Current trends of disasters in the asia pacific region

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Presented in the ASEAN Cooperation on Utilization of Space Technology for Disaster Management Seminar, 11th Aug 2010 at Miracle Grand Convention Hotel, Thailand. Hosted by GISTDA

Current trends of disasters in the asia pacific region

  1. 1. Current Trends of Disasters in the Asia-Pacific Region and Applications of Geoinformatics in Disaster Management Manzul Hazarika, Ph.D ,
  2. 2. Disaster Statistics for the Asia-Pacific : 1980 2009 1980-2009 Asia-Pacific A i P ifi Events E t Killed Kill d Affected Aff t d Estimated D E ti t d Damage Sub-region (Number) (Thousand) (Thousand) (,000,000US$) East and North East Asia North-East 908 162,804 162 804 2,567,214 2 567 214 578,602 578 602 South-East Asia 1,069 394,687 272,777 48,220 South and South West Asia South-West 1,283 1 283 566,423 566 423 1,914,696 1 914 696 141,506 141 506 North and Central Asia 297 34,644 17,231 15,636 The P ifi Th Pacific 406 5,425 5 425 19,126 19 126 39,078 39 078 Asia-Pacific (Total) 3,963 1,163,983 4,791,044 823,042
  3. 3. Sub-Regions and Countries (UN-ESCAP) East and North-East Asia China, China Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Japan Mongolia the Republic of Korea and People s Korea, Japan, Mongolia, the Russian Federation South East South-East Asia Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam South and South-West Asia Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Turkey , y North and Central Asia Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and U b ki T k i d Uzbekistan The Pacific Australia, Fiji, Kiribati, Australia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands the Federated States of Micronesia Nauru New Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, Zealand, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu
  4. 4. Share of Disasters in the Asia-Pacific: 1980 2009 1980-2009
  5. 5. Top 10 Countries in the Asia-Pacific : 1980 2009 1980-2009 Killed Rank Country Events Country (Thousand) 1 China 574 Bangladesh 191,650 2 India 416 Indonesia 191,164 3 Philippines 349 China 148,419 4 Indonesia 312 India 141,888 , 5 Bangladesh 229 Myanmar 139,095 6 Russian Federation 176 Pakistan 84,841 7 Japan 155 Iran (Islamic Rep. of) 77,987 8 Australia 154 Sri Lanka 36,871 36 871 9 Viet Nam 152 Philippines 32,578 10 Iran (Islamic Rep. of) 140 Russian Federation 31,795 Affected Damage* Rank Country y Country y (Million) (Milli ) (US$ Milli ) Million) 1 China 2,549.85 China 321,544.61 2 India 1,501.21 Japan 188,183.82 3 Bangladesh 316.34 India 51,644.78 4 Philippines 109.42 DPR Korea 46,331.29 5 Viet Nam 67.73 Turkey 35,144.61 6 Thailand 53.76 Australia 34,690.13 7 Iran (Islamic Rep. of) ( p ) 42.05 Iran (Islamic Rep. of) ( p ) 24,977.98 , 8 Pakistan 29.96 Indonesia 22,581.81 9 Indonesia 17.54 Republic of Korea 19,818.30 10 Cambodia 16.40 Bangladesh 16,273.08
  6. 6. Top 10 Disasters in the Asia-Pacific : 1980 2009 1980-2009 Disaster Number of Disaster Killed Rank Type Events Type (Thousand) 1 Flood 1,317 1 317 Earthquake 570.80 570 80 2 Cyclone 1,127 Cyclone 384.20 3 Earthquake 444 Flood 128.95 4 Mass Movement Wet 264 Volcano 17.51 5 Extreme Temperature 119 Extreme Temperature 17.51 6 Drought 108 Mass Movement (Wet) 14.28 7 Wild Fire 96 Drought 5.33 8 Volcano 71 Mass Movement (Dry)( y) 1.53 9 Mass Movement Dry 20 Wild Fire 1.06 10 Insect Infestation 8 Insect Infestation 0.00 Disaster Affected Disaster Damage* (Million Rank Type (Million) Type US$) 1 Flood 2,676.16 Flood 301,590 2 Drought 1,296.27 Earthquake 264,530 3 Cyclone 664.03 Cyclone 165,770 4 Earthquake 109.71 109 71 Drought 53,330 53 330 5 Extreme Temperature 85.90 Extreme Temperature 18,080 6 Wild Fire 3.31 Wild Fire 16,210 7 Volcano 2.36 Mass Movement (Wet) 2,130 8 Mass Movement Wet 1.36 Volcano 710 9 Mass Movement Dry 0.02 Insect Infestation 190 10 Insect Infestation 0.00 Mass Movement (Dry) 10
  7. 7. Trends in the Asia-Pacific (1980-2009) : Killed and Damage
  8. 8. Comparison of Average Annual Numbers of Earthquake and Climate Sensitive Disasters Average Annual Average Annual Number of Climate Difference Time Interval Number of sensitive Hydro meteorological Hydro-meteorological (B – A) Earthquakes disasters (A) (B) 1980 – 1989 10 64 54 1990 – 1999 15 94 79 2000 – 2009 19 136 117 30-year average 15 98 83
  9. 9. Absolute and Relative Physical Exposure for Floods, Cyclones and Earthquakes
  10. 10. Top 10 Countries Based on Absolute and Relative Physical Exposure Flood Cyclone Earthquake ank Absolute Relative Absolute Relative Absolute Relative Ra (Million) (%) (Million) (%) (Million) (%) 1 Bangladesh1 Cambodia1 (12.2) Japan1 (30.9) North Marina Isl.2 Japan1(13.4) Vanuatu1 (60.4) (19.2) (58.2) 2 India (15.8) 2 (15 8) Bangladesh2 Philippines2(20 7) (20.7) Niue (25.4) 9 (25 4) Philippines2(12 1) (12.1) Solomon Isl 2 Isl. (12.1) (36.3) 3 China 3 (3.9) Vietnam3 (3.9) China3(11.1) Japan10 (24.2) Indonesia3 (11.0) Tonga 6 (21.1) 4 Vietnam4 (3.4) Bhutan4 (1.7) India4(10.7) Philippines11 (23.6) China4 (8.1) Papua New G..9 (17.5) (17 5) 5 Cambodia5 (1.7) India5 (1.4) Bangladesh6(7.5) Fiji12 (23.1) India8 (3.3) Philippines12 (13.8) 6 Indonesia6 (1.1) Thailand6 (1.3) Rep. of Samoa15 (21.4) Pakistan9 (2.8) Timor Leste14 Korea9(2 4) (2.4) (11.3) (11 3) 7 Thailand7 (0.8) Nepal7 (1.2) Myanmar 11 (1.2) New Caledonia18 Iran15 (1.7) Japan 15 (10.5) (20.7) 8 Philippines8 (0.7) Lao PDR8 (1.1) Vietnam13 (0.8) Vanuatu20 (18.3) Bangladesh17 (1.3) Bhutan17 (0.8) 9 Pakistan9 (0.5) Myanmar9 (0.9) Hong Kong17 Tonga21 (18.1) Papua N. G..9 Indonesia31 (0.4) (0.4) (1.1) 10 Myanmar10 (0.4) Philippines10 (0.9) Pakistan19 (0.3) Cook Islands32 (10.5) Afghanistan (1.0) Kyrgystan35 (0.4)
  11. 11. Absolute and Relative GDP Exposure for Floods, Cyclones and Earthquakes
  12. 12. Top 10 Countries Based on GDP Exposure Flood Cyclone Earthquake ank Absolute Relative Absolute Relative Absolute Relative Ra (Billion US$) (%) (Billion US$) (%) (Billion US$) (%) 1 China1 (12.5) Bangladesh1 (14.5) Japan1 (1,226.7) North Marina Isl.2 Japan1 (340.7) Vanuatu1 (96.5) (59.4) 2 Bangladesh3 (9 7) (9.7) Cambodia2 (14 0) (14.0) Rep. Rep of Korea4 (35 6) (35.6) Vanuatu (27.1) 9 (27 1) China7 (16 0) (16.0) Solomon Isl 2 Isl. (46.3) 3 India4 (9.3) Vietnam3 (4.4) China5 (28.5) Niue11(24.9) Philippines9(11.4 Tonga6 (22.7) ) 4 Japan6 (4.5) Philippines5 (2.5) Philippines6 (24.3) Fiji 13 (24.1) Indonesia11 (7.9) Papua New G.8(22.1) 5 Thailand8 (3.0) Thailand6 (1.8) Hong Kong7 (13.3) Japan14 (23.9) Turkey14 (5.7) Timor Leste13 (14.9) 6 Philippines9 (2.5) India8 (1.3) India9 (8.0) Philippines15(23.9) Iran17 (3.8) Philippines14 (11.2) (11 2) 7 Vietnam10 (2.2) Myanmar9 (1.1) Bangladesh13 (3.9) New Caledonia16 Australia25 (2.7) Japan 23(6.6) (22.4) 8 Rep. of Korea18 (1.2) Lao PDR11 (1.1) North Marina Isl.19 (1.5) Samoa 21 (19.2) India25 (2.1) Kyrgystan35 (4.0) (4 0) 9 Indonesia19 (1.0) Nepal13 (0.9) Australia23(0.8) Tonga24 (17.4) Pakistan31 (1.4) Azerbaijan36 (4.0) 10 Cambodia21 (0.9) Sri Lanka18 (0.6) New Caledonia25 (0.7) Bangladesh44 (5.9) New Zealand34 Indonesia41(3.5) (1.0)
  13. 13. Mortality Risk for Floods, Cyclones and Earthquakes
  14. 14. Neglected Disasters (Desinventar and EM DAT EM-DAT in Sri Lanka : 1980-2008) 1980 2008) No. of Events People Killed People Affected Disasters EM-DAT Desinventar EM-DAT Desinventar EM-DAT Desinventar Flood 39 2,210 2 210 933 317 9,283,426 9 283 426 8,445,805 8 445 805 Lanslide 1 293 65 490 130 52,543 Cyclone 3 41 14 9 433,000 861,235 Drought 6 532 0 0 6,006,000 7,804,286 Total 49 3,076 1,012 816 15,722,556 17,163,869
  15. 15. Neglected Disasters (Desinventar and EM DAT EM-DAT in Indonesia : 1998-2009) 1998 2009) No. of Events People Killed People Affected Disasters EM-DAT Desinventer EM-DAT Desinventer EM-DAT Desinventer Flood 63 2,296 2,826 1,233 3,525,309 11,862,147 Lanslide 29 735 1,115 1,273 332,330 17,699 Cyclone 2 680 4 109 3,715 147,778 Drought 1 1,149 0 0 15,000 0 Total 95 4,860 3,945 2,615 3,876,354 12,027,624
  16. 16. Applications of Geoinformatics in Disaster Management Pre-disaster phases Post-disaster phases Risk Mitigation Risk Transfer Preparedness Emergency Rehabilitation Identification Id ifi i response and d Reconstruction Hazard Physical/structur Insurance/ Early warning Humanitarian Rehabilitation/re Assessment al mitigation reinsurance systems. assistance / construction of works Communication rescue damaged critical systems infrastructure Vulnerability Land-use Financial Monitoring and Clean-up, Macroeconomic assessment planning and market forecasting temporary and budget building codes instruments repairs and management restoration of services Risk Economic Privatization of Shelter facilities Damage Revitalization of Assessment incentives public services Emergency assessment affected sectors with safety planning (exports,tourism) regulations l ti GIS mapping Education, Calamity funds Contingency Mobilization of Incorporation of and scenario training and planning (utility recovery disaster building awareness companies / resources mitigation public services) components in reconstruction Spatial information Spatial information Spatial information is very important is important but in is much less combination with important compared other information to other information Sources: Worldbank, DMF & USAID
  17. 17. Contribution of Geoinformatics in Disaster Cycle Mitigation - Catalogues with spatial component - Hazard assessment - Elements at risk mapping - Vulnerability assessment - Risk assessment - Spatial Decision Support Systems Preparedness - Disaster plans - Anomalies in a time series - Forecasting & Early warning - Monitoring of an ongoing situation Response/Relief - Mapping extent of disaster - Damage assessment - Relief coordination - Evacuation Recovery - Post-disaster census Post disaster - Identification of reconstruction sites - Update hazard, vulnerability and risk data
  18. 18. Applications of Geoinformatics in Flood Hazard Analysis – A Case Study in Sri Lanka Participating Agencies Arthur C Clarke Institute for Modern Technologies University of Peradeniya Survey Department
  19. 19. Study Area
  20. 20. Data Collection Field Visit
  21. 21. Data Processing Topo 10 k sheet T h Buildings Land Use Terrain Hydro Road Admin Utility ALOS PALSAR Hydro met Data Censes 2001 Demographic » Population » Age » Household LiDAR
  22. 22. Data Processing…… DEM of the Study area (LIDAR Data) (Contour Data)
  23. 23. Methodology for Hazard Analysis
  24. 24. Hazard Analysis: Methodology for Flood Modeling
  25. 25. Results: Flood Hazard Maps from Model 100 yr 50 yr 20 yr 10 yr
  26. 26. Hazard Analysis: Methodology for Deriving Flood Map from Satellite Data
  27. 27. Deriving Flood Map from Satellite Data ALOS – PALSAR (HH) - Date, 03 March,2008 ( ) , , ALOS – PALSAR(HH) - Date, 03 June,2008 ( ) , , Dry date image y g Wet date image g
  28. 28. Results: Model Output Vs. Satellite Data Comparison of the Flood extent derived from HEC-RAS model and Satellite image
  29. 29. Applications of Satellite Data in Post-Disaster Management – Sentinel Asia Project ( g j (Sri Lanka) )
  30. 30. Thank Y Th k You

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