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Anatomy of stem,root and leaf of rice

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A comprehensive and detailed information package for anatomy of rice plant.
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Anatomy of stem,root and leaf of rice

  1. 1. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  2. 2. UNIVERSITY COLLEGE of AGRICULTURE ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  3. 3. Adeel Anjum Ishtiaq Shariq Asad Ullah Khan M.Faizan Ahmad Roll # 1 Roll # 2 Roll # 3 Roll # 4 GROUP # 1 Including ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  4. 4. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  5. 5. FEW THING ABOUT RICE ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  6. 6. • Rice is an herb having a plant height of 2–4m. The plant generally takes 3–6 months to complete its life cycle. • Second most important crop after wheat. • Consumed by more than 75% of world population. • Annual grass. • Genus Oryza ,more than 20 wild species and two cultivated diploid species (2n = 2x = 24) • Cultivated since 2000 B.C. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  7. 7. Anatomy Greek word “anatomia” To dissect and See “Anatomy is a branch of biological science concerned with the study of the internal structure of body parts of an organism.” ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  8. 8. ROOT ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  9. 9. • In vascular plants, the root is the organ of plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  10. 10. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  11. 11. Root Absorption Anchoring Storing Food And Nutrients Vegetative Repro. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  12. 12. Transverse section of root (100×) illustrating epidermis (EP), sclerenchymatic hypodermis (HYP), cortex (COR), aerenchyma (ARC), endodermis (END), pericycle (PC), xylem (X), phloem (PHL) and medulla (MED). ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  13. 13. Root TS Epidermis Cortex Stele ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  14. 14. Absence Cuticle Stomata ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  15. 15. Epidemal cell Unicell. Root Hairs AbsorptionWater/min. Soil ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  16. 16. Epidermis SCLERENCHYMA Strengthens Root ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  17. 17. CortexEpidermis Stele PARANCHYMATOUS ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  18. 18. 1. The cortex is poorly developed. 2. Numerous air spaces 3. Aerenchyma in the cortical region 4. Gaseous exchange ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  19. 19. • The centre region is occupied by vascular tissue forming stele. • The vascular system is poorly developed • Root system poorly developed. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  20. 20. Absence Sclerenchyma almost cambium pith ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  21. 21. Absence Root Cap Root Hair ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  22. 22. • A lot of air chambers present in root cells facilitate gaseous exchange when plant is submerged in anaerobic condition. • Sclerenchyma below epidermis provide strength to root system ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  23. 23. STEM ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  24. 24. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  25. 25. • A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root. The stem is normally divided into nodes and internodes. • A stem develops buds and shoots and usually grows above the ground. Inside the stem, materials move up and down the tissues of the transport system. The term "shoots" is often confused with "stems"; "shoots" generally refers to new fresh plant growth including both stems and other structures like leaves or flowers. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  26. 26. Transverse section of culm (stem 100×) showing epidermis (EP), vascular bundles (VB), ground tissue (GT) and central aerenchyma (ARC). ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  27. 27. Stem TS Epidermis Cortex Vascular tissue ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  28. 28. Epidermis Outermost Protection On outer cuticle Stomata Present Gas. exchange ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  29. 29. Cortex Reduced Narrow hypodermal region Mature stems Hypodermis is sclerenchymatic Strength Young stems Chlorenchymatic patches Below Stomata Photosynthesis ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  30. 30. Stele is the central part of the stem Ground tissue Shows air chambers. Vascular bundles Cortex ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  31. 31. Vascular bundles • Vascular bundles numerous and scattered irregularly in the ground tissue. • Peripheral bundles are small, closely arranged. • Central bundles are large, widely arranged. • Each vascular bundle is oval in shape. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  32. 32. • Surrounded by fibrous bundle sheath. • It is many celled thick towards outer and inner regions • Few celled thick at lateral regions • Hence the vascular bundles are described as fibrovascular bundles. • Vascular bundles are conjoint, collateral (with xylem and phloem present on the same radius) and closed (i.e. without cambium). • The xylem is present towards the centre of the axis and consists of few vessels which are arranged in the form of letter ‘Y’. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  33. 33. Phloem Outside Between metaxylem vessel Consist of Sieve tubes Companion cells Parenchymatous cells at the sides ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  34. 34. • The stele consists of numerous vascular bundles scattered irregularly in the ground tissue, and is called an atactostele. • It is the most advanced type of stele. Stele ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  35. 35. Significance of variations • Rice stem is less defined in structure than in sorghum or wheat stem. • Adapted well to anaerobic conditions. • Biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. • Since japonica rice has higher thickening of sclerenchyma than indica rice, it is more tolerant to stem borers and desiccation ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  36. 36. LEAF ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  37. 37. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  38. 38. “A flattened structure of a higher plant, typically green and bladelike, that is attached to a stem directly or via a stalk. Designed by ALLAH for plant food manufacturing ” ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  39. 39. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  40. 40. • TS of leaf (100×) showing upper epidermis (UPEP), lower epidermis (LOEP), • sclerenchyma patches (SCL), vascular bundles (VB), • aerenchyma (ARC), parenchyma (PAR), mesophyll • (MES) and brachisclereid (BRC). ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  41. 41. Leaf TS Epidermis Mesophyll V.B ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  42. 42. Epidermis Bullifrom Cells Low water Level Rolling Leaf Uniseriate More or less Oval Rough cz of silica crystals Outer Wall Cuticle Graminaceous type of stomata Less on Lower Epi. 2 Dumbell Shaped ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  43. 43. Mesophyll Spongy and Palisade Not Differntiated Rolling Leaf Composition Lobed chlorenchyma Length Breadth 2:1 Aerenchyma Cz Hydrophyte ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  44. 44. • Papilla and trichomes cover the entire leaf surface except on the adaxial surface of the leaf sheath. V.B Phloem Abaxial of bundle Xylem Adexial Poorly developed Hydrophyte Most, small size Large occur Regular interval ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  45. 45. Leaf Anatomical Differences • The 1st leaf lacks blade and is small in size compared to other leaves. • The 5th and later leaves have a strong midrib, which providing mechanical strength. • Leaves also differ in the capability of photosynthetic activities; early leaves are photosynthetically less efficient than later leaves. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  46. 46. (a) Transverse section of leaf (400×) showing the aerenchyma and vascular bundle; (b) vascular bundle (400×) showing proto- and metaxylem regions. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  47. 47. Leaf Rapid cell division Shoot apical meristem Sheath Elongation Starts After Leaf bald’s ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  48. 48. • Development of leaf blade and leaf sheath in rice is well coordinated. • Air spaces known as lacuna are formed in the leaf sheath and midrib of the leaf blade. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  49. 49. ANATOMICAL SIGNIFICANCE ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  50. 50. Leaf Strength Large Midrib Phloem Well Than Xylem Sclerenchyma Strands Often Sclereids ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  51. 51. High Photo. Capacity Selection and Breeding High mesophyll cell num. Re-capture CO2 of Photorespiration Spatial arrangement Chloroplast in Meso. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  52. 52. REFRENCES ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  53. 53. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM
  54. 54. ISHTIAQSHARIQ@GMAIL.COM

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