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Motivational and self-regulation competencies to
prevent dropout and enhance individual
performance in Massive Online Open...
PROGRAMME
 Introduction.
 About Self-regulated learning and Self-regulation
competencies.
 About MOOCs.
 Why is learni...
• In a world where there is an overload of information, it is important to develop
competencies which allow us to keep foc...
• Self-regulated learning (SRL) can be defined as the self-determined and active
efforts to begin activities directed towa...
Self-regulated learning: A cyclic process with 3 phases
ACTION PHASE
(performance:
engagement with
the task, application
o...
Self-regulation competencies
 Cognitive strategies (for acquisition, storage and retrieval of information):
• Rehearsal.
...
About
MOOCs
Massive
Open
Online
Courses
It`s designed for a huge number of people.
No fees, and available for everyone.
Vi...
Why is
learning so
particular
in MOOCs?
 They are massive.
 The learning happens in a virtual setting.
 Face-to-face tu...
Self-
regulation
in MOOCs
Learning in MOOCs promotes self-regulated learning, which is mediated by personal and
contextual...
Motivation
in MOOCs
Why people decide to enrol in MOOCs?
 Due to curiosity (new ways of learning, to try online and inter...
Motivation
in MOOCs
In short, we can say that the engagement level in a course depends on the original
purpose of the stud...
Motivation
in MOOCs
 Motivation has an important role in individual performance and it is key to
prevent dropout in MOOCs...
Dropout in
MOOCs and
how to
prevent it
Why people don’t complete a MOOC to the end?
 Difficulties in managing the informa...
Dropout in
MOOCs and
how to
prevent it
Which factors can help to prevent dropout in MOOCs?
 A higher quality of education...
 The offer of MOOCs in Higher Education is growing due to the large number of advantages that this
type of course brings,...
 Learning in MOOCs has allowed us to illustrate two key competences to be developed in the digital
environment: the abili...
REFERENCES
Ahghar, G. (2012). Effect of problem-solving skills education on auto-regulation learning of high school studen...
REFERENCES
Israel, M. J. (2015). Effectiveness of Integrating MOOCs in Traditional Classrooms for Undergraduate Students. ...
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Literacy in a digital world

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Motivational and self-regulation competencies to prevent dropout and enhance individual performance in Massive Online Open Courses

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Literacy in a digital world

  1. 1. Motivational and self-regulation competencies to prevent dropout and enhance individual performance in Massive Online Open Courses Elena González Tinoco Isidro Maya Jariego Universidad de Sevilla
  2. 2. PROGRAMME  Introduction.  About Self-regulated learning and Self-regulation competencies.  About MOOCs.  Why is learning so particular in MOOCs?  Self-regulation in MOOCs.  Motivation in MOOCs.  Dropout in MOOCs and how to prevent it.  Final conclusions.
  3. 3. • In a world where there is an overload of information, it is important to develop competencies which allow us to keep focused on the goals and not to lose the attention during the process. • In that sense, self-regulation competencies are now more necessary than ever before, to learn in a digital context. • Self-regulation involves the use of cognitive strategies (for acquisition, storage and retrieval of information), and metacognitive strategies, i.e. the student's ability to control and reflect on his or her own learning process. • Here we present a specific case of digital practices where these competencies are particularly important: MOOCs; which demands effective independent learning and where high dropout rates are quite usual. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. • Self-regulated learning (SRL) can be defined as the self-determined and active efforts to begin activities directed towards learning goals. • SRL involves interactions among personal, behavioral and environmental factors, and includes abilities to control, monitor, plan, and evaluate the learning process. • SRL involves having confidence in the own capabilities, motivation, and skills to learn autonomously. Self-regulation competencies Self-regulated learning • Self-regulation competencies can be defined as the competencies to plan, perform, and evaluate the learning process autonomously, which involves certain decisions about cognitive, motivational and behavioural factors.
  5. 5. Self-regulated learning: A cyclic process with 3 phases ACTION PHASE (performance: engagement with the task, application of cognitive learning strategies,…) POST-ACTION PHASE (self- reflection and self-evaluation of learning outcomes and motivational and emotional factors,…) PRE-ACTION PHASE (goal setting, analyses of task demands, learning strategies and resource planning,..)
  6. 6. Self-regulation competencies  Cognitive strategies (for acquisition, storage and retrieval of information): • Rehearsal. • Organization. • Elaboration. • Inferencing.  Metacognitive strategies • Knowledge about cognition: declarative, procedural, and conditional knowledge. • Self-regulation of cognition: planning, monitoring, and evaluating.  Resource management strategies: • Regulation of motivation and emotions: self-efficacy, attribution, goal orientation, intrinsic motivation. • Environmental structuring. • Time management. • Strategies for seeking help.
  7. 7. About MOOCs Massive Open Online Courses It`s designed for a huge number of people. No fees, and available for everyone. Virtual support; Internet connection can be accessed by students from everywhere at anytime (flexible learning).  MOOCs make sense in the context of globalization and internationalization processes and represent an alternative way to access Higher Education.  The offer of MOOCs in Higher Education has grown steadily in recent years. However, these types of courses show very high dropout rates, above 90 percent.
  8. 8. Why is learning so particular in MOOCs?  They are massive.  The learning happens in a virtual setting.  Face-to-face tutorials are not very usual.  There is not close monitoring by teachers.  Learning is flexible  students decide about where, when and how to access the course.  There are not fees needed to enrol (sometimes small charges).  Final certificates for the course completion are not common. That explains the big importance of motivation and self-regulation skills in the learning process with MOOCs, both of them key in maintaining students throughout the course and in obtaining positive learning outcomes.
  9. 9. Self- regulation in MOOCs Learning in MOOCs promotes self-regulated learning, which is mediated by personal and contextual variables and involves…  Setting goals autonomously.  Organizing personal learning process.  Managing personal time efficiently.  Implementing learning strategies autonomously.  Implementing effective strategies for seeking help.  Having a good sense of self-efficacy.  The sense of self-efficacy and the type of learning strategies condition that the students complete the course to the end.  Low levels of self-regulation relates to high dropout rates in MOOCs.
  10. 10. Motivation in MOOCs Why people decide to enrol in MOOCs?  Due to curiosity (new ways of learning, to try online and interactive experiences,…).  Due to entertainment.  To get knowledge about a specific topic.  To learn from recognized experts.  To fulfil personal goals.  To learn in a more flexible way.  To get a final certificate. ….
  11. 11. Motivation in MOOCs In short, we can say that the engagement level in a course depends on the original purpose of the student. It can be:  Performance target students look for tangible results (e.g., to get a final certificate, to get specific professional goals).  Mastery goal students seek to become experts in the field, which means a long-term engagement.  Social goal the main purpose is to establish contact networks, to feel part of a reference group,… so the implication in discussion forums will be stronger.
  12. 12. Motivation in MOOCs  Motivation has an important role in individual performance and it is key to prevent dropout in MOOCs.  High levels of motivation correlates to high levels of continuity in the course.  The elements of MOOCs` design, in both content and the incentive system, contribute to an adequate learning experience.  The structure, the content (specially, its real interest to professional life) and the way of material is organized must be considered.
  13. 13. Dropout in MOOCs and how to prevent it Why people don’t complete a MOOC to the end?  Difficulties in managing the information overload.  Difficulties to keep pace with the speed of the lessons.  Comprehension problems with the contents of the course.  Low sense of learning support by teachers.  Lack of contact networks. …
  14. 14. Dropout in MOOCs and how to prevent it Which factors can help to prevent dropout in MOOCs?  A higher quality of education and learning materials.  The presence of renowned experts and competent professionals.  The possibility to exchange ideas and share experiences in discussion forums.  The learning flexibility of MOOCs.  The requirement of paying small taxes to enrol a MOOC. …
  15. 15.  The offer of MOOCs in Higher Education is growing due to the large number of advantages that this type of course brings, like flexible and not expensive learning.  One of the greatest enemies to the MOOCs is the huge dropout rate that makes above 90% of enrollers not to complete the course. In that sense, motivation and self-regulation skills in the learning process can be considered the biggest protective factors to prevent dropout and enhance individual performance in MOOCs.  Nevertheless, some studies encourage not to take the absence of dropout as the only parameter to measure the learning success. FINAL CONCLUSIONS
  16. 16.  Learning in MOOCs has allowed us to illustrate two key competences to be developed in the digital environment: the ability to self-regulate yourself and maintain motivation over time.  Both have to do with individual autonomy and empowerment, and they are transversal competencies: self-efficacy and metacognition play a significant role in literacy instruction and learning, as well as professional development. FINAL CONCLUSIONS
  17. 17. REFERENCES Ahghar, G. (2012). Effect of problem-solving skills education on auto-regulation learning of high school students in Tehran. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 69, 688-694. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.11.462 Alario-Hoyos, C., Estévez-Ayres, I., Pérez-Sanagustín, M., Delgado, C., & Férnandez-Panadero, C. (2017). Understanding Learners’Motivation and Learning Strategies in MOOCs. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(3), 119-137. Barak, M., Watted, A., & Haick, H. (2015). Motivation to learn in massive open online courses: Examining aspects of language and social engagement. Computers & Education, 94, 49-60. Bulger, M., Bright, J., & Cobo, C. (2015). The real component of virtual learning: motivations for face-to-face MOOC meetings in developing and industrialised countries. Information, Communication & Society, 18(10), 1200-1216. doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2015.1061571 Castaño-Muñoz, J., Kreijns, K., Kalz, M., & Punie, Y. (2017). Does digital competence and occupational setting influence MOOC participation? Evidence from a cross-course survey. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 29, 28-46. doi: 10.1007/s12528-016-9123-z Cesareni, D., Micale, F., Cosmelli, C., Fiore, F. P., & Nicolò, R. (2014). MOOCs e interazioni collaborative: l`esperienza in Sapienza. ECPS Journal, 10, 153-176. doi: 10.7358/ecps-2014-010- cesa De Barba, P. G., Kennedy, G. E., & Ainley, M. D. (2016). The role of students’ motivation and participation in predicting performance in a MOOC. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 32, 218-231. doi: 10.1111/jcal.12130 De Freitas, S. I., Morgan, J., & Gibson, D. (2015). Will MOOCs transform learning and teaching in higher education? Engagement and course retention in online learning provision. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(3), 455-471. doi:10.1111/bjet.12268 Dresel, M., Schmitz, B., Schober, B., Spiel, C., Ziegler, A., Engelschalk, T., … Steuer, G. (2015). Competencies for successful self-regulated learning in higher education: structural model and indications drawn from expert interview. Studies in Higher Education, 40(3), 454-470. doi: 10.1080/03075079.2015.1004236 Goradia, T., & Bugarcic, A. (2017). A social cognitive view of self-regulated learning within online environment. Advances in Integrative Medicine, 4, 5-6. Greene, J. A., Oswald, C. A., & Pomerantz, J. (2015). Predictors of Retention and Achievement in a Massive Open Online Course. American Educational Research Journal, 52(5), 925-955. doi: 10.3102/0002831215584621 Hew, K. F. (2016). Promoting engagement in online courses: What strategies can we learn from three highly rated MOOCS. British Journal of Educational Technology, 47(2), 320-341. doi:10.1111/bjet.12235
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