Greek anatomia, from anatome"dissection," from ana- "up" (see ana-) + temnein "to cut" (see tome)
The epidermis ispresent as a layer of sclerenchyma impartingstrength to the root system.Cortex is parenchymatous and in thecentral region, present between epidermisand the stele. The cortex is poorly developed.Numerous air spaces form aerenchymain the cortical region for gaseous exchange
formin the cortical region for gaseous exchange
VASCULAR…NOT GOOD BCZ RICE IS A HYDROPHYTIC..PLANT, AND HAS TO LIVE IN WATER,,SO no need of a good vascular system
Hypodermal = A layer of cells lying immediately below the epidermis.Cortex is highly reduced and represented by a narrow hypodermal region.In mature stems hypodermis is sclerenchymatic and gives mechanical strength.In young stems chlorenchymatic patches are present just below the stomata regions and perform photosynthesis. The cortex shows a lot of air chambers.Vascular bundles are present just below the epidermis.
bundle sheath =A layer or region of compactly arranged cells surrounding a vascular bundle in a plant. The bundle sheaths regulate the movement of substances between the vascular tissue and the parenchyma and, in leaves, protect the vascular tissue from exposure to air.Fibrovascular bundle
POINT NUMBER 2Variation in sclerenchymastructure arises from differences inthe thickening of the cell wall in the outercortical parenchyma and the number ofsclerenchyma cell layers,
leaf blade, leafsheath, and the joining region of these twoparts containing appendages such as liguleand auricle
epidermis, mesophyll andvascular bundles
Bulliform cells are large, bubble-shaped epidermal cells that occur in groups on the upper surface of the leaves of manygrasses. Loss of turgor pressure in these cells causes leaves to "roll up" during water stress. During drought, the loss of moisture through vacuoles induces bulliform cells to cause the leaves of many grass species to close as the two edges of the grass blade fold up toward each other. Once adequate water is available, these cells enlarge and the leaves open again. Folded leaves offer less exposure to sunlight, so they are heated less thus reducing evaporation and conserving the remaining water in the plant and occur on the leaves of many monocotyledons but are probably best known in grasses. They are thought to play a role in the unfolding of developing leaves and in the rolling and unrolling of mature leaves in response to alternating wet and dry periods.adaxial = facing towards the axis, as the surface of a leaf that faces the stem
Chlorencyma = Plant tissue consisting of parenchyma cells that contain chloroplasts.
PAPILA = A minute projection on the surface of a stigma, petal, or leaf.TRICHOMES = any hairlike outgrowth from the surface of a plant
Leaf sheath elongationstarts only after leaf blade elongation iscompleted.
Wellmeanz , well developed
Photorespiration (also known as the oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle, or C2 photosynthesis) is a process in plant metabolism which attempts to ameliorate the consequences of a wasteful oxygenation reaction by the enzymeRuBisCO
Crop Plant AnatomyDrRatikantaMaiti (Vibha Seeds, India)Dr Pratik Satya (Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, India)DasariRajkumar (Vibha Seeds, India)And AllamRamaswamy (Vibha Seeds, India)
Anatomy of stem,root and leaf of rice
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE of AGRICULTURE
Asad Ullah Khan
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• Rice is an herb having a plant height of 2–4m.
The plant generally takes 3–6 months to
complete its life cycle.
• Second most important crop after wheat.
• Consumed by more than 75% of world
• Annual grass.
• Genus Oryza ,more than 20 wild species and
two cultivated diploid species (2n = 2x = 24)
• Cultivated since 2000 B.C.
Greek word “anatomia” To dissect and See
“Anatomy is a branch of biological
science concerned with the study of the
internal structure of body parts of an
1. The cortex is poorly developed.
2. Numerous air spaces
3. Aerenchyma in the cortical region
4. Gaseous exchange
• The centre region is occupied by vascular
tissue forming stele.
• The vascular system is poorly developed
• Root system poorly developed.
Root Cap Root Hair
• A lot of air chambers present in root cells
facilitate gaseous exchange when plant is
submerged in anaerobic condition.
• Sclerenchyma below epidermis provide
strength to root system
• A stem is one of two main structural axes of
a vascular plant, the other being the root. The stem
is normally divided into nodes and internodes.
• A stem develops buds and shoots and usually grows
above the ground. Inside the stem, materials move
up and down the tissues of the transport system.
The term "shoots" is often confused with "stems";
"shoots" generally refers to new fresh plant growth
including both stems and other structures like leaves
Stele is the
part of the
• Vascular bundles numerous
and scattered irregularly in
the ground tissue.
• Peripheral bundles are
small, closely arranged.
• Central bundles are large,
• Each vascular bundle is oval
• Surrounded by fibrous bundle sheath.
• It is many celled thick towards outer and inner
• Few celled thick at lateral regions
• Hence the vascular bundles are described as
• Vascular bundles are conjoint, collateral (with
xylem and phloem present on the same radius)
and closed (i.e. without cambium).
• The xylem is present towards the centre of the
axis and consists of few vessels which are
arranged in the form of letter ‘Y’.
cells at the sides
• The stele consists of numerous vascular
bundles scattered irregularly in the ground
tissue, and is called an atactostele.
• It is the most advanced type of stele.
Significance of variations
• Rice stem is less defined in structure than in
sorghum or wheat stem.
• Adapted well to anaerobic conditions.
• Biotic and abiotic stress tolerance.
• Since japonica rice has higher thickening of
sclerenchyma than indica rice, it is more
tolerant to stem borers and desiccation
“A flattened structure of a higher plant, typically
green and bladelike, that is attached to a stem
directly or via a stalk. Designed by ALLAH for
plant food manufacturing ”
More or less
Rough cz of
type of stomata
• Papilla and trichomes cover the entire leaf
surface except on the adaxial surface of the
Leaf Anatomical Differences
• The 1st leaf lacks blade and is small in size
compared to other leaves.
• The 5th and later leaves have a strong midrib,
which providing mechanical strength.
• Leaves also differ in the capability of
photosynthetic activities; early leaves are
photosynthetically less efficient than later
(a) Transverse section of leaf (400×) showing the
aerenchyma and vascular bundle; (b) vascular bundle
(400×) showing proto- and metaxylem regions.