Environmental Biology &       Genetics       Energy Flow                                 son                              ...
EcosystemsAn ecosystem is a natural unit composed of living organisms and their non-living environment, e.g. a woodland....
EcosystemsMonday, April 30, 2012       Mr G Davidson   3
EcosystemsA population is the total number of organisms of one species living in a habitat, e.g. the total number of gree...
EcosystemsMonday, April 30, 2012       Mr G Davidson   5
EcosystemsA species is a group of organisms which can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.                   Donkey  ...
EcosystemsAll of the energy required by all living organisms in an ecosystem comes from the sun.Light energy from the su...
Producers & ConsumersProducers are organisms which can produce their own food by photosynthesis – usually green plants.C...
Producers & ConsumersA primary consumer is an animal which eats plants, and is also known as a herbivore.A secondary con...
Producers & ConsumersAn omnivore can eat both plants and animals.Decomposers are bacteria and fungi which break down dea...
Producers & ConsumersAn animal which hunts other animals for food is called a predator.An animal which is hunted by othe...
Food Chains & WebsA FOOD CHAIN shows a feeding relationship. It is usually written as:      Green plant        herbivore ...
Food Chains & WebsEnergy is transferred in the form of chemical energy in food from plants to animals and then to other a...
Food Chains and Food Webs                         ENERGY               ENERGY                                  Rabbit     ...
Food Chains & WebsFeeding relationships are more complicated than food chains suggest.Food chains interconnect at many p...
Food Chains & Webs                                  WEASEL           OWL       FOX                   HEDGEHOG             ...
Energy Flow and LossEvery time one organism eats another, energy is transferred from the food to the feeder.The arrow in...
Energy Flow and LossNot all the energy available at each step in a food chain is passed onto the next step.Only about 10...
Pyramid of NumbersA pyramid of numbers is a diagram which represents the number of organisms at each stage in a food chai...
Pyramid of NumbersNumber of                                    Size of                                             organis...
Pyramid of Numbers                         Thrush                         Ladybird                         Greenfly       ...
Pyramids of EnergyA pyramid of energy is a diagram which represents the amount of energy available at each level of a foo...
Pyramid of Energy                           100 kJ                          1 000 kJ                         10 000 kJ    ...
Pyramid of BiomassA pyramid of Biomass is a diagram which represents the total mass of organisms at each level of a food ...
Pyramid of Biomass                          Sparrows                         Caterpillars                         Oak leav...
Vocabulary ecosystem                      carnivore habitat                        predator niche                         ...
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1. energy flow

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1. energy flow

  1. 1. Environmental Biology & Genetics Energy Flow son vid Da M rG
  2. 2. EcosystemsAn ecosystem is a natural unit composed of living organisms and their non-living environment, e.g. a woodland.A habitat is the place where an organism lives, e.g. greenfly live on the leaves of the trees.An organism’s niche is the role it plays within the ecosystem e.g a tawny owl is top predator in a woodland.Monday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 2
  3. 3. EcosystemsMonday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 3
  4. 4. EcosystemsA population is the total number of organisms of one species living in a habitat, e.g. the total number of greenfly in the woodland.A community is made up of all the living organisms in a habitat, e.g. all the trees, grass, insects, birds, etc..Monday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 4
  5. 5. EcosystemsMonday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 5
  6. 6. EcosystemsA species is a group of organisms which can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. Donkey HorseHorses and donkeys canmate to produce a mule –but mules are not fertile so horses and donkeys are separate species MuleMonday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 6
  7. 7. EcosystemsAll of the energy required by all living organisms in an ecosystem comes from the sun.Light energy from the sun is converted to chemical energy by plants in a process called photosynthesis.Monday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 7
  8. 8. Producers & ConsumersProducers are organisms which can produce their own food by photosynthesis – usually green plants.Consumers are animals which consume (eat) other organisms. They cannot make their own food.Monday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 8
  9. 9. Producers & ConsumersA primary consumer is an animal which eats plants, and is also known as a herbivore.A secondary consumer is an animal which eats primary consumers, and is also known as a carnivore.Monday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 9
  10. 10. Producers & ConsumersAn omnivore can eat both plants and animals.Decomposers are bacteria and fungi which break down dead plants and animals for energy and release their nutrients back into the ecosystem.Monday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 10
  11. 11. Producers & ConsumersAn animal which hunts other animals for food is called a predator.An animal which is hunted by other animals as food is called prey.Monday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 11
  12. 12. Food Chains & WebsA FOOD CHAIN shows a feeding relationship. It is usually written as: Green plant herbivore carnivoreThe arrows in a food chain point from food to feeder and show the direction of energy flow.A food chain always starts with a producer (green plant).Monday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 12
  13. 13. Food Chains & WebsEnergy is transferred in the form of chemical energy in food from plants to animals and then to other animals.A green plant (producer) can be eaten by a herbivore.The herbivore in turn can be eaten by a carnivore.Monday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 13
  14. 14. Food Chains and Food Webs ENERGY ENERGY Rabbit Fox Green Plant PRIMARY SECONDARY PRODUCER CONSUMER CONSUMER (HERBIVORE) (CARNIVORE)Monday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 14
  15. 15. Food Chains & WebsFeeding relationships are more complicated than food chains suggest.Food chains interconnect at many points.This interconnection of food chains is called a food web.Monday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 15
  16. 16. Food Chains & Webs WEASEL OWL FOX HEDGEHOG RABBIT VOLEFROG SNAIL PRIMROSE PLANT OAK Monday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 16
  17. 17. Energy Flow and LossEvery time one organism eats another, energy is transferred from the food to the feeder.The arrow indicates the direction of energy flow.E.g. Oak leaf Caterpillar Shrew BadgerMonday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 17
  18. 18. Energy Flow and LossNot all the energy available at each step in a food chain is passed onto the next step.Only about 10% is passed on.90% of the energy is lost e.g. as: Movement Heat production Waste.Monday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 18
  19. 19. Pyramid of NumbersA pyramid of numbers is a diagram which represents the number of organisms at each stage in a food chain.A pyramid of numbers can look like:Monday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 19
  20. 20. Pyramid of NumbersNumber of Size of organismsorganismsdecrease Thrush increase Ladybird Greenfly GrassMonday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 20
  21. 21. Pyramid of Numbers Thrush Ladybird Greenfly GrassMonday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 21
  22. 22. Pyramids of EnergyA pyramid of energy is a diagram which represents the amount of energy available at each level of a food chain.It is usually measured in kilojoules of dry mass per square metre per year.Monday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 22
  23. 23. Pyramid of Energy 100 kJ 1 000 kJ 10 000 kJ 100 000 kJMonday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 23
  24. 24. Pyramid of BiomassA pyramid of Biomass is a diagram which represents the total mass of organisms at each level of a food chain.Monday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 24
  25. 25. Pyramid of Biomass Sparrows Caterpillars Oak leaves The energy available to the caterpillars is less than the energy available to the sparrows, and therefore, the caterpillars produce a greater biomass than the sparrows.Monday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 25
  26. 26. Vocabulary ecosystem carnivore habitat predator niche prey population decomposer community species producer pyramid of numbers primary consumer pyramid of biomass secondary consumer pyramid of energy herbivoreMonday, April 30, 2012 Mr G Davidson 26

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