A PROJECT REPORT ON“CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID MAIZE SEEDS AND STUDY OF HYBRID MAIZE MARKET POTENTIAL OF SOLAPUR DISTRICT” AT KRISHIDHAN SEEDS LTD. PUNE BY AMOL PRABHAKAR JADHAV. Under The Guidance Of PROF.GANESH TANNU Submitted To UNIVERSITY OF PUNE In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the award of Degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA) Through ADITYA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT Narhe, Pune-411041 (A.Y. 2009–2011)
DECLARATION I, the undersigned, hereby declare that the Project Report entitled “CONSUMERBEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID MAIZE SEEDS AND STUDY OF HYBRID MAIZE MARKET POTENTIALOF SOLAPUR DISTRICT. “Written and submitted by me to the University of Pune, inpartial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of Master of BusinessAdministration under the guidance of Prof. Ganesh Tannuis my original work andthe conclusions drawn therein are based on the material collected by myself.Place: Pune Amol P. JadhavDate: (Research Student)
CERTIFICATE This is to certify that, Mr. Amol Prabhakar Jadhav is a bonafied student ofAditya Institute of Management, Pune for the M.B.A program affiliated to University ofPune for the academic year 2009-2011. The Project entitled “Consumer Behaviour of Hybrid Maize Seeds and Study ofHybrid Maize Market Potential of Solapur District” is the original work student hascarried out on the basis of authentic information under my guidance.Prof. Manoj. W. Megharajani Prof. Ganesh TannuDirector Project Guide
ACKNOWLEDGEMNETAny accomplishment requires the effort of many people and this work is no different. Itgives me an immense pleasure while submitting this dissertation. For partial fulfillmentof award Master of Business Administration. Every trainee expects a lot thing from theeminent scholars and leading authorities of company and I am not an exception.I would first and foremost thank the Pune University for designing such a precise andpractical course.I would like to express my sincere gratitude towards Mr. Sameer Jadhav (GeneralManager), for providing me with this opportunity to work with the esteemedorganization, KRISHIDHAN SEED Ltd. and I would also like to thank Mr. Sachin Patil(Product promotion and extension manager) for guiding me throughout the course of thisproject.I would like to express my deepest sense of gratitude to Dr. Manoj Meghrajni and Prof.Ganesh Tannu for playing the ideal mentor and being a constant source of inspirationthroughout at AIM. It is like a boon for me that I have got such kind of knowledgeableguide. I am unable to find words to convey my gratitude towards him contribution. Ithank him from the depth of my heart.Last but not the least my sincere thanks to other staff members of Krishidhan seeds andall the Dealers and Farmers for their sincere co-operation in collection the necessarydetails required for the completion of this report. I would also like to thank all of myfriends and all others who have directly or indirectly helped me in the successfulcompletion of this project.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIn today’s competitive world for retaining in the market it is very necessary to have goodknowledge of the consumer buying behaviour and the information regarding the activitiesof competitor’s existing in the market so that we can plan our each activity according tothat. Also it is necessary to know the retailer expectation from the company. The project is “CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID MAIZE SEEDS ANDSTUDY OF HYBRID MAIZE MARKET POTENTIAL OF SOLAPUR DISTRICT.”This project is carried out for Krishidhan Seeds Limited, Pune, one of the leading seedcompanies in India, engaged in production of different crop seeds.The study deals with different objectives. The first objective of the project was to studythe consumer buying behaviour of hybrid maize consumer for that we have to understandthe customer needs, Income, constraints, response and emotions. The second objective ofthis study was to analyze buying behaviour of existing customer of Hybrid maize inSolapur.It was essential to know the feedback of retailers and farmers in order to formulateeffective marketing and sales strategies in future and improve the quality to increase themarket share with better consumer satisfaction.The data has been collected by visiting to farmers and retailersto know the consumerbuying behaviour and identifying the factors, which effect on consumer buyingbehaviour. For this purpose structured questionnaire has been usedThe descriptive design had been used to collect and analyze the data. In data analysistools like table, bar chart, pie chart had been used.After the due analysis, it has been found that the most of farmer are preferring highyielding variety and they are changing seeds at every time of growing.With this in theresearcher can conclude that there is need to increase the awareness aboutKrishidhan maize seeds to increase market share.
INDEX PageSr. No. Content No. Executive Summery 1 Introduction 1 2 Profile of Organization 4 3 Literature Review 26 4 Research Methodology 40 5 Analysis And Interpretation of Data 51 6 Observations And Findings 72 7 Suggestions 74 8 Conclusion 76 9 Bibliography 78 10 Appendices 80
List of TablesTable Page Name of the TableNo. No. 1 Product of Krishidhan Seeds Ltd. 14 2 Notified high yielding maize composites/hybrids 19 3 Area, Production & Yield of Maize in India 24 4 Factors Influencing Buying Behaviour 29 5 Seeds Available in Shop 52 6 Companys maize seed available in shop 53 7 Ranking of company according to sale of seed 55 8 Reason behind Selection of Brand by farmer 56 9 Dealer Suggest KSL maize seeds 57 10 Dealers Margin satisfaction 58 11 Effect of Margin on dealer sale 59 12 Commonly Observed Promotional Activity 60 13 Ranking of company according to sales promotion 61 14 Farmers Purpose of Growing Maize 62 15 Season Of growing maize 63 16 Awareness of KSL maize seed 64 17 Effect of Promotional Activity on Farmer 65 18 Promotion activity affecting purchase behaviour of farmer 66 19 Source of information to farmer 67 20 Factor considered by farmer while purchasing hybrid maize seed 68 21 Frequency of seed change by farmer 69 22 Yield satisfaction of farmer with currently using variety 70 23 Maize Seed demand and supply (in Qt.) 71 24 Hybrid maizeMarket potential of Solapur district 71
List of Figure PageFig. no. Name of Figure No. 1 Karwa group of industries 9 2 Maize variety Maharaja 11 3 Maize variety Narendra 12 4 Maize variety Golden Gun 12 5 Maize variety Dhawal 13 6 Maize variety KDMH-017 13 7 Global Corn acerage and Production 22 8 Major corn Producing countries 23 9 Maize Area & Production in India 25 10 Yield of Maize in India 25 11 Black box model of consumer buying behaviour 28 12 Seeds Available in Shop 52 13 Companys maize seed available in shop 54 14 Ranking of company according to sale of seed 55 15 Reason behind Selection of Brand by farmer 56 16 Dealer Suggest KSL maize seeds 57 17 Dealers Margin satisfaction 58 18 Effect of Margin on dealer sale 59 19 Commonly Observed Promotional Activity 60 20 Ranking of company according to sales promotion 61 21 Farmers Purpose of Growing Maize 62 22 Season Of growing maize 63 23 Awareness of KSL maize seed 64 24 Effect of Promotional Activity on Farmer 65 25 Promotion activity affecting purchase behaviour of farmer 66 26 Source of information to farmer 67 27 Factor considered by farmer while purchasing hybrid maize seed 68 28 Frequency of seed change by farmer 69 29 Yield satisfaction of farmer with currently using variety 70 30 Hybrid maizeMarket potential of Solapur district 71
1.1BACKGROUNDConsumer behaviour may be defined as the acts of individuals in obtaining and usinggoods and services including both the ultimate consumer and the purchaser of theindustrial goods. Our approach is to view consumer behaviour, we must examine theevents that precede and follow from the purchase act. Consumer behaviour results fromindividual and environmental influences. Consumer often influences goods and serviceswith they want to accept is therefore determined by the individual’s psychologicalmakeup and influences of others. The duel influence has been summarized in thefollowing simplified equation of the S. B = F (P, E)Consumer Behaviour (B) is, therefore the results of the interaction of the consumerspersonnel influences (P) and the environment (E), understanding consumer behaviourrequires that we understand the nature of these influences. The four basic determinants ofconsumer behaviour are the individual needs motives, perception and attitudes. Theinteraction of these factors with the influences of the environmental cause of theconsumer act. The starting point in the purchases decision process is the recognition offelt need. A need is the simply lack of something useful. Everybody is motivated byneeds and wants. The consumer is typically confronted with numerous unsatisfied needs.Some needs are physiological while others are his relationship with others. Wants arebasic these are learned during the courses of the individuals life. When a need or want isnot satisfied, it needs to drive, the drive state is one of the satisfaction his drive, motivesare inner attention that direct us towards the goal of satisfying a fall need.1.2 INTRODUCTION OF THE TOPICThe purpose of this research was to have practical experience of working within theorganization, in the field of marketing and to have exposure to the important managementpractices in field of marketing.While writing this report the language has been keep simple and the entire discussion hasbeen logical and has coherent outlines. The main motto of the project work wasCONSUMER BEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID MAIZE SEEDS AND STUDY OF HYBRID MAIZE
MARKETPOTENTIAL OF SOLAPUR DISTRICT. It includes through market Research in. Itincludes consumer buying behaviour analysis, by surveying number of farmers anddealer. The project report is divided into two parts, first part consist market research forfinding out the factor affect consumer buying behaviour, and second consist hybrid maizemarket potential of Solapur.1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY:- 1. To know Consumer behaviour of hybrid Maize consumer at the time of seed purchase. To know the consumer behaviour of seed dealer towards Hybrid Maize seeds sales. 2. To know the sales potential of Hybrid maize seeds in different Taluka’s of Solapur District. 3. To find out opportunities in for increasing the KSL Hybrid Maize share.1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What are the factors which affect the consumer behaviour? 2. What is the purpose of growing maize? 3. What is the hybrid maize market potential of Solapur district?1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY:The study carried out in Solapur so its scope is mainly limited to Pune.This project is helpful for company in following aspects:- 1. Consumer preference: by the market survey of dealer and consumer of Hybrid maize company can know preference of the consumer towards brand of milk products. Also can know the reasons for giving preference by them. 2. Market potential: through the Solapur hybrid maize market survey company can know the untapped market potential of hybrid maizeIt provides suggestions to the company to improve their products sales.
2.1 COMPANY PROFILE: Krishidhan was established in 1996 and has grown into a group of companiescommitted for excellence in an integrated seed business based on quality R&D,Production, Quality Control, Processing, Marketing, Sales and Extension with sole goalof ushering prosperity to farmers both at national and global level. Krishidhan has itsregistered office at Indore and corporate office at Pune and major infrastructure base is at"Jalna", the seed capital of Indian agriculture industry. Krishidhan Seeds is a pioneer anddynamic agricultural biotech company delivering high quality seeds for the Indiancommercial seeds market. Krishidhan is a research-based organization. Its R&D activitiesand research stations are recognized by the Department of Scientific and IndustrialResearch (DSIR), Govt. of India. The company is actively involved in research,production, processing, packing, and marketing of high quality seeds of Cotton, Cereals,Pulses, Oil seeds and Vegetables. Recently, it has incorporated a separate legal entity asKrishidhan Vegetable Seeds India Pvt. Ltd (KVSIPL), a company dedicated exclusivelyfor vegetable seeds business. Krishidhan is one amongst the first three sub-licensees ofM.M.B. India Ltd., which has commercialized Bollgard (BG-I) &Bollgard-II (BG-II)cotton hybrids in India. Introduction of other GMOs are on anvil. Krishidhan seeds are engaged in seed production of different crops seed.Production of genetically pure and good quality pedigree seed is an exacting task. Itrequires high technical skills and comparatively heavy financial investment. AtKrishidhan, during seed production strict attention is given to the maintenance of geneticpurity and other qualities of seeds in order to pass on maximum benefits to farmers byintroduction of new superior crop plant varieties. Seed production activities at Krishidhanare carried out under standardized and well-organized conditions assisted by SAP. In India, seed production program of Krishidhan is spread over 1,00,000 acres ofland in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh,Gujarat, Uttarakhand, Karnataka, and Haryana. Apart from India, Krishidhan’sproduction program is also spread in parts of Europe. KSL has taken up the exigent taskof providing superior quality seeds of wide range of crops to the farmers within the set
time frame. The company recognizes that this is possible only through Quality SeedProduction. Krishidhan group of company is also have a biotechnology & research centre inwhich they can apply various techniques to improve the productivity. Biotechnology iscommitted not only to care human being but to care total ecology. The Krishidhan Grouphas a great belief that application of biotechnology can give quantum jump toproductivity and quality of various field and vegetable crops. The Group has a team ofhighly skilled scientist involved in innovative research work using cutting edgetechnologies with focus on high value field and vegetable crops like cotton, paddy,sunflower, tomato, chilies, brinjal etc. By combining classical conventional breedingapproaches with the state-of-the-art technologies scientists strive to deliver value addedquality products that would ensure higher yields at lower cost to farmers. Krishidhan alsoencourages various not-for-profit organizations for promoting activities that would leadto additional wealth to Farmers. A team of high caliber and internationally experiencedplant physiologist & breeders, molecular biologist, biotechnologist, entomologist andgeneticists is working to develop antiviral, antibacterial, quality improvement and multi-stress resistance traits. We are promoting product development through biotechnologyand have successfully transferred BG-I and BG-II in our elite cotton genotypes. Thecompany has following major products already approved to various zones and severallines with improved agronomic traits are in pipeline.2.2 VISION: To emerge as one of the biggest technology driven Indian agri input companywith a significant global presence and provide access to the latest technologies and allrequired quality agri inputs for the socio-economic growth of farmers.2.3 MISION: We at Krishidhan Seeds have professional business approach, State-of-artInfrastructure matching the global research standards to make our productstechnologically superior and eco-friendly. These superior products, shall, in turn improvethe quality of farmers life and contribute towards their prosperity.
2.4 COLLABRATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY PARTNERS: Krishidhan has extensively collaborated in several national and Internationalresearch projects with academia and other leading Industry partners:2.5 TECHNOLOGY CENTRE: KSL has a wide range of laboratories including Biotech Lab, Plant MolecularBiology Lab, Tissue Culture/Transformational Lab & Entomo0lgy Lab, and Seed TestingLab & Quality Analysis Lab. It further has plans to add Molecular Marker / GenomicsLab & Bio control Agent Lab.i) KSL has the best brains in seed industry to conduct and guide its research. Very seniorand eminent scientists and breeders with vast experience in public sector lead its R&Defforts in different crops. Research in each crop group is being led by an eminent breederas Chief R&D. They are guided by VP (R&D) a person of international repute. KSL has8 crop specific research teams which are supported by 51 scientists out of which 26 areDoctorates.ii) The diversity of germplasm is the backbone of any crop improvement program. KSLhas about 18,000 entries in its collection in gene bank.iii) Knowing the potential of application of Biotechnology in crop improvement thecompany started its Biotechnology Division in 2002. The Biotechnology division hasnow moved to a new facility in the technology center (Approximate area: 30,000 sq.ft)with a group of 13 scientists.iv) KSL has also entered into research collaborations with various national &internationalinstitutes and universities benefits of which will be reaped in near future.v) KSLs, KVSIPLs and KRFPLs R&D are recognized by the DSIR which is an obviousindicator of its R&D standards.2.6 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT:- Seed is the most vital input that sets the potential for crop yield and so achievingthe best seed quality standards is the KSLs prime goal. For this purpose, the qualityspecifications/norms for field and seed stages prescribed in the Indian Minimum Seed
Certification Standards published by the Govt. of India are kept as the minimum base;and additional specifications are indicated and adhered to. Quality Management is a mechanism in-built in the entire seed production andhandling chain; right from the choice of seed used for seed production up to the ultimateuse of the final seed for commercial crop production. Hence, the company enforces strictQuality Management (QM) measures. The Company has well equipped QM Lab, strictlyaccording to the Seed Testing Procedures/Rules of the International Seed TestingAssociation [ISTA].The Company also maintains elaborate Grow Out Testing Facilities in 4 differentlocations/ agro climates - about 30 ha in all - where , annually about 15000 samples aregrown out for Genetic Purity confirmation as pre or post control as may be relevant forthe seed in question.2.7 SALES AND DISTRIBUTION NETWORK: Krishidhan Group has widespread presence across different agro climatic zones inIndia. It’s Sales and Distribution network covers 15 prominent agrarian states in Indiawith a dedicated team of more than 250 Agribusiness professionals. To achieve its vision of improving socio economic status of the Indian FarmerKrishidhan Group has invested in creating outreach covering more than 1600 distributorwith 25000 plus no of retailers across 30000 villages benefiting more than 600000farmers Its warehousing space which is approximately 60000 sq.ft is managed byestablished Carrying and forwarding agents Krishidhan Seeds Ltd has also subsidiary companies which are dealing withfertilizer & micronutrient production.2.8 KRISHIDHAN SEEDSLTD.: Krishidhan Seeds Limited (KSL) is a dynamic agricultural biotech companydelivering high quality seeds for Indian commercial seed market. It is one of the top tenfield crop seed companies in India. It was incorporated in 1996 and its registered office isat Indore (MP). Corporate office is in Pune (M.S.) and the operational office is spread
over 16 acres of land in Jalna (M.S.) which is also known as "the seed capital" of Indianagricultural Industry. A brief description of the progress of the group is given below:KSL belongs to Karwa group of industries. It is a closely held company wherein 100%ownership vests with the Karwa family. KSL is 100% holding company of four othercompanies in the group.Figure 1 Karwa group of industries Krishidhan Seeds Ltd (100% Holding Company) Krishidhan Krishidhan Subhash Rajendra Krishidhan Vegetable Research Fertilizers Seeds Seeds Seeds (I) Foundation Pvt. Ltd. Company Europe B V Pvt. Ltd. Pvt. Ltd. Pvt. Ltd.2.8.1 KRISHIDHAN VEGETABLE SEEDS INDIA PVT. LTD.: Realizing the potential of vegetable seeds market the vegetable seed segment wasseparated from KSL and was vested to a separate new company was under the nameKVSIPL in 2007. This company is headed by an independent director Mr. MangeshKadgaonkar who has more than three decades of experience in the vegetable seedbusiness. The product portfolio comprise of a wide range of vegetable seeds of 38 cropsand on an average four segment per crop. KVSIPL aims at doubling its business everyyear and is also exploring exports. In 2009, its research activities received the recognitionof Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Govt. of India.2.8.2 SUBHASH FERTILIZERS PVT. LTD.: Genesis of plant nutrition business in “Krishidhan” through its wholly ownedsubsidiary SFPL is to augment the growing needs of increasing crop productivity,improving crop quality, imparting crop tolerance to biotic and a-biotic stresses through
balanced and integrated nutrient management. SFPL therefore, strategize to carefullymap the farmer needs and identify innovative yet cost effective technologies and productsto mitigate these nascent needs. SFPL through its associations with organizations ofnational and international repute aims at making available only the best to the IndianFarming Community. SFPL plans to produce Gluconate based environment friendly plantnutrient products at its proposed state-of-the-art manufacturing facility. SFPL is currentlyengaged in manufacturing and marketing of steam-granulated NPK mix fertilizers andspecially plant nutrient products, respectively. SFPL’s well qualified and skilled fieldforce disseminates information on usage of these products to the trade channel partnersand farmers.2.8.3 KRISHIDHAN RESEARCH FOUNDATION PVT. LTD.: KRFPL came into existence on account of separation of R & D activities fromKSL in 2007-08. As on date it is a 100% subsidiary of KSL and operates under the expertguidance of an independent director Dr. Govind Garg an eminent scientist in India. Thegroup is one of the first few companies in the Seed Industry, which has recognition ofDepartment of Scientific & Industrial Research, Govt. of India and achieved significantdevelopment in GM Seeds. The Group’s R & D philosophy is “KRISHIDHANRESEARCH-NEED BASE RESEARCH” and so the group has sizeable investment in R& D which in turn helped KSL to produce superior products to meet the customer needs.Taking a step further, the group has entered into collaborative research projects withmany national and international companies & agricultural institutions.2.8.4 RAJENDRA SEEDS COMPANY PRIVATE LIMITED:100% subsidiary of KSL and is basically engaged in the development of agribusinessopportunities and marketing of agri-input products.2.8.5 KRISHIDHAN SEEDS EUROPE B V: Krishidhan Seeds Limited, One of the top five seed companies in India hasopened its first European subsidiary from the 1st July 2010 under the name and style
“KRISHDHAN SEEDS EUROPE B V” having HQ at Enkhuizen, Holland. The companydeals in high quality seeds in Field crops, Vegetable crops and Plant Nutrition’s Products.The group has State of the Art Infrastructure for R & D, Breeding, Biotechnology,Supply Chain and Marketing. The company is determined to implement the three “P’s”(Planet, People and Profit) in their International and Domestic Business. With this newsubsidiary, Krishidhan Group became the first Indian seed company spreading its wingsinto High Tech, High Value and Attractive Market of International Seed Industry.2.9 PRODUCT PROFILE:The company is having network of 1600 distributor with 25000 plus no of retailers allover India. Krishidhan seeds are involved in sales of BT Cotton, Hybrid Jowar, researchmulticut fodder Jowar, research maize, Hybrid Bajra (research), research gram, researchmustard& notified varieties in moog, Udid, wheat, & soybean. These varieties arepopular throughout the country. The list of product is as follows PRODUCTS OF KSL:Maize: Figure 2 Maize variety Maharaja Maharaja Characteristics: Duration: 110-115 days Disease Tolerant to major diseases and pest. Resistant: Height: Medium Yield: High yielding. Productive Orange Yellow colour with Features: semi flint grain texture.
Figure 3 Maize variety Narendra Narendra Characteristics: Duration: 110-115 days Disease Tolerant to MLB and TLB. Resistant: Height: Medium Yield: High yielding. Productive Orange Yellow colour Features: with flint grain texture.Figure 4 Maize variety Golden Gun Golden Gun Characteristics: Duration: 110-115 days Disease Tolerant to diseases and pests. Resistant: Height: Medium Yield: High yielding. Productive Yellow grain with semi- Features: dent texture.
Figure 5 Maize variety Dhawal Dhawal Characteristics: Duration: Full season maturity Disease Tolerant to major diseases (115 days) Resistant: and pests. Height: Medium Yield: High yielding. Productive White grain with semi- Other: Suitable for major white corn Features: dent in texture. growing area.Figure 6 Maize variety KDMH-017 KDMH-017 Characteristics: Duration: 90-95 days Disease Resistant to common diseases. Resistant: Height: 220-225 cm Yield: 90 - 95 q/ha Productive Yellow semi-flint, Rows 84-85 Features: excellent tip filling, 16- Shelling 18 kernal (%)
Table No. 1 Other product of KSL Sr. Group of Crop Crop Name Products No.1. Cereals A. Bajra 1. Sujlam-68 2. KDBH-2561 3. KDBH-2095 4. Ratan-666 5. SBH-3333 6. Sujlam-810 7. KDBH-8272 8. Bajra KDBH-5013 B. Paddy 1. Chandrika-504 2. Sanskruti-621 3. KSL-1044 4. KSL 110001H 5. KSL 210011H 6. KSL 120007H 7. KSL-810 8. Komal 9. Hy Rize-307 C. Sorghum 1. Mankarna-504 2. Vimal-540 3. Sudama-333 4. Pandhari-296 5. KDSH-302 6. Harishakti-KDFSH-702 D. Wheat 1. Balram-011 2. Ambar-28 3. KDW-3028 E. Maize 1. Maharaja 2. Narendra 3. Golden gun 4. Dhawal
5. KDMH 0173. Field Crops A. Cotton 1. KDCHH 9810 Bt (Dollar Maruti) 2. KDCHH 9632 Bt (Maruti) 3. KDCHH 9821 Bt (Pawan) 4. KDCHH 553 Bt (Green Ball) 5. KDCHB 407 Bt (Super Fibre) 6. KDCHH 441 BG II (Super Maruti) 7. KDCHH 621 BG II (Rakhi) 8. KDCHH 9632 BG II (KSL Pratik) 9. KDCHH 541 BG II (Pancham) 10. KDCHH 9810 BG II (Dollar) 11. KDCHH 641 BG II (Trinetra) 12. KDCHB 407 (Talam 4072) 13. KDCHB 407 (Super Fibre)(Nbt) 14. KDCHH 9632 (Maruti)(Nbt)2. Oilseeds A. Soybean 1. KSL-441 2. KSL-20 B. Mustard 1. KDM-1066(KM-1) 2. Aishwarya Gold 3. B-9 (YS) C. Sunflower 1. KDFSH-635 2. Welcome-812 3. Kapil-111 4. Marshal 675 D. Castor 1. Castor Splendor 2. KDCV-93. Pulses A. Green gram 1. KDM6-19 (Lata-801) B. Tur/Pigeon Pea 1. Akshay (Uday-2788) 2. KDPH-2671 (Maroon-61)
O. Watermelon 1. Tambola 2. Prince 3. Black Sugar 4. Black Honey 5. Rasraj 6. Savita 7. Julie2.10 LOCATION OF THE COMPANY:Corporate Office:Krishidhan Seeds Limited,"Sai Capital," 9th floor,Opp.ICC Complex,Senapate Bapat Marg,Shivaji Nagar, PUNE - 411005Maharashtra, India.Phone: +91-20-25714000,Fax: +91-20-25661207. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgHead Office:Krishidhan Seeds Limited,"Krishidhan Bhavan"D3 to D6, Addln. MIDC,Aurangabad Road,JALNA - 431213Maharashtra, India.Phone: 91 2482 222600,Fax: 91 2482 222611. E-mail: email@example.comRegistered Office:Krishidhan Seeds Limited,302, Royal House,11/3 Usha GanjINDORE - 452001Madya Pradesh,IndiaPhone: +91-731-2352093,Fax: +91-731-270321 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2.11 Table No.2 Notified High Yielding Maize Composites/Hybrids Name of State Kharif cultivars Rabi- Full Season Medium Early Extra EarlyMaharashtra Ganga - II, Ganga- MMH 69 Pusa Hybrid-1, Hybrids : GangaHybrids 2, DHM 103, PRO- Pusa Hybrid-2, 11, DHM 103, 311 (4640) Y-1402 KH 9451 MMH 133 x Trishulata, K. SSF 9374 (3058) 1123 G Ganga, Safed-2, Bio 9681, JK 2492. Pusa 11 (3342)Kiran KH 5991, Panch ganga 5981,Dhawal, Panch ganga ICI 705, X 1382 (3054)Composites Prabhat NavjotAndhra Pradesh DHM 103, Ganga-2 KH 755 DHM 109, Pusa Ganga II, DHM Hybrid-1,Pusa 103, 105,Hybrids Pro 311 (4646) SSF KH 510 Hybrid-2, MMH Trishulata, KH 9374 133 x 1123 G 5991, 5891, DHM 107 (3342) PAC 701 Bio 9681, Y-1402 K (3058)JK 2492Composites Prabhat NavjotKarnataka, Hybrids DHM 103, Ganga DHM 107 DHM 109 Ganga II, DHM II, SSF 9374 103, 105, KH 755 Pusa Hybrid -1 Bio 9681, Pro 311 Trishulata, KH (4640) KH 510 Pusa Hybrid- 2 5991, 5981, DHM 1, CoH-2, MMH 69, Y-1420 Navjot 7 Renuka 3 x 1382 (3054) K (3058) Dhawal Co 1 (4840) KH 9451Composites Prabhat NavjotTamilnadu Hybrids DHM 103, DHM 107 DHM 109, MMH Ganga 11, DHM 133, 103, 105, Ganga II, KH 755 Trishulata, KH Pusa Hybrid -1 5991, 5981, PRO 311 (4640) KH 510, Bio 9681, SSF 9374 KH 9451, Pusa Hybrid -2 DHM 1, CoH - CoH 2, CoH3, JK MMH 69 2, 3, x 1382 2482, Y 1402 K X 1123 G (3342) (3054) (3058) PAC 701 Dhawal, Co 1Composites Co.1, Prabhat Navjot Kiran
For all states Forage Maize African Tall, J 1006 Amber Popcorn, VL Popcorn Amber Popcorn, Pearl Popcorn Madhuri IVL Sweet Corn Baby Corn 42, Barly Composite Maizehttp://www.ikisan.com/links/ap_maizeSeed%20Varieties.shtml2.12 INDUSTRY PROFILE: The present research is done for Krishidhan seeds, a very well reputed companyin the seed market in India.Seed is the basic and most critical input for sustainableagriculture. The response of all other inputs depends on quality of seeds to a large extent.It is estimated that the direct contribution of quality seed alone to the total production isabout 15 – 20% depending upon the crop and it can be further raised up to 45% withefficient management of other inputs.Indian seed industry, comparatively young by worldstandards have expanded at a spectacular pace during last decades. Consequently it nowoccupies a place of pride in Indias seed industry. The spectacular achievement reflectsthe maturity and dynamism of seed manufacturers and also the policies adopted by thegovernment to enable it to meet the demand effectively. The seed industry in India hasmade a significant progress in terms of production. It is a typical sector where bothimported technology and indigenous developed technology have developed towardsmeeting the overall national requirements. In India seed industry has played a vital role inthe development. Indias gross cropped area is next only to United States of America and Russiaand along with fragmented land holdings has helped India to become the largest seedmarket in the world. India is second country in the world cotton production after China. The Indian seed industry is the eighth largest in the world with an estimated valueof INR 49 billion (USD 1.06 Billion) and with an annual growth rate of 12% to 13 %.The industry has shown a buoyant growth over the last two years on well supportivemonsoons. The development of private seed industry is no more confined to justproduction and marketing of seed. It has well acquired technological strength to cater tothe varietal needs of tomorrow. Along with industries Indian farmers have in recent yearsadopted intensive cultivation practices in order to meet the growing demand for
agricultural_produce.If we look at the production capacity 70% of India’s seeds’ sales come from farmer bredseeds, 26% from those bred in publicly financed institutions, and only 4% fromresearched hybrids. The domestic hybrid seeds market is placed at INR 4.9 Billion and isannually growing at 10% a year, against the 5% global growth rate. Here, majors playerslike Monsanto India and Syngenta India dominate the hybrid seed market. The homemarket works out to about 3.7% of the global market. As the organized Indian seedindustry is just forty years old. Yet, its growth has been phenomenal. India is among thefew countries where the seed sector is already reasonably advanced.http://www.barc.ernet.in/2.13 INDIAN SEED MARKET:Seed industry plays an important part as agriculture sector has a major contribution toIndia’s GDP. Seeds are part of agricultural industry. India is one of the country in theworld where all the crops are cultivated because of different climatic conditions indifferent regions. In India varieties of crops are cultivated, for this there is great demandfor seeds in India. Indian seed market has very wide scope in terms of its expansion indifferent varieties crops seeds. This market is expanded rapidly in last decade. Maizeseed market has greater opportunities for its expansion. There are private seed companiesand some public seed company’s i.e. state seed corporations and National SeedCorporation. Due to this maize seed supply in the Indian market is there, but theincreasing demand for quality maize is more for Food Industry Feed industry,Pharmaceutical, Manufacturing industries, Ethanol (Clean gas) – production, etc. Toincrease the quality maize seed supply in the market there is need to enter private seedcompanies with quality seed in the maize seed market. So private seed companies havegreater opportunity in Indian seed market.
2.14 WORLD MAIZE SCENARIO:Maize is an important staple food in many countries of the world and the acreage andproduction of maize in the world have been increasing continuously. Though the acreageshave not been so erratic, the production has been a bit volatile mainly due to thevariations in the yield. The area under the maize is continuously increasing over theyears. If we examine production figures, global maize production reached its high of770.17 million tons during 2007-08.Acreage under corn cultivation increased to 157.1million hectares in 2007-08 up by 14.5% from 137.19 million hectares in the year 2002-03.The US has the largest harvested area of corn and contributes one fifth of the world cornharvested area. China, Brazil, Mexico, India and Indonesia are the other countries whichcontribute significantly to the world harvested area. These six countries have around 60%of the world corn harvested area and the climatic conditions of these countries during thegrowth period of corn affect the yield and in turn the supply of corn in the world.Figure No. 7Source: www.karvycomtrade.com/.../karvysSpecialReports_20060727_01.pdf
Figure No. 8Source: www.karvycomtrade.com/.../karvysSpecialReports_20060727_01.pdfFrom the above graph, we can infer that United States has the lion’s share by capturing43% of the total world production followed by China(19%), EU-27(6%), Brazil (7%).These five countries production account to 75% of the total global production. Indiastands fifth in terms of production with 2% to the total world corn production. Frombelow graph we can conclude that total global production is higher than globalconsumption during 2004-05 due to its utility in limited sectors. Thereafter condition haschanged and witnessing the higher consumption than production due to rising globaldemand from new sectors like Ethanol production.2.15 INDIANMAIZE SCENARIO:India is the fifth largest producer of maize in the world contributing 3% of the globalproduction. In India, maize is grown in all the seasons i.e., Kharif, Rabi and summer. Ofthese three seasons, nearly 90% of the production is from Kharif season, 7-8% duringRabi season and remaining 1-2% during summer season. Since the maize is raindependent, it is mainly grown during Kharif season.With the early onset of the South West Monsoon, maize sowing was started little earlierthan normal planting period. According to Union Ministry of Agriculture, as on 10th July
2006, area brought under maize in India was 35.22 lakh hectares up from 27.36 lakhhectares planted during the corresponding period last year. Higher acreage under the cropraised the hopes of higher production this year.Table 3 Area, Production & Yield of Maize in India Year Area (m.ha) Production(m.tonnes) Yield(kg/ha) 1998-99 6.2 11.15 1797 1999-00 6.42 11.51 1792 2000-01 6.61 12.04 1822 2001-02 6.58 13.16 2000 2002-03 6.64 11.15 1681 2003-04 7.34 14.98 2041 2004-05 7.43 14.17 1907 2005-06 7.59 14.71 1938 2006-07 7.89 15.1 1912 2007-08 8.12 18.96 2335 2008-09 8.19 19.29 2355 2009-10 8.20 12.61
Figure No. 9 Maize Area & Production in India Maize Area & Production in India 25 20 15 Area million ha 10 production million t. 5 0Figure No. 10 Yield of Maize in India Yield 2500 2000 1500 1000 yield 500 0Source: http://www.karvycomtrade.com/disclaimer.asp
3.1 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR: -The term consumer refers to all the individuals and households who are going to buy oracquire goods and services for their final consumption. Consumers may vary and can beclassified according to their age, sex, income group, social status, mobility pattern andtheir tests and preferences.In India the two terms consumers and customers are synonymously used but quitewrongly because the major significance is between their ways of usage. Customers arethose who purchase the goods but not for their own consumption and consumers are thosewho are able to purchase that particulate good but these are meant for their finalconsumption. Baby feeds can prove the difference between these two terms and here theparents are the customers and those are the actual consumers. In earlier, time marketerscould identify their customer or could make a fair undertaking through their dailypractice and experience. But in today competitive world, as growth in size of firms andmarkets had removed many marketing decision makers from direct contact with theircustomers. So manager had turned to the consumer research. They are spending money tostudy consumers and trying to find out answers to the questions like who is buyer. Whatdid they buy? How did they buy? Where did they buy? On any particular time, occasionor reason? Why did they buy? Where did the buy? etc. and on the basis of answers ofabove questions producer generally decides that, what to produce ? How to produce?When to produce? And how much to produce etc.The aim of marketing is to meet and satisfy target customers need and studies howindividuals, groups and organization select, buy, use and dispose as to satisfy their needand desire. Understanding consumer behaviour and knowing customers are never simple.Customers may state their needs and wants but cannot also. They may not be in touchwith deeper motivations. They may respond to influence that changes their mind at thelast minute. Never the fewer marketers must study their target customer’s wantsperceptions, preferences and shopping and buying behaviour. Consumer behaviourdisplay in searching, purchasing using and evaluation products services and ideas whichthey expect will satisfy their needs."
3.1.1 Consumer Buying Behaviour:-The study of how and why people purchase goods and services is termed consumerbuying behaviour. The term covers the decision-making processes from those thatprecede the purchase of goods or services to the final experience of using the product orservice. Models of consumer buying behaviour draw together the various influences on,and the process of, the buying decision. They attempt to understand the proverbial blackbox of what happens within the consumer between his or her exposure to marketingstimuli and the actual decision to purchase.In the next reading, Kotler et al. (2004) briefly explain the black box model; howeverFigure shows the content and process involved much clearer.Figure:-11 Black box model of consumer buying behaviourSource: Kotler et al. (1992, p. 1993)The essence of the model is that it suggests consumers will respond in particular ways todifferent stimuli after they have processed those stimuli in their minds. In more detail,the model suggests that factors external to the consumer will act as a stimulus forbehaviour, but that the consumers personal characteristics and decision-making processwill interact with the stimulus before a particular behavioral response is generated.It is called the black box model because we still know so little about how the humanmind works. We cannot see what goes on in the mind and we dont really know muchabout what goes on in there, so its like a black box. As far as consumer behaviour goes,
we know enough to be able to identify major internal influences and the major steps inthe decision-making process which consumers use, but we dont really know howconsumers transform all these3.1.2 MAJOR FACTORS INFLUENCING BUYING BEHAVIOR:-Customers should not take their decision in vacuum. Their purchasers are highlyinfluenced by Economic, cultural, social and psychological factors.Table No-4 Factors Influencing Buying BehaviourEconomic Factors Cultural Factors Psychological Personal Factors FactorsDisposable Culture Motivation Age and stage inpersonal Income life cycleSize of family and Sub-Culture Perception Occupationfamily incomeConsumer income Social Class Learning Economicexpectation circumstancesConsumer liquid Reference Belief and Life styleasset attitudesConsumer credit Family Personality and self-conceptConsumer Roles and statusdiscretionaryincomeA] ECONOMIC FACTORS:-Economic factors were first to advance formal explanation of consumer behaviour.Generally economists are assuming that the market is homogenous. Economic theorydescribes man as rational buyer who has perfect information obtain the optimum valuefor his buying effort and many price regarded as the strongest motivation. The buyercompares the prices charged by competing sellers and buys the product having theoptimum quality and a reasonable price.
The assumption that market is homogeneous is not correct. Heterogeneity is the maincharacteristic of markets. Market segmentation is based on the realization that all buyersare not alike. They differ in numbers of distinctive ways. Heterogeneity is seen on bothsupply and demand side of the market. The marketing problem is to match demand andsupply sides to heterogeneous segments of the market.INCOME AND PERSONAL CONSUMPTION SPENDING:-A number of economic factors influence consumers in respect of the way they spend theirincome for personal consumption. The various influencing factors are -1) DISPOSABLE PERSONAL INCOME:-Disposable personal income is what is left with people to spend or save after they havepaid their taxes. Goods and service are produced for purpose of consumption purchasingpower is used to convert production into consumption and disposable personal incomerepresents the potential purchasing powers in hands of consumers.The spending on personal consumption falls at slower rates than the disposable personalincome but spending sometimes rises faster than that of income. However, when theincome is higher, a higher proportion is saved, when income is low, the proportion ofexpenditure increases while the savings declines.2) SIZE OF FAMILY AND FAMILY INCOME:-Size of family and size of family income affect both spending and saving patterns. Infamilies with lower incomes average personal income decreases. The average propensityto consume decline rapidly as the income rises over poverty line. The average annualhousehold spending rises absolutely with increase in gross income per household.Persons with average income are normally below average spender. But contrary to whatis assumed, it was observed that the number of people in a household appears directlyrelated the number of people in a household increases, annual household income risesperhaps because more number of houses started earnings and because people with largerincome can afford the larger families. Moreover as ones income go on increasing the sizeof his family also raises. High-income households account for the disproportionately highshare of total expenditure. Such observations are very important to any marketing analyst.
3) CONSUMER INCOME EXPECTATION:-The income that consumer expect to have incoming is certainly influences the consumerspresent expenditure of spending pattern. Actually, spending on durable consumer goodsand other expensive items is generally influenced the consumer’s idea or possession ofhis future income. Consumers expectations about his lower or higher income have adirect effect on his present expenditure of spending plans.4) CONSUMER LIQUID ASSET:-Consumer spending plans or buying plans are influenced, those for luxurious items by thesize of their holding liquid assets i.e. each asset can be easily convertible readily intocash. Such liquid assets are generally shares, fixed deposits in bank, Government bonds,marketable stocks etc. However, a consumer may buy the product out of his income, thefreedom with which he or she spends, is influenced by his or her accumulations and stockof liquid assets.5) CONSUMER CREDIT:-Credit also influenced the pattern by which consumer spends. The purchasing power risethan the consumers current income due the credit which his made available to them bydifferent organizations. Availability of credit is the key factor in the rapid growth ofmarkets for durable goods, such as refrigerators, automobiles etc. The credit cards likeMaster card, Citibank cards are good example for above description of consumer’s credit.6) CONSUMERS DISCRETIONARY INCOME:-The income that is left over after buying necessities such as food, shelter, clothing andtransportation facilities are known discretionary income. Small fluctuations in incomecan show its effects sharply on consumers purchasing pattern of durable. The consumerturns to wants which are on lower level of priority after satisfying basic wants.Consumers are willing to increase debt for instalment purchases when income is risingand they are not ready to pay higher debt when income is declining.B] CULTURAL FACTORS:-A cultural factor exerts and deepest influence on consumer behaviour. The role played bythe consumer culture subculture and social class is particularly important.
1) CULTURE:-Culture is the most fundamental determinant of persons wants and behaviour.The consumers acquire a set of values. Perception, preference and behaviour through hisand her family and other key institutions. Culture is defined as "Culture is what we areand civilization is what we have."2) SUB - CULTURE:-Each Culture contains smaller groups of subculture that provides more specificidentification and socialization for of its members. Few types of subculture have beendistinguished by American sociologists, Nationalities religious, Province as regionalgroups.3) SOCIAL CLASS:-Social classes are relatively homogenous and enduring divisions in a society. Which arehierarchically ordered and whose members share similar values interests and behaviour?A social classes are relatively homogenous i.e. group of people with similar levels ofprestige, power and wealth who also share a set of related beliefs values and attitudes intheir thinking and behaviour. Social classes also show distinct product and brandpreferences in clothing, home furnishing and leisure activities and in America even inrespect of automobiles.4) REFERENCE:-A persons behaviour is strongly influence by many groups. A persons reference groupsare those which directly or indirectly influences person a person. These are groups towhich the person belongs some are primary groups with which there is a fairlycontinuous interaction, such as family, friends, neighbour and co-workers or collegesprimary formal relationship and they have less continuous interaction. They includereligious organizations. Professional associations and trade unions.5) FAMILY:-The family is most important consumer buying organization in society and it has beenresearched extensively. Family members constitute the most influential primary referencegroup.
6) ROLES AND STATUS:-Person participates in many groups throughout their life that are family, clubs,organization etc. The person and his position in different in each group can be defined interms of role and status. A role consists of activities that a person is expected to performaccording to expectations of persons around him or her. Each role carriages a statusreflecting the general system to it by society. People often choose products tocommunicate their role and status in the society.C] PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS:-A person buying choices are influenced by four major psychological factors motivationperception, learning and beliefs and attitudes.1) MOTIVATION:-The term motivation means an inner urge that makes or promptly persons to act. A needis not motive until is arranged. A need is a material recruitment basks to human life butthese needs are not always activated when the need is activated it becomes motivecreation of wants or revaluation of expectations from life is motivation.2) PERCEPTION:-A motivated person is ready to act. How a motivated person acts is influenced by hisperception of the situation. To persons or subjected to the same motivation may actdifferently because he perceives the situation differently because he perceived thesituation differently. Perception can be defined as The process by which on individualselect organize and interpret information to create meaningful picture of the world.3) LEARNING:-Learning involves changes of and individual behaviour arising from experience whenpeople act; learn through experience, learning describes changes in an individual’sbehaviour arising from experience. Experience related to usage of product, shaping andexposure to the advertisement and other aspect of marketing. A person is attracted bypackage of a new product if the consumer is get satisfied by this new product, the buyerlearns through the experience that the new product is good or acceptable to him. Learningknows something which you did not know before.
4) BELIEF AND ATTITUDE:-BELIEF - is a descriptive through that a person holds about something.ATTITUDE - is persons enduring favourable or unfavourable evaluation. Emotionalfeeling and action tendencies towards some objective or idea. Thus through doing andlearningpeople acquire beliefs and attitudes and thus in turn these beliefs and Attitude greatlyinfluences the buying behaviour of consumers.D] PERSONAL FACTORS:-1) AGE AND STAGE IN LIFE CYCLE:-People buy different goods and services throughout their lifetime and their buyingbehaviour in age related. Consumption is also shape by family lifecycle marketers afterchoose their customers life-cycle wise as their target market.2) OCCUPATION:-A persons occupation certainly influences his/her consumption pattern or buyingbehaviour. Marketers also try to identify the occupational groups that have above averageinterest in their product and services. A company can even specialize its products forcertain occupation groups.3) ECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES:-Product choice is greatly influence by ones economics circumstances peoples economiccircumstances consists of their spendable income i.e. level, stability and time pattern,saving and assets including percentage that is liquid, debts borrowing power and attitudetowards spending versus saving.4) LIFESTYLE:-A person coming from same sub-culture social classes and occupational groups may leadto different lifestyle. "Lifestyle can be defined as, a person’s pattern of living asexpressed in the persons activities interests and opinions."5) PERSONALITY AND SELF-CONCEPT:-Each person has distinct personality that influences his buying behaviour. Personality canbe defined as a person distinguishing psychological characteristics that lead to relativelyconstitution enduring response to his environment. Personality is usually described in
term of such traits as self-confidence dominance, autonomy, difference, sociability,defensiveness and adaptability.Personality can be useful in analysing consumer behaviour provided that personalitytypes can be classified accurately and that strong correlation exists between certainpersonality types and products of brand choices self-concept is related to personality.3.1.3 BUYING BEHAVIOR:-Consumer buying decisions making varies with the type of buying decision. As saledistinguished four types consumers buying behaviour based on the degree of buyer’sinvolvement and degree of difference among brands.1) COMPLEX BUYING BEHAVIOR:-Consumers engage in complex buying behaviour then they are highly involve in apurchase and aware of significance differences among brand. This is usually the casewhen the product is expensive brought infrequently, risky and highly self-expensive.2) DISSONANCE REDUCING BUYING BEHAVIOR:-Sometimes buyers are highly involve in purchase but sees little differences in the brands.The high involvement is based on the fact that the purchase is expensive, infrequentlyand risky. In this case buyer will shop around to learn what is available but will buy fairlyquickly perhaps regarding primarily to good price as to purchase convenience.3) HABITUAL BUYING BEHAVIOR:-Many products are brought under conditions of low consumer involvement and absenceof significance brand differences. Consumers have little involvement in this productcategory. They go to the store and reach for the salt.4) VARIETY SEEKING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR:-Same buying situations are characterized by low consumer involvement but significancebrand differences. Here consumers do a lot of brand switching.
3.2 Market potential3.2.1 DEFINITION:Estimated maximum total sales revenue of all suppliers of a product in a market during acertain periodMarket potentials the limit approached by market demand as industry marketingexpenditures approach infinity for a given marketing environment.The phrase “for a given market environment” is crucial. Consider the market potential forautomobiles in a period of recession versus a period of prosperity. The market potential ishigher during prosperity. The dependence of market potential on the environment isillustrated in Figure 1-13(b). Market analysts distinguish between the position of themarket demand function and movement along it. Companies cannot doAnalysing3.2.2 BENEFITS OF MARKET POTENTIAL ANALYSIS Understand market potential for a single store, network of stores or a new market Deploy resources effectively by ranking markets in priority order Forecast total opportunity in terms of number of customers and revenue potential Estimate your market shareEstimating market potential:Estimating the market or market potential for a new business or business expansion iscritical in determining the economic feasibility of a venture. Estimating the marketpotential will determine if the market is large enough to support your business.Estimating the market potential for a business is critical in evaluating its viability andprovides an estimate of the maximum total sales potential for a given market. Once theestimated market potential has been calculated, it is possible to determine if the market islarge enough to sustain your proposed business or sustain an addition competitor in themarketplace. It is important to remember that the estimated market potential sets an upperboundary on the market size and can be expressed in either units and or sales. Unless
there are no direct or indirect competitors, a business will capture a share of the totalestimated market potential, not all of it.The following provide the steps and data necessary to estimate the market potential.Key Steps in Estimating Market Potential:1. Define your target market and market segments.2. Define the geographic boundaries of your market.3. Derive an average selling price.4. Determine the average annual consumption.Estimating the market potential for a business requires specific information on thenumber of people or potential buyers, an average selling price, and an estimate ofconsumption or usage for a specific period of time.1. Target Market One of the most important components of estimating the market potential for abusiness is to determine its target market. A target market can be thought of as thecustomers who are most likely to buy from you and generally are described usingdemographic variables (gender, age, education) as well as psychographic variables(lifestyle and belief system variables). In many cases, a business may have more than onetarget market. Think about the automobile industry, automobile manufacturers have anumber of target markets, i.e., truck buyers, luxury car buyers, economy buyers. Yourbusiness should be able to develop specific profiles for each of your target markets usingdemographic and psychographic variables.2. Market or Trade Area The market area can be thought of as the geographic area where the businessintends to operate, i.e., a city block, between the rivers or the globe. Defining the marketarea is important because it defines the geographic area where potential consumers liveand/or work. However, not everyone in the defined market area will be a customer. As aresult, it is important to compare your target market profile, generally described usingdemographics, to the population in the market area. There are a number of ways to define
a market area, some are easy and others are more difficult and require the services of amarketing professional.3. Market Size Once the market area and target market has been defined, it is possible todetermine the number of potential customers for your business. This total marketpotential will typically have to be adjusted downward to account for non-users.4. Competitor Analysis One of the best sources of information is to investigate competing businesses.These businesses can provide a wealth of information that can be used in evaluating thepotential for your business. By evaluating how a company markets its business, it ispossible to determine the markets it is targeting. For example, if competing businessesare advertising in Southern Living, they are targeting affluent, middle age females.However, if they are advertising in the sports section of a metropolitan newspaper, theyare most likely targeting males. In addition to collecting information on the markets theyare targeting, a competitor analysis can reveal packaging preferences, target marketinformation, pricing strategies, distribution channels and marketing strategies. Simplyevaluate the products and services your competitor is providing5. Pricing A product’s pricing has a direct impact on the bottom line of your business and itssuccess. You do not want to price yourself out of the market but you do not want to leavemoney on the table. However, it is important that your account for all of your costsassociated with providing your product to the consumers and set your price high enoughto cover this price and make a profit. Your product’s price must also be in line withcompeting products relative to its value. Value is a ratio of a customers expected level ofquality and the price they pay for the product. If quality is low and price is high, it is alow value product. Therefore, investigate what others are charging and what the customergets at that price when setting your price.
Calculating Price: •Cost-plus pricing. Used mainly by manufacturers, assures that all costs (fixed and variable) are covered and includes a desired level of profit. •Demand pricing. Used by companies that sell their product through a variety of sources at differing prices based on demand. •Competitive pricing. Price according to your competitors. Used in competitive markets with little product differentiation. •Mark-up pricing. Adds a level of profit to the cost of the product being retailed. Also good for products that are co-packed.6. Market Share The percentage of a market (either in units or revenue) accounted for by anindividual business This figure is important since it provides insight into how much of thetotal market potential a business might capture. If the market share is not large enough tosupport the business, then there is a problem. Also, if the number of units needed for thebusiness to break-even financially is known, it is possible to determine what share of themarket will have to be captured for the business to achieve this break-even point. If themarket share estimation is too high or unrealistic, the business should be reevaluated. Estimating market share is difficult because of the lack of information. Sometrade associations or market research publications will provide some basic market shareinformation but finding directly applicable information for your business may beimpossible. Market share information is very difficult to obtain and may need to beestimated using various scenarios.Examples: There are two existing agritourism operation in the identified market area.The new agritourism business wants to estimate what percent of the total market they cancapture. Since data on agritourism in the area is not being collected, it is impossible toderive an accurate market share. However, for planning purposes, it is possible to crudelyestimate market share.
4.1 INTRODUCTION Research is common parlance reference to a search for knowledge. Researchis an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical since. Researchis an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement.It is pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. Inshort the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of findingsolution to a problem in research. The systematic approach concerning generalization andthe formulation of theory is also research. The term research refers to a systematicmethod consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting thefacts or data, analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusion either in the form ofsolution towards the concern problem or in certain generalization for some theoreticalformulation. The term research can be defined as “a careful investigation or inquiryespecially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge”. Redman and Morydefined research as a “systematized effort to gain new knowledge”.4.2 RESEARCH DESIGN: A research design is a specification of method and procedures or acquiring theinformation needed. It is the overall pattern or framework of the project that stipulateswhat is to be collected, from which sources, by what procedure. Research design is a detailed blueprint used to guide a research study toward itsobjective. Research design provides the glue that holds the research project together. Adesign to structure the research, to show how all of the major programmes and methodsof assignment work together to try to address the central research questions.Research design is thus the plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as toobtain answers to research questions and to control variance. According to Pauline V.Young, a research design is “the logical and systematic planning and directing a piece ofresearch.”
Types of research 1. Exploratory research 2. Descriptive research 3. Experimental research 1. Exploratory research design: it is normally based on secondary data. It does not have a formal and rigid design as the researcher may have to change his focus or direction, depending on the availability of new ideas and relationship among variables. The objective of it is to generate new ideas. 2. Descriptive research design: Descriptive research designs are well structured. This type of research designs are undertaken in various circumstances. Descriptive research designs are not always factual and simple; they can be complex also, demanding a high degree of scientific skill on the part of the researcher. 3. Experimental research design: experimental research is analogous to stratification; it ensures that each classification of test units and each classification of extraneous forces is applied equally to all test units. Considering the objectives and scope of the study the exploratory research design has been used for this project.4.3 RESEARCH METODOLOGY: Research always starts with a question or a problem. Its purpose is to questionthrough the application of the scientific method. It is a systematic and intensive studydirected towards a more complete knowledge of the subject studied. Marketing researchis the function which links the consumer, customer and public to the marketer throughinformation- information used to identify and define marketing opportunities andproblems generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions, monitor marketing actions,monitor marketing performance and improve understanding of market as a process.Marketing research specifies the information required to address these issues, designs,and the method for collecting information, manage and implemented the data collectionprocess, analyses the results and communicate the findings and their implication.
4.4 THE MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS As marketing research is a systemic and formalized process, it follows a certainsequence of research action. The marketing process has the following steps: Formulating the problems Developing objectives of the research Designing an effective research plan Data collection techniques Evaluating the data and preparing a research reportSurvey ProcedureSurveys are a structured way to collect information using questionnaires. Typicallysurveys are conducted through the mail (surface or electronic) or by phone or byinterview.A survey is used: To collect standardized information from large numbers of individuals When face-to-face meetings are inadvisable When privacy is important or independent opinions and responses are neededProcedure 1. Form team for designing and implementing the survey. 2. Develop questionnaire. 3. Find out area for survey 4. Determine the sample size 5. Make the corrections in the questionnaire 6. Arrange question in proper sequence 7. Take print of the questionnaire 8. Then contact to the respondents in the field 9. From this collected data sort out the useful data. 10. Then do the analysis and interpretation and come to result.4.5 SAMPLING The process of selecting number of units for a study in such a way that the unitsrepresent the large group from which they are selected.
For this research the sampling unit referred is Retailers and farmers in the Solapurdistrict dealing in agriculture inputs particularly sell maize seeds and purchase maizeseeds respectively. The purpose of sampling is to draw conclusions about populations from samples.4.5.1 Sample A finite subset selected from the population with the purpose of investigation ofits properties is called as sample. For this research sample size used were 47 Retailers& 70 farmers from theselected population.4.5.2 Universe/Population: The population means the large group from which the samples are drawn or thegroup of individual under study is called universe/population. For this research the population is the maize seeds dealer and farmer who growingmaize crop from Solapur district.4.5.3 Sampling design:It is definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population.4.5.4 Sample survey:A survey conducted by selecting the sample is called as sampling survey.4.5.5 Sampling technique/Method of sampling: 1. Probability sampling a) Simple random sampling b) Systematic random sampling c) Stratified sampling d) Cluster sampling e) Multistage sampling 2. Non probability sampling a) Convenience sampling b) Judgmental sampling c) Snowball sampling d) Quota sampling
For this research convenience sampling is used. This is probably the mostcommon of all sampling technique with convenient sampling. The samples are selectedbecause they are accessible to the researcher. This technique is considered easiest,cheapest and less time consuming. A finite subset select from the population with thepurpose of investigation of its properties is called sample. This small group represents thetotal group. In the project the market research, which was ask to be studied Solapurmarket but as it was possible to approach all the respondents dealer & farmer of thedistrict, hence a sample was selected which represents the whole area. The areas selectedfor the sample are present further in the appendix. Sampling method used is conveniencesampling .It is non-probability sampling method .For this project convenient samplinghas been used as it meet the constraints like economic and time. .4.6.6 Sample Area:- It is clear that probability sampling is more reliable and relevant but since timeand money being major considerations non probability sampling is convenient. All thedealer and farmers were surveyed during the project belonging to population area. Theareas covered were Madha, Karmala, Jeur, Akluj, Tembhurni, Pandharpur, Solapur cityand villages like Vairag, Aran, Khandali, Wangi, Kandar, Karkamb, etc.4.7 DATA COLLECTION:The task of data collection begins after research problem has been defined & researchdesign or plan checked out.4.7.1 Data to be collected. Data includes facts and figures, which are required to be collected to achiever theobjectives of the project in order to understand consumer buying behaviour of hybridmaize seeds consumer and hybrid maize market potential.
4.7.2 Types of Data:-4.7.2. i)Primary data:Primary data is the information collected in the form of facts and figures by theresearcher as the first hand information. Primary data comes soon into existence with theefforts of the researcher. The data that is being collected for the first time or to particularly fulfill theobjectives of the project is known as primary data.A] Observation Method: The observation method is most commonly used method specially in studiesrelating to behavioral science. In a way all observed things around us, but this sort ofobservation is not scientific observation. Under the observation method, the informationis sought by way of investigators own direct observation without asking from therespondents.Advantages 1) Subjective bias is eliminated 2) The currently happening is not complicated by either the past behavior or future intension or attitude. 3) This method is independent of respondents willingness to respond and as such is relatively less demanding of active co-operation on the part of respondents.Limitations 1) It is an expensive method. 2) The information provided by this method is very limited. 3) Sometimes unforeseen factors may interfere with the observational task.B] Interview Method: The interview method of collecting data involves presentation of oral-verbalstimuli and reply in terms of oral-verbal responses.Personal Interview Personal interview method requires a person known as the interviewer askingquestions generally in a face to face contact to the other persons. In the case of personal
interview the interviewer has to collect the information personally from the sourceconcerned. He has to be on the spot and has to meet people from whom data have to becollected. The method of collecting information through personal interviews is usuallycarried out in a structured way. As such we call the interviews as “structuredinterviews”.Advantages a. More information and that too in greater depth can be obtained. b. Personal information can as well be obtained easily under this method. c. Observation method can as well be applied to recording verbal answers to various questions. d. Interviewer by his own skill can overcome the resistance, if any, of the respondents; the interview method can be made to yield an almost perfect sample of general population.Limitations a) It is very expensive method. b) There remains the possibility of the bias of interviewer as well as respondents. c) This method is relatively more time consuming. d) Interviewing at times may also introduce systematic errors.C] Questionnaire Method The questionnaire is the most commonly used method of gathering informationabout use and users. Questionnaires are easy to prepare and it is surprisingly easy toprepare a bad one. It is important to be able to avoid major pitfalls and to be able toidentify them in the research done by others.Advantages a) It is free from the bias of interviewer; answers are in respondents own words. b) Large samples can be made use of and thus the result can be made dependable and reliable. c) There is low cost even when the universe is large and is widely spread geographically. Limitations a) It can be used only when respondents are educated and co-operating.
b) It is difficult to know whether willing respondents are truly representative. c) The control over questionnaire may be lost once it is sent.Selected Data Collection Method For this research primary data was collected by preparing two separatequestionnaires one for the farmer and other for the dealers. The questions were asked to the dealers which covered all the aspects pertainingto the project. The questions gave details about the Brand varieties, quality of the seeds,effect of advertisement, and opinion of the dealers. Similarly in the schedule for thecustomers the questions covered many aspects about their preferences, brand image,effectiveness of the advertisements, etc.Questionnaire design4.6.1 Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a form of question which can normally be answeredusing a simple "yes" or "no", a specific simple piece of information, or a selection frommultiple choices. Close ended questions: This is the crucial part of the questionnaire.Close ended questions are the question in which options are given to the respondent inwhich they have to select one option.4.6.2 Open ended question: These are those questions that ask for unprompted opinions. In other words, thereare no pre-determined set of responses, and the participant is free to answer however hechooses. Open are good for soliciting subjective data or when the range of responses isnot tightly defined. This increase the likelihood of you receiving unexpected andinsightful suggestions, for it is impossible to predict the full range of opinion.4.6.3 Scaling questions (“Likert scale”): A scale is any group of questions or items with a common theme. An additivescale(often called a “ likert” scale)
A scaling question is a way to find out what some ones subjective experience isby giving it a number. Scaling questions invite the clients to put their observations, impressions, andpredictions on a scale from 0 to 10. Questions need to be specific, citing specific timesand circumstances Scaling questions are tools that are used to identify useful differences for theclient and may help to establish goals as well. The poles of a scale can be defined in abespoke way each time the question is asked, but typically range from "the worst theproblem has ever been" (zero or one) to "the best things could ever possibly be" (ten).The client is asked to rate their current position on the scale, and questions are then usedto help the client identify resources (e.g. "whats stopping you from slipping one pointlower down the scale?"), exceptions (e.g. "on a day when you are one point higher on thescale, what would tell you that it was a one point higher day?") and to describe apreferred future (e.g. "where on the scale would be good enough? What would a day atthat point on the scale look like?") For this research, the questions used were close ended questions and open ended&ranking questions.4.7.2 ii) Secondary data It was collected to add the value to the primary data. Data regarding history ofKrishidhan seeds ltd., its profile and other necessary records and information wascollected by referring to website (www.Krishidhanseeds.com), annual reports and dailynewspapers and from Agri commissionaire office.4.8 ANALYSIS The data so collected were not simply accepted because it contained unnecessaryinformation and over or under emphasized facts. Therefore only relevant data wereincluded in the report, which helped in achieving the objectives of the project. Analysis is done on the basis of data collected by survey. Firstly sort out the datacollected from survey. Take the important data. Draw the table and make a graph on thebasis of data collected. Tool like table, bar chart, were used to interpreted the data. After that next step is interpretation of data.
4.9 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: 1. Duration of project is two month which one of major time constraint that will affect the scope of research and the size of sample. 2. The population to be surveyed was from only one district and this may not be representative of the entire population. 3. Responses from the respondent are solely dependent on their knowledge and use of the product i.e. seed. 4. Data is collected by using convenient sampling, which is not totally unbiased sampling method and may cause certain errors.
5.1 DEALER’S SURVEY:Q.1 which major crop seeds are available in your shop?Tabular representationTable 5 Seeds Available in Shop Seeds Available No. of respondent Yes No Wheat 42 5 Jowar 44 3 Soybean 17 30 G.nut 45 2 Gram 37 10 Cotton 16 31 Vegetable 44 3 Maize 47 0 Sunflower 43 4 Pulses 46 1Figure No.-12 Seeds Available in Shop 50 40 30 20 Seeds Available in 10 Shop 0
Interpretation:From the above graph it can be interpreted that most of dealer having maize seedavailable in their shop. This indicates that KSL has tremendous scope to increase theirmarket share.Q.2 which company’s maize seeds are available in your shop?Tabular representationTable No-6- Companys maize seed available in shop Which companies seeds available No. of respondent Yes No Mahyco 31 16 Krishidhan 9 38 PHI 38 9 Ankur 17 30 Syngenta 27 20 JK Seeds 11 36 Monsanto 31 16 Kaveri 21 26 Mahabeej 11 36 Nirmal 8 39 Ganga Kaveri 9 38
Figure No.-13 Companys maize seed available in shop 40 35 30 25 20 15 Companys maize 10 seed available in 5 shop 0 Syngenta PHI Krishidhan Monsanto Nirmal Ankur Mahyco JK Seeds Kaveri Mahabeej Ganga KaveriInterpretation:From the above graph it can be interpreted that most of the dealer having PHI Companymaize seed available in their shopPHI Company is followed by Mahyco and Monsanto regarding market shareKSL has very less market share in Solapur district for maize seed
Q.3 which company’s seed sale more (give ranking)Tabular representationTable No-7-Ranking of company according to sale of seed Total of No. of Company ranking respondent MeanRanking Mahyco 51 21 2.428571 Krishidhan 15 5 3 PHI 58 34 1.705882 Ankur 31 6 5.166667 Syngenta 72 21 3.428571 JK Seeds 30 5 6 Monsanto 85 27 3.148148 Kaveri 61 21 2.904762 Mahabeej 38 12 3.166667 Nirmal 16 5 3.2 Ganga Kaveri 24 6 4Figure No.-14 Mean ranking 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Average ranking Ganga… 0 Syngenta Krishidhan Kaveri Nirmal Ankur PHI JK Seeds Mahyco Monsanto MahabeejInterpretation:From the above it can be interpreted that sale of PHI company’s seed is morein Solapurdistrict with Mean ranking 1.70. This is followed by the Mahyco, Kaveri, Monsanto,Mahabeej, etc.