will cause seduction and may lead to adultery; so,
  5. 5. 5 Rasoulallah.netthe woman who seduces any man and urges him to commit adultery is as seducingas the devil in seducing the believers and urging them to do sins.the said prophetic tradition came in the context of warning the women from theconsequences of not wearing their hijab (islamic veil) in order not to seduce men. theprophetic tradition contained also a prophetic remedy for such seduction i.e. the manshould copulate with his wife if he feels seduction in order to get rid of such seductionor desires in the legal manner.the above mentioned suspicions came from the defective understanding to the rank& dignity of the woman in islam and the wrong assumptions about islam and that it issiding with the man. the man was also described as devil if he told others about thedetails of copulating with his wife. the prophet – peace be upon him - described theman who tells others about the details of copulating with his wife or the woman whotells others about the details of copulating with her husband as the following: (theyare just like a male devil and female devil who met and copulated with each otherwhile the people are looking at them”) narrated by ahmad.accordingly, the likening to devil has nothing to do with the gender; whether man orwoman, but it is related to the deed made by the man or the woman. this is one ofthe expressions used in the arabic language which does not indicate that the man orthe woman is a devil himself/herself, as alleged by some people.
  6. 6. 6 Rasoulallah.netIs the Voice of the Woman Private? What is meant by creating her from aCrooked Rib?one of the widely spread rumors is that islam considers the voice of the womanprivate and should not be heard; therefore, we would like to answer this suspicion inbrief because there are plenty of juristic texts refuting such rumors.the holy quran narrated the story of the two daughters of the prophet shu’ayb (peacebe upon him) when they spoke to the prophet moses (peace be upon him) in thefollowing verse {and when he arrived at the water of madyan (midian) he found therea group of men watering (their flocks), and besides them he found two women whowere keeping back (their flocks). he said: “what is the matter with you?” they said:“we cannot water (our flocks) until the shepherds take (their flocks). and our father isa very old man} (qasas 23) and one of them told moses (peace be upon him) {thenthere came to him one of the two women, walking shyly. she said: “verily, my fathercalls you that he may reward you for having watered (our flocks) for us} (qasas 25).accordingly, if the voice of the woman should be kept private, then how the twodaughters of shu’ayb (peace be upon him) spoke to moses (peace be upon him)?moreover, how the could the woman be prevented from speaking while islam allowedher to sell, purchase, give advices, enjoin what is right, forbid what is wrong {thebelieving men and believing women are allies of one another. they enjoin what is rightand forbid what is wrong} (al-tawbah 71).it is narrated also that a woman has stood up in the masjed and asked the caliph omar(may allah be pleased with him) to comply with the verses of the holy quran whenthe caliph wanted to put limits for the dowries, and said: how is it that you want tolimit the dowry while allah the almighty said: {but if you want to replace one wifewith another and you have given one of them a great amount [in gifts] , do not take[back] from it anything} (an-nisa’), then the caliph omar (may allah be pleased withhim) said his known statement: omar has mistaken and the woman was right.and here is a self-explanatory prophetic tradition about the rank of the woman inislam:lady umm salama; hind bint abi umayyah – may allah be pleased with her – narrated
  7. 7. 7 Rasoulallah.netthat when the prophet – peace be upon him – emigrated, zainab – daughter of theprophet peace be upon him – asked the permission of her husband; abu al aas binal rabi’, who was still a polytheist, to go with the prophet – peace be upon him – sohe gave her the permission. then abu al aas went to medina and sent to his wife arequest to take asylum for him from her father; then zainab looked from her roomwhile the prophet – peace be upon him – was performing the prayer of al fajr (dawn)with his companions, and said: o people! i am zainab the daughter of the prophet –peace be upon him – i have granted asylum to abu al aas. when the prophet – peacebe upon him – finished the prayer, he said: (i did not know about that until you heardit; surely, any muslim can grant asylum whomsoever) . narrated by al-albani in al-selsila al-sahiha 6-770.islam has a great attitude and has given the due honor to the woman, but the ignorantpeople are circulating that islam disregard the woman and her dignity. it is better forsuch people to put their heads in the soil out of shame for their disgraceful attitudestoward the woman. they have transgressed her dignity and made her a piece ofmerchandise for selling and buying. if we contemplate in the position of the womanin the west we will feel sympathy because the lustful people exploited the woman tosatisfy their desires and pushed her toward nakedness under the pretext of freedomand made her a symbol of prostitution under the pretext of art and invention; so whatkind of honor is this? where is the honor of the woman?-----------------------------------------------------------------another fabricated suspicion about the woman is that: islam considers that the womanwas created out of crooked rib; so, let us refer to the relevant prophetic tradition toknow the truth:al bukhari narrated in his book “sahih al bukhari” that the prophet – peace be uponhim – said: (he who believes in allah and the day of judgment should not cause harmto his neighbors. treat women kindly, they were created out of a rib (i.e. eve wascreated out of the rib of adam), and the most crooked part in the rib is the highestpart thereof; so, if you tried to rectify the rib it will be broken, and if you left the rib asit is, it will remain crooked, and women are like this; therefore treat them kindly) .what can we learn from this prophetic tradition?first: the prophet – peace be upon him – did not say that the woman was created
  8. 8. 8 Rasoulallah.netout of a crooked rib as alleged by them, but he told that she was created out of a rib.this is something unseen revealed from allah the almighty to his prophet muhammad– peace be upon him. this does not contain any insult to the woman. it is just likewhen allah the almighty told us that {and certainly did we create man from an extractof clay} , so, does this mean that islam insults man? no, it is just informing us aboutsomething unknown to no one except allah the almighty and we should believe that.second: the prophet – peace be upon him – has informed us about the fact thatthe woman was created from the rib of adam (peace be upon him), and this is alsomentioned in the holy quran {o mankind! be dutiful to your lord, who created you froma single person (adam), and from him (adam) he created his wife [hawwa (eve)]} i.e.this teaches us the true relation between the man and the woman. it is an integralrelation because the woman is from the man, and the man is from the woman. allahthe almighty said: {you are (members) one of another} (al-imran 195).this prophetic tradition came in the context of directing men to treat woman kindlyand tolerate them because the woman has an emotional nature. in explaining thefollowing quranic verse {o mankind! be dutiful to your lord, who created you from asingle person (adam), and from him (adam) he created his wife [hawwa (eve)]} },sheikh al-sharawi – may allah have mercy on him – said: (allah the almighty said:{and from him he created his wife) i.e. if the woman was created from the rib, thenthe word “from” will refer to part of a whole, and if the woman was created likeadam, the word “from” will refer to demonstration only, i.e. of the same kind. allahthe almighty knows best what he wants to create, the shape, the task which will beperformed by such creature; therefore, allah the almighty creates the specifications &features which can perform such goal & task. you may imagine that some creatureshave no function in life, or that some creatures would be better if they were created inanother shape, but the case is not like this. there was a man who contemplated in thecreation of the world by allah the almighty and said: there is no creation and inventionmore than this. moreover, there was a welder taking the straight bars and curve it.seeing that, his son asked; why doesn’t the welder leave the bars straight? the fathertaught him: these bars cannot perform their function except by being curved. thesame concerning hooks and sickles, if they were straight, they won’t perform theirtask. in the light of this perspective, we can better understand the prophetic traditionwhich mentioned: (treat women kindly, they were created out of a rib (i.e. eve wascreated out of the rib of adam), and the most crooked part in the rib is the highestpart thereof; so, if you tried to rectify the rib it will be broken, and if you left the rib
  9. 9. 9 Rasoulallah.netas it is, it will remain crooked, and women are like this; therefore treat them kindly). the ribs in your thorax cannot perform their task i.e. protecting the heart and thelungs, except in this crooked shape which maintain the most important parts in yourbody; therefore, crookedness is like a sympathy and protection, and this is exactly themission of the woman in life. she is, for example, taking care of her embryo duringpregnancy, and after delivery she exerts more care and provides more compassion toher child.accordingly, the description of the prophet – peace be upon him – is not an insultor disregard to woman, because such crookedness in the nature of the woman isthe essential thing supplementing her mission in life; therefore, you find that thesympathetic aspect is more prevailing than the metal aspect because the mission ofthe women requires such nature, while the mental aspect of the men is prevailingon the sympathetic aspect so that they can perform their mission in life. accordingly,allah the almighty has assigned a certain task for each creature, and each of us hashis own task irrespective of any apparent defects).
  10. 10. 10 Rasoulallah.netDoes Islam allow Wife Beating?commenting on this issue, dr. muzammil h. siddiqi , former president of the islamicsociety of north america, states:“according to the qur’an the relationship between the husband and wife should bebased on mutual love and kindness. allah says: “and among his signs is this, that hecreated for you mates from among yourselves, that ye may dwell in tranquility withthem, and he has put love and mercy between your (hearts): verily in that are signsfor those who reflect.” (ar-rum: 21)the qur’an urges husbands to treat their wives with kindness. [in the event of a familydispute, the qur’an exhorts the husband to treat his wife kindly and not to overlookher positive aspects]. allah almighty says: “live with them on a footing of kindness andequity. if ye take a dislike to them it may be that ye dislike a thing, and allah bringsabout through it a great deal of good.” (an-nisa’: 19)it is important that a wife recognizes the authority of her husband in the house. heis the head of the household, and she is supposed to listen to him. but the husbandshould also use his authority with respect and kindness towards his wife. if there arisesany disagreement or dispute among them, then it should be resolved in a peacefulmanner. spouses should seek the counsel of their elders and other respectable familymembers and friends to batch up the rift and solve the differences.however, in some cases a husband may use some light disciplinary action in order tocorrect the moral infraction of his wife, but this is only applicable in extreme casesand it should be resorted to if one is sure it would improve the situation. however, ifthere is a fear that it might worsen the relationship or may wreak havoc on him or thefamily, then he should avoid it completely.the qur’an is very clear on this issue. almighty allah says: “men are the protectors andmaintainers of women, because allah has given the one more strength than the other,and because they support them from their means. therefore the righteous women aredevoutly obedient and guard in the husband’s absence what allah would have them toguard. as to those women on whose part you fear disloyalty and ill-conduct, admonishthem (first), (next), refuse to share their beds, (and last) beat them (lightly); but ifthey return to obedience, seek not against them means (of annoyance); for allah is
  11. 11. 11 Rasoulallah.netmost high and great (above you all). if you fear a breach between them twain, appoint(two) arbiters, one from his family and the other from hers. if they wish for peace,allah will cause their reconciliation; for allah has full knowledge and is acquainted withall things.” (an-nisa’: 34-35)it is important to read the section fully. one should not take part of the verse and use itto justify one’s own misconduct. this verse neither permits violence nor condones it. itguides us to ways to handle delicate family situation with care and wisdom. the word“beating” is used in the verse, but it does not mean “physical abuse”. the prophet(peace and blessings be upon him) explained it “dharban ghayra mubarrih “ whichmeans “a light tap that leaves no mark”. he further said that face must be avoided.some other scholars are of the view that it is no more than a light touch by siwak , ortoothbrush.generally, the prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) used to discourage hisfollowers from taking even this measure. he never hit any female, and he used to saythat the best of men are those who do not hit their wives. in one hadith he expressedhis extreme repulsion from this behavior and said, “how does anyone of you beat hiswife as he beats the stallion camel and then embrace (sleep with) her?” (al-bukhari,english translation, vol. 8, hadith 68, pp. 42-43)it is also important to note that even this “light strike” mentioned in the verse is notto be used to correct some minor problem, but it is permissible to resort to only ina situation of some serious moral misconduct when admonishing the wife fails, andavoiding from sleeping with her would not help. if this disciplinary action can correcta situation and save the marriage, then one should use it.”dr. jamal badawi , professor at saint mary’s university in halifax, nova scotia, canada,and a cross-appointed faculty member in the departments of religious studies andmanagement, adds:“if the problem relates to the wife’s behavior, the husband may exhort her and appealfor reason. in most cases, this measure is likely to be sufficient. in cases wherethe problem persists, the husband may express his displeasure in another peacefulmanner, by sleeping in a separate bed from hers. there are cases, however, in whicha wife persists in bad habits and showing contempt of her husband and disregardfor her marital obligations. instead of divorce, the husband may resort to another
  12. 12. 12 Rasoulallah.netmeasure that may save the marriage, at least in some cases. such a measure is moreaccurately described as a gentle tap on the body, but never on the face, making itmore of a symbolic measure than a punitive one.even here, that maximum measure is limited by the following:a. it must be seen as a rare exception to the repeated exhortation of mutual respect,kindness and good treatment. based on the qur’an and hadith, this measure maybe used in the cases of lewdness on the part of the wife or extreme refraction andrejection of the husband’s reasonable requests on a consistent basis (nushuz ). eventhen, other measures, such as exhortation, should be tried first.b. as defined by hadith, it is not permissible to strike anyone’s face, cause any bodilyharm or even be harsh. what the hadith qualifies as “dharban ghayra mubarrih “,or light striking, was interpreted by early jurists as a (symbolic) use of siwak ! theyfurther qualified permissible “striking” as that which leaves no mark on the body. itis interesting that this latter fourteen-centuries-old qualifier is the criterion used incontemporary american law to separate a light and harmless tap or strike from “abuse”in the legal sense. this makes it clear that even this extreme, last resort, and “lesserof the two evils” measure that may save a marriage does not meet the definitionsof “physical abuse,” “family violence, “ or “wife battering” in the 20th century law inliberal democracies, where such extremes are so commonplace that they are seen asnational concerns.c. the permissibility of such symbolic expression of the seriousness of continuedrefraction does not imply its desirability. in several hadiths, the prophet (peace andblessings be upon him) discouraged this measure. here are some of his sayings in thisregard:“do not beat the female servants of allah” ;“some (women) visited my family complaining about their husbands (beating them).these (husbands) are not the best of you.”in another hadith the prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) is reported to havesaid: “how does anyone of you beat his wife as he beats the stallion camel and thenhe may embrace (sleep with) her?”
  13. 13. 13 Rasoulallah.netd. true following of the sunnah is to follow the example of the prophet (peaceand blessings be upon him) who never resorted to that measure, regardless of thecircumstances.e. islamic teachings are universal in nature. they respond to the needs and circumstancesof diverse times, cultures and circumstances. some measures may work in somecases and cultures or with certain persons but may not be effective in others. bydefinition, a “permissible” act is neither required, encouraged or forbidden. in fact itmay be to spell out the extent of permissibility, such as in the issue at hand, ratherthan leaving it unrestricted or unqualified, or ignoring it all together. in the absence ofstrict qualifiers, persons may interpret the matter in their own way, which can lead toexcesses and real abuse.f. any excess, cruelty, family violence, or abuse committed by any “muslim” can neverbe traced, honestly, to any revelatory text (qur’an or hadith). such excesses andviolations are to be blamed on the person(s) himself, as it shows that they are payinglip service to islamic teachings and injunctions and failing to follow the true sunnah ofthe prophet (peace and blessings be upon him).”
  14. 14. 14 Rasoulallah.netWhy is the Marriage of a Muslim Woman from a Non-Muslim Manprohibitedthe secret behind prohibiting the marriage of a muslim woman from a non-muslimman .why does islam allow a muslim man to get married to al-ketabeyyat (christian orjewish women) while prohibiting a muslim woman to do the same?this is a good and logical question , and before replying to it we have to confirm thatislam prohibited this :and do not marry female associators (those who associate others with allah) untilthey believe; and indeed a believing bondwoman is more charitable than a femaleassociator, even if you may admire her. and do not (allow) associators to marry (yourfemales) until they believe. and indeed a believing bondman is more charitable thanan associator, even if you may admire him.(al-baqara:221)this prohibition is mainly due to the fact that a woman, usually, follows her husband,for the man has a greater influence on his wife than she has on him. in fact, islam hasa number of aims of which are the following two:the first: islam aims at being apprehended clearly and unequivocally. this resultsin people’s faith that it is the religion of truth. that is why islam granted a muslimman the right to get married to a non-muslim woman providing that she is one ofthe people of the book, which means her being christian or jewish, because she, atleast, believes in allah the almighty and his inspiration, regardless of the nature of thisbelief. accordingly, she can understand islam easier. especially when she gets marriedto a true muslim committed to islam’s doctrines in all his sayings and deeds. for whenshe touches in him islam’s ethics along with his handsome equitable behavior towardsher, this can be a reason for her to convert to islam. however, she has the right to stickto her religion and no one has the right to force her to convert “there is no compulsionin the religion” (al-baqara:256).the second: islam aims at keeping its followers committed and connected to it.
  15. 15. 15 Rasoulallah.nettherefore, it doesn’t let them being exposed to whatever has a negative effect on theirfaith. this is called temptation in religion “and temptation in religion is greater thankilling”(al-baqara:217).in fact, this kind of temptation takes several shapes and of which might be tormentingthe muslim to change his/her believes.(in this case: being married to a non-muslimwhatever his religion is).and why is that considered a temptation in religion? simplybecause, as stated above, the husband has the greater influence on his wife, andperhaps this non-muslim husband tries to exert a negative influence on his muslimwife leading her to leave her religion or, at least, to be uncommitted to its hollydoctrines, which isn’t wanted by islam in what concerns its followers. for islam wantsto provide the suitable atmosphere for them to be committed to its teachings.this is why islam urged the muslim woman to choose a good husband. even whenshe is getting married to a muslim man, she has to select the one who follows islam’sdoctrines commitedly and rejects who ignores them. all of that is for a muslim womanto cling to her religion and transcends herself from every negative influence.
  16. 16. 16 Rasoulallah.netPolygyny in Islam & the Other Religions-By Jamal Mohammad Al-Zakirefuting the doubts about polygyny in islamthe enemies of islam, the ill-hearted people and like have challenged the verses ofthe holy quran regarding the issue of polygyny as in the following verse: allah thealmighty said: { marry such women as is good to you, two, three, four, (literally: intwos and threes and fours) }(1). the enemies of islam said that the holy quran hasdisregarded the woman, neglected her rights and returned her back to the traditionsof the pre-islamic era.before going through polygyny in islam and its purposes, we should answer thisimportant question: is it islam which invented the polygyny? or was it available beforeislam? it is established, from the historical point of view, that polygyny is an oldphenomenon known by the humanity since the old ages in all communities beforeislam:torah & judaism : torah has permitted the jew to marry more than one woman andhas not even put a limit for the number of wives; however, the talmud limited thenumber to four wives only under one condition that the husband should be able tosupport them. talmud stated: the husband may not marry more than four wives, asjacob – peace be upon him – did, unless the husband has sworn to do that in the firstmarriage. so, polygyny here is permissible if the husband would be able to supporthis wives. (2).the book of genesis (sifr at-takueen) : jacob, peace upon him, has married: “(31) lee’a.. (24) rahil .. (25) one of rahil’s slave girls … (26) and one of lee’a’s slave girls..” (3)therefore, he had four wives in the same time: two sisters i.e. lee’a and rahil, and theirtwo slave girls.the book of numbers (sifr al-adad) : dawood – peace be upon him, had several wivesand many slave girls and his son sulaiman, - peace be upon him – had also the same:“as for sulaiman – peace be upon him – he had more than one thousand wives”. butthe polygyny was abrogated under the civil laws stipulated by the jewish scholarsand was adopted by the jewish assemblies; thereafter, it acquired the legal capacity.article 54 of the legal provisions of the israelis stipulated: “the man may not have
  17. 17. 17 Rasoulallah.netmore than one wife, and he should swear the oath not to marry again upon enteringthe contract” (6) therefore, the prohibition was not stipulated in torah, but frommaking the oath.polygyny in the bible & christianity : at the beginning, christianity has sanctioned thepolygyny as in judaism and the priests did not object on the same until the seventeenthcentury in which the prohibition began and was finally prescribed in 1750 under thepretext that monogamy will promote their rank – i.e. the rank of the priests – andthat they will be devoted to the propagation so that the problems of women will notdistract them from taking care of the church and its followers.the prohibition took place gradually. first, it was prohibited on the priests only. thereafter,the church applied the religious rituals only on the first marriage of the people otherthan the priests; therefore, if the christian man wished to marry the second wife noreligious rituals will be applied thereon. after that, monogamy was prescribed butit was allowed to have slave girls (7); however, this was also prevented in 970 a.d.under the order to patriarch ibram al-sorbani (8).in that way the prohibition took place under the man-made laws and not the divineones.. then, they began propagating for the celibacy which was found in christianityonly and not in the other religions. they considered celibacy as a sign for the goodnessof the soul and a reason to reach sacredness and rise in the ranks of believe or theranks of the church. they considered the lust as a vice so the priests should not havethis vice!! one of the justifications mentioned by “polis” in his propagation for celibacywas: (32) i want you to live without concerns. the one who does not marry will alwaysbe concerned in the affairs of the god (33) his goal is to please the god, but the onewho married is concerned in the worldly matters and his goal is to please his wife (34)therefore, his concern is divided; moreover, the unmarried woman and the single oneare concerned about the affairs of the god and their goal is to be sacred in body andsoul” (9).accordingly, they have perverted the wordings from their contexts; thus, their thoughtswere destructive and their principles were wrong and cannot be agreeable by thesound minds and the pure natures. how can the progeny be found, or how the humanbeings multiply without a legal marriage? where is the love, mercy and the peace ofmind? how to extinguish the instinctive lust which was put down in us by allah thealmighty who guided us to the right way to discharge it? how can we find the marital
  18. 18. 18 Rasoulallah.nethome which is the fortified castle preventing from adultery and taking mates (girlfriend/boy friend)? where shall the instinctive motherly passion go? where shall theinstinctive fatherly passion go?...polygyny in islam :allah the almighty has legislated marriage for human beings - : { and allah has madefor you of yourselves spouses }(10) - for honoring them, completing his blessings onthem, purifying their hearts and bodies from the abomination, adultery and corruptionand helping them in keeping their chastity, virtue, love, mercy, integrity and stability.marriage is the ever strong, deep, permanent and sincere relation between manand woman. this relation accommodates the reactions exchanged between man andwoman, each according to his function; allah the almighty said: { he is the one whocreated you of one self, and made of it its spouse that he might serenely dwell withher }(11). this is the vision of islam to the truth of the human beings and their martialfunction. it is a comprehensive and true vision (12).islam did not prescribe on people celibacy or monasticism: “allah the almighty hasgiven us the true religion instead of the monasticism” (13). islam legislated marriageas a way to purity, chastity, and virtue; therefore, the prophet – peace be upon him –said: “he who wants to meet allah the almighty with purity and virtue he should marryfreewomen” (14). the prophet – peace be upon him – also said “marriage is of mysunna – way of life – and everyone not applying my sunna will not be my follower; so,marry to enlarge your numbers (for the sake of allah and building the earth)” (15). he– peace be upon him – said also “any capable person should marry because marriagewill protect his eyes from the prohibited glances and will protect his private parts fromthe prohibited actions…” (16). islam has also allowed “polygyny” if necessary and hereare the grounds of polygyny:first : islam did not invent the polygyny. polygyny was well-known and widely-spreadin all communities. arab people in the pre-islamic era were practicing polygyny widelywithout paying any attention to any considerations.second : islam has come in order to organize the affairs of people; therefore, it hasinterfered in order to organize the matter of the non-restricted polygyny, prevent thedamages thereof, arrange it, and make it in conformity with the public welfare: allahthe almighty said: { and, in case you fear that you will not act equitably towards the
  19. 19. 19 Rasoulallah.netorphans, then marry such women as is good to you, two, three, four, (literally: in twosand threes and fours) }(17). after revealing this verse, the prophet – peace be uponhim – ordered the persons who were having more than four wives to keep four onlyand release the others. al bukharai narrated in his book “al-adab al-mufrad” that thecompanion ghailan – may allah be pleased with him – has embraced islam and washaving ten wives, so the prophet – peace be upon him – told him “choose four of themonly” (18). abu dawood narrated that omairah alasadi said: i embraced islam and washaving eight wives, so i informed the prophet – peace be upon him – about this, hesaid: “choose four of them only” (19). moreover, al-shafie narrated in his book –al-musnad- that nawful bin mo’awiah al dulaimi said: i embraced islam and was havingfive wives but the prophet – peace be upon him – told me: “choose four of them andrelease the other” therefore, i released the oldest of them as she was sterile sincesixty years (20). so, before islam, polygyny was not restricted and was not having anylimits or conditions but after islam polygyny was restricted with four wives only.third : islam did not leave polygyny to the fancy of the men, but it has restrictedpolygyny with “justice”; otherwise, this option – polygyny - will not apply. islammentioned two kinds of justice:-: obligatory justice : it means the justice in treatment, maintenance, intimacy andall the other external aspects of justice in a way not to deprive any of the wivesfrom such things and not to prefer any of them more than others as stipulated in thefollowing verse: { in case you fear that you will not do justice, then one (only) } (21).the prophet – peace be upon him – said “any person having two wives and does nottreat them equally & justly, then he will come at the day of judgment with his bodynot straight” (22). muslim narrated that abdullah bin amr bin al-aas stated that theprophet – peace be upon him – said: “the believers who are just in their judgments,just in treating their families and just in governing their people will sit down on brightplatforms to the right of allah the almighty whose both hands are right” (23).2-: justice in emotion : the justice in emotions and affection is something fallingbeyond the control of people and it is not required from them. this kind is mentionedin this verse: { and you will never be able to do justice between (your) wives, (literally:women) even if you are (so) eager; yet do not incline away completely (literally:incline away all inclining) (from one), so that you leave her (behind) as if she weresuspended }(24).
  20. 20. 20 Rasoulallah.nethowever, this kind does not mean to wrong any wife. if the heart liked one wife morethan the other, then there should be other space in the heart to accommodate theother in a way not to incline away completely from one of them and leave the otherbehind as if she were suspended or not married. lady aisha – may allah be pleasedwith her – the wife of the prophet – peace be upon him- was having a special positionin the heart of the prophet – peace be upon him – who was giving her a special love,yet the prophet – peace be upon him – said: “o my lord, i am treating my wives justlyin the external sense which i can control, o my lord do not blame me for the internalsense (the heart) which is under your control not mine”.(25).therefore, the later verse does not prohibit the polygyny mentioned in the formerverse, because the justice required under the first verse is the material one while thejustice mentioned in the second verse is not to incline away completely from any ofhis wives because the emotions of the heart are not under the control of the man butunder the control of allah the almighty who turns them as he wants; therefore, theprophet – peace be upon him – said “o my lord who turns the hearts as he wants,make my heart firmed on your religion”. accordingly, if any person was not sure ofachieving the just treatment in the external sense he should not marry more than onewife because allah the almighty said { in case you fear that you will not do justice, thenone (only);(that means marry one only) }. the purpose of that is to avoid injustice andunfairness, allah the almighty said { that will be more suitable, to prevent you fromdoing injustice }.fourth : the purposes of polygyny, subject to the regulations thereof, are the following(but allah the almighty knows best the purposes thereof):1- the purpose of polygyny is not the satisfaction of the animal lusts or going fromone woman to another, but it is a necessary solution for several problems. islam isfocusing on finding the right solutions to all problems and it did not left any problemswithout prescribing the right solution thereto.2- if we suppose that we have two systems – as mentioned by dr. mahmoud amarah– one of them allowing polygyny, prohibiting all the other forbidden relations betweenthe two sexes and imposing a severe punishment on those who transgress the honorand commit adultery, while the other system prohibiting polygyny, allowing theforbidden relations between the two sexes and does not punish the transgressors inthis regard… therefore, if polygyny was to be allowed, then the first system is more
  21. 21. 21 Rasoulallah.netsuitable because it respects the humanity of the woman, her rights and children.(27)3- islam is looking to the society – the individual and society – from the point ofview of giving the priority to the welfare of society rather than the welfare of theindividual in order to avoid the blights and achieve the benefits for all. on the lightof this, we can say that there are seven cases necessitate polygyny: special casesrelated to the divorced woman, widowed woman, spinster, sterile woman in additionto special cases related to the man, war conditions and laws of allah the almighty inthe universe. (28)the special cases of woman- the divorced woman, widowed woman and the spinsters are all confronting theghost of deprivation because few numbers of people are interested in marryingthem; therefore, they are living in suppression and conflict with the natural instincts;accordingly, they are in front of two options:either to approach the ways of seduction and deviation from morals, or to be wivesfor married men; being the second, third or the fourth wife. therefore, the polygynyis the most suitable, effective and sole solution to keep woman away from corruptionand deviation and maintain their dignity and honor.- the sterile woman and the natural desire of the husband to have children: in thiscase, the husband has two options: either to divorce her in order to marry anotherone for the purpose of having children or to marry another one without divorcing thefirst one.the second option is surely the reasonable and effective solution which preventsdivorce and keeps the dignity of the sterile wife. not only this, the sterile wife will findsociability and intimacy in the children of the other wife; therefore she can compensatesterility” (29) { thus allah creates whatever he decides } (30).as for the special cases of the man- some men have strong desire and they cannot control their desires and one womanwill not be enough, either because the weakness of her body in a way which cannot
  22. 22. 22 Rasoulallah.netbe treated or because of her old age.. then, should he suppress his desire and preventhis instinctive activity? or should he have the permission to commit adultery withany woman? isn’t it better to permit him to have another wife in addition to the firstone?.. the third solution is the most reasonable and straightforward solution to meetthe requirements of the instinct and preserve the islamic morals and it is the mosteffective way to protect the dignity and the company of the first wife.- there are other cases in which the number of women exceeded the number of men– as in the case of wars and diseases. it is a case of clear social disorder; so, how canthe legislator confront this matter and find a solution for the welfare of the man andthe woman and for the whole human beings? there is only one solution out of three:the first solution:each man will marry one woman but the other one or two women – according to thepercentage – will remain deprived along their life from having a husband, maritalhouse, child or family.the second solution:each man will marry one woman as a wife and doing illegal relations with otherwomen without having any marital house. the children coming out of such adulterywill suffer total loss.the third solution:each man will marry more than one woman and make them experience the maritallife, having a real house, a family and children; this will release the man from vices,sins and offenses and will protect the society from the disorder, losing the parentageand the dirty of vices & offenses.what is the most effective and suitable solution for the human beings? what is themost suitable solution to the manhood of the man and the womanhood of the woman?(31).the answer:
  23. 23. 23 Rasoulallah.netthere is no need to think too much. the third solution is the right one. this solutionwill not only satisfy women willfully and freely, but will also make them request andencourage it. the women in germany requested polygyny because of the death ofthe youth in the world war and their desire to protect themselves from approachingthe adultery and to save their children from the illegality. therefore, the internationalyouth conference in munich , germany has recommended the polygyny as a solutionto the large number of women and less number of men after the second world war.(32).fifth:by organizing the matter of polygyny and making it conditional on “justice”, islam didnot impose it on the woman and did not oblige her to accept it. the woman – whethermarried before or not – has the full freedom to reject or accept anyone wishing tomarry her. the guardian is not entitled to oblige her to anything not desired by her. theprophet – peace be upon him – said: “marriage will not be valid except after takingthe explicit approval, if the woman is not virgin, and after taking the implicit approval,if the woman is virgin” (33).once, a girl complained to the prophet – peace be upon him – because her fatherobliged her to marry her cousin in spite of her will. that girl said to aisha – may allahbe pleased with her: my father obliged me to marry my cousin in spite of my will.aisha – may allah be pleased with her – said: sit down until the prophet – peace beupon him – comes. then she told the prophet – peace be upon him – who in turninvited her father and authorized her to choose what she wants, but she said: “oprophet of allah, i have accepted the action of my father, but i just wanted to teachwomen this matter” (34).summaryislam has allowed polygyny – as mentioned before – as a solution for several problemsand made it conditional on achieving “justice”. the islamic sharia allowed marriageto handle several emergency cases and to solve several social problems in order toprotect the whole society. however, polygyny is not widely-spread in a way to disturbwomen or motivate the ill-hearted people to challenge the holy quran.some non-muslim just people thought deeply in the matter and came up with the
  24. 24. 24 Rasoulallah.netsame positive points of polygyny. etienne dinet – in his book “mohammad the prophetof allah – said: “the theory of monogamy adopted by the christianity involved severaldisadvantages and resulted in three serious & dangerous consequences on society;prostitution, spinsters and the illegal sons. these social diseases and bad morals werenot known in the countries which applied the islamic sharia completely, but thesethings – the above mentioned three consequences – entered and spread therein aftercontacting the western urban culture” (35).here is also an english female writer – london truth newspapers – stated: my heart istorn out of sorrow for the women, who have no husbands, but my sorrow is uselesseven if all people did like me; there is no solution for this tragic problem except byallowing the man to marry more than one woman. by this, this blight will go away andour daughters will have marital homes. the most dangerous catastrophe is to obligethe european man to marry one woman only…” (36).therefore, the society which closes the door in front of the woman and prevent herfrom having a legal relationship – under the pretext of liberty and giving the rights –will lead her to the way of vices and lusts and will make her a toy for everyone. whereare then the rights they are calling for? where is the dignity of the woman? allah thealmighty was right by saying: { and bring them their rewards with beneficence, as(women) in wedlock, other than in fornication or taking mates to themselves } but itseems that the west is saying: { drive out the followers of lut from your city: theseare indeed men who want to be clean and pure } (37)………………………………………………………………………………………………….(1)an-nisa 3(2)woman position in judaism, christianity & islam, al-liwa’ ahmad abdul wahhab,page 150, ministry of endowments. talmud: it is the second book which jewish allegethat it includes the oral teachings of moses – peace be upon him – and consider it asmore important than the torah itself.(3)(the book of genesis 35:23-26)(4)(the book of the numbers 3:30 ).(5)(al-qozat “the judges”8:3-31) about: woman in judaism, christianity & islam by
  25. 25. 25 Rasoulallah.netzaki abu adha, page 284-286.(6)woman position in the judaist religion by mr. mohammad ashor, page 11. hisreference is: the israeli religious thinking by dr. hasan dada.(7)marrying slave girl: taking one of the slave girls as a wife without making a marriagecontract, just like a right due from the slave girl toward her lord.(8)reference:woman in judaism, christianity & islam by zaki abu adha, page 291-293.(9)(cornith 7: 32 -34) about: woman in judaism, christianity & islam by zaki abu adha,page 304.(10)an-nahl 72(11)al-araf 189(12)reference: the woman in the holy quran, by sayed qotb, prepared by ikasha abdulmannan, page 19.(13)narrated by al-baihaqi from the tradition of saad bin abi waqqas.(14)narrated by ibn majah in marriage book, tradition no. 1862.(15)narrated by ibn majah in marriage book, tradition no. 1846.(16)narrated by an-nassai, tradition no. 2242, and ahmad in his “musnad” (1/58).(17)an-nissa 3(18)narrated by al-bukhari in his book “al-adab almufrad”, tradition no. 256. narratedalso by ibn majah in marriage book, and also narrated by ahmad in his “musnad”(2/13, 14).(19)narrated by abu dawood, tradition no. 2241, and narrated also by ibn majah1952.
  26. 26. 26 Rasoulallah.net(20)narrated by al-shafe’i in “marriage book” volume 2/19.(21)al-nissa 3(22)narrated by: al nassa’i – tradition no. 3942, al tirmithi – tradition no. 1141, ibnmajah – tradition no. 1969, al-darami – tradition no. 2206, and ahmad, tradition 8363,9740.

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