Ch 5 ind. rev.

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SS9 BC Curriculum - Crossroads Textbook Chapter 5

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Ch 5 ind. rev.

  1. 1. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  2. 2. Industrial Revolution?  Revolutions: some violent, others due to new inventions  Post 1700 Great Britain: Industrial Revolution  Transformations:  Farming  Towns & cities  Factories
  3. 3. Industrial Revolution  Wealth and social organization  Problems:  Factory working conditions  Dirty, crowded, diseased cities  Child labour  Long term problems: exploitation, global warming, ozone layer  Global Economy: countries linked in complex trade arrangements  Colonial ties (“mother” country)
  4. 4. WHY BRITAIN?  Good labour supply.  Better farming technology.  Middle class passed laws to increase business.  Surplus of capital ($$$).  Science improved technology.  Transportation networks.  Raw materials.  Iron & coal.  Colonies (Import raw materials)
  5. 5. An Agricultural RevolutionAn Agricultural Revolution  Strip farming (inefficient) – moved to enclosure (more profitable)  Commons:  Divided into private properties  Wealthy obtained the land – could pay the fees  Enclosures hurt poor farmers  Lose place to: graze sheep & cows, collect crucial supplies  Forced to sell land to the wealthy  Often move to city for work = cities full of unemployed farmers & families  “The Midlands” (Manchester, Liverpool) grew to huge cities
  6. 6. THE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION NEW BREEDS – Glouster spot pig. HUGE! Enclosure produced labourers Commons Lands
  7. 7. An Agricultural RevolutionAn Agricultural Revolution  Enclosures changed attitude towards farming  Business & profit vs. survival  Changes in large-scale farming: new plants & animals, mechanization  Agricultural Revolution: helped create & support Industrial Revolution
  8. 8. New Breeds  Better animals = more profits  Positives: hardier, less likely to catch disease  Negative: more expensive (poorer farmers couldn’t compete)
  9. 9. New Crops & Technologies  Farming for profit = more willing to invest $  Many more risks being taken  Inventors:  Jethro Tull  Soil: break up & enrich with manure  “Seed Drill”: protect seeds & uniform rows  Lord “Turnip” Townshend  Crop rotations
  10. 10. THE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION NEW CROPS & TECHNOLOGIES => JETHRO TULL’S Seed Drill - faster, less waste, plowed, fewer workers, planted in rows.Broadcasting MEDIEVAL THREE FIELD SYSTEM (fallow crop) => IND. REVOLUTION FOUR FIELD SYSTEM (no fallow) =>Turnip => Barley ⇒Grasses ⇒wheat => RESULT - As farming improved population increased and diets improved. This provided the necessary labour force needed for the Industrial Revolution to occur. - France and other nations remained “backward.”
  11. 11. ECONOMIC REVOLUTION  Entrepreneurs.  A person who takes risks to runs a business.  Middle Class - earned $  Only the wealthy could sit in gov’t.  Franchise.  The right to vote.  Only the wealthy & no women.  Two political parties.  Tories - rich landowners.  Whigs - middle class businessmen. LAISSEZ-FAIRE - Economic policy that discouraged gov’t regulation. “Let it Be.” - Often hurt the common labourer => wages, conditions, living conditions, etc. The Entrepreneur The Workers
  12. 12. THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY SPINNING JENNY Spun the yarn needed for the Flying Shuttle FLYING SHUTTLE Used for weaving cloth. John Kay James Hargreaves New inventions made inventors a fortune and would completely change society. Everything once done by hand was now being completed mechanically.
  13. 13. OTHER INVENTIONS WATER FRAME Way to spin yarn With rollers. Faster than The Spinning Jenny Richard Arkwright THE MULE Combined the Water Frame And the Spinning Jenny STEAM MACHINE Originally used to take water out of the mines. Samuel Compton James Watt
  14. 14. IRON AND COAL Abraham Darby - invented a process to create cast iron. - Coke is used to create iron. - Coke comes from coal => coal mining boomed. Coal was also used to heat homes. - working conditions were harsh. - wages were low - many died from Black Lung.
  15. 15. TRANSPORTATION  ROADS  Had to find a way to improve on the old medieval ‘mud tracks’.  Turnpike system  built roads and charged tolls.  James Macadam -  3 layers of graded stone.  Still used today.  CANALS  By 1800, 4000km of canals had been built.  RAILWAYS  1829 George & Robert Stevenson used a steam engine to build ‘The Rocket”  Train = 39 km / hr.  Train became most important means of transportation.
  16. 16. THE FACTORY SYSTEM THE DOMESTIC SYSTEM - rural & family oriented. - quality varied. - income supplemented lifestyle. - poorly paid. - many weavers lowered prices => supply & demand. => THE FACTORY SYSTEM - urban - faster & cheaper - consistent quality - living conditions ??? - poor working conditions - required large spaces and power sources. - poor wages. - child labour Factories would give rise to ‘The Factory Acts’ & Unions.
  17. 17. Transportation – from MarketTransportation – from Market to Marketto Market  Transportation of goods crucial  1700 England: poor infrastructure  Transportation Strategies:  Turnpike System: private companies build & charge tolls  Engineer: James Macadam  Roads would not become muddy  3 layers of graded stone  Much quicker transportation of goods & information
  18. 18. Transportation – from MarketTransportation – from Market to Marketto Market  Canals: networks of narrow artificial channels  Reduced cost of shipping by ¾  Early 19th C: 4000 km of canals  Railways: most important means of transportation  Steam engine locomotives  1829: “Rocket” traveled 39 km/hr  Late 1800s: railway lines in Europe & N. America
  19. 19. Mechanization and the Factory System  Cottage Industry: products made in houses  Financed by capitalists  Spinning & weaving → clothiers sold finished goods  Advantages:  Family & community  Disadvantages:  Poor pay, long hours  Not specialized  “Law of Supply & Demand”: little power
  20. 20. The Factory Age  New inventions = lose cottage system  Need factories for power & space  New cities & housing developments  Factories house all stages of manufacturing  Low wages, poor working conditions
  21. 21. Child LabourChild Labour  Industrialization brought injustices for children  Poor:  Education not mandatory: couldn’t read or write  Families needed every member to provide  Labour:  Small size: textiles, mine shafts, chimney cleaner  Exposed to pollution  Deafening noise  Buy poor food  Work overtime shifts  Physical abuse
  22. 22. Child LabourChild Labour  Results:  Growth stunted  Bodies deformed  1830s: British government becomes interested in working conditions  Interviewed child labourers & survivers
  23. 23. The Factory ActsThe Factory Acts  Social Reformers try to improve working conditions  Guilds formed (medieval)  Look after interests of members  Band together: less isolation & more influence  Governments declared them illegal  Parliament controlled by rich & powerful  Laissez-faire: no government regulation
  24. 24. The Factory ActsThe Factory Acts  “Factory Acts” eventually written  1802: children couldn’t work >12 hours straight in cotton mills  1819: illegal to hire child <9 years in textile industry  No inspectors, other industries not protected  1824: early form of labour unions legalized  Middle & Upper classes: working class should work as much as possible  Worry of “evil” occupations ex. drinking & gambling
  25. 25. Society & CultureSociety & Culture  Britain: rigid social system  Born into social groups  Upper Class (“Society”): right schools, churches, etc.  Middle Class/Working Class: grew during industrial revolution  Father: worked in professions, business person, military  Lower Middle Class: white collar workers, teachers below University level  Working Class: worked in trades or factory
  26. 26. Women in the Industrial Age  Mostly in cottage industry, but eventually declined  Options:  Countryside:  Servants, farms  Factories  Changes:  Cash money of own = independence  Middle & upper class = pampered by servants
  27. 27. Society & Culture  The Poor  Slums in cities  Streets & sewers not built  Crime & disease common  Not enough “Poor Law” relief for thousands  Charity often poorly distributed  Workhouses turned to in desperation  1800s: numerical information about society gathered
  28. 28. Society and Culture  Population on the Move  countryside → city  Europe → overseas colonies (ex. Canada)  Promoted by land speculators  The Irish Potato Famine  Potato: staple food  1840s: Irish peasants grew & ate them  1845: Disease = loss of potatoes  hunger  left homelands, move to industrial cities or colonies
  29. 29. Society and Culture  The Clearances  In Scotland: Landlords rid of tenants (“crofters”) to use land for raising sheep  Farms burned to prevent return  Move to industrial cities or colonies

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