THE SCIENCE OF CULTURE Chapter 3On the Use of Tools By Primates Hande Işık METU ID 501 Literature Review
Definition of Primates• Any of various omnivorous mammals of the order Primates, comprising the three suborders Anthropoidea (humans,great a pes, gibbons, Old World monkeys, and New Worldmonkeys), Prosimii (lemurs, loris, and their allies),and Tarsioidea (tarsiers) especially distinguished by the hands, varied locomotion, and by complex flexible behavior,involving a high level of social interaction and cultural adaptability.• Closest relatives of men.
Tool-Using of Men and ApesHistorically:• Men The only tool user animals • Men The only tool maker animals (Duke of Argyll, Edward Clodd) • Both men and apes are able to use and make tools. (Wolfgang Köhler, Schnierla)
Tool-Using of Men and Apes• Apes demonstrate the ability to modify their environment. – The basis for tool-using process• But, they do not have a material culture.• WHY?
Possible Reasons of Lacking Material Culture of Apes• Is it because – they have anatomical or sensory shortcomings? – they are inable to transmit tool knowledge via imitation? – they do not need the long term advantage of tool using? NO!• Lack of Intelligence – Possible but not sufficient
Material Culture of MenMen Apes• Conceptual • Conceptual Thinking Thinking • Neuro-Sensory-• Neuro-Sensory- Muscular Structure Muscular Structure •Insights,• Symbolic behavior Understanding unique to men •Discrete Series of• Cumulative and episodes Progressive process of tool-using