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Applied Statistics

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Applied Statistics

  1. 1. PRESENTED TO: DR. NADEEM SHAFIQ BUTT RESOURCE PERSON: ADVANCED APPLIED STATISTICS PRESENTED BY: MUHAMMAD ISHTIAQ ISHAQ & NAZIA HUSSAIN Roll # 61509 – 11 & 61504 – 11 MBA (HONORS) DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES GLOBAL INSTITUTE LAHORE MAY 25, 2012
  2. 2. Descriptive Statistics The table and figure # 01 shows the descriptive statistics of age. The total respondents are 65 in which 34% respondents having below than 30 years of age whereas 20 are in 31-40 years and only 8 study respondents having age between 40-50 years. Table & Figure – 1 Age Frequency Percent Below 30 years Valid 34 52.3 31 - 40 years 20 30.8 40 - 50 years 8 12.3 62 95.4 3 4.6 65 100.0 Total Missing System Total Gender profile of the respondents is displayed in the table and figure 2. 85% respondents are male and only 10 respondents are female. Table & Figure – 2 Gender Frequency Percent Male 84.6 Female 10 15.4 Total Valid 55 65 100.0 The respondents who participated in the study are employed in different ranks. Only 5% are working as worker, 40% working as executive while majority of the respondents (52%) are working as staff in different organizations. Table & Figure – 3 Category of Work Frequency Worker Percent Missing Total 4.6 Staff 34 52.3 Executive 26 40.0 Total Valid 3 63 96.9 2 3.1 65 100.0 System Table # 4 represents the marital status of the study respondents. Out of 65 respondents, 35 are married while 30 study participants are single / unmarried. Page 2 of 16
  3. 3. Table & Figure – 4 Marital Status Frequency Percent Married 53.8 Unmarried 30 46.2 Total alid 35 65 100.0 Table # 5 reflects the education of all participants who take part in the survey. Only 6 participants have M. Phil Degree, 17 are Graduate, 25 respondents have Masters Degree and only 12 participants have Doctoral Degree. Table & Figure – 5 Education Frequency 17 26.2 25 38.5 M. Phil 6 9.2 PhD 12 18.5 Total Missing Graduation Masters Valid Percent 60 92.3 5 7.7 65 100.0 System Total Table # 6 shows the organization’s type in which respondents are employed. Results showed that 69% serving in public sector organizations whereas 39% performed their duties in private sector organizations. Table & Figure – 6 Org.Type Frequency Public 40 61.5 Private 25 38.5 Total Valid Percent 65 100.0 Following table # 7 reflects the statistics of current experience. Majority of employees (32%) have 1-3 years experience, 22% have less than 1 years of experience in current organization, 20% have 3-5 years experience, 12% have 5-10 years of experience and 14% have more than 10 years of experience in the current organization. Page 3 of 16
  4. 4. Table & Figure – 7 Current Exp Frequency Percent <1 year 21.5 1- 3 years Valid 14 21 32.3 3 - 5 years 13 20.0 5 - 10 years 8 12.3 > 10 years 9 13.8 65 100.0 Total Page 4 of 16
  5. 5. Compare Means For comparison among the groups, One-Sample KS Test is applied. Table 8 shows the One Sample KS Test which reflects that there is no problem in data normality. So, compare means statistics will be employed further. Table – 8 One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test Motivation N 37 Normal Parameters a,b Mean Std. Deviation Most Extreme Differences 2.7162 .89634 Absolute .086 Positive .058 Negative -.086 Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z .525 Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .946 a. Test distribution is Normal. b. Calculated from data. Gender & Motivation Independent sample T-Test is used to compare the motivation score across the gender. Since the Levene’s Test for Equality of Variance is non-significant, so equal variance assumed. Table # 9 shows that there is no significant difference in motivation across male and female (t=-0.56, significant=.579). Table – 9 Levene's Test for t-test for Equality of Means Equality of Variances F Sig. t df Sig. (2tailed) Mean Std. Error Difference Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Equal Motivation variances assumed .599 .444 -.561 35 .579 -.24403 .43520 Upper - 1.12753 .63947 Page 5 of 16
  6. 6. Organization Type & Motivation Independent sample T-Test is used to compare the motivation score in different types of organizations in which study respondents were employed. Since the Levene’s Test for Equality of Variance is non-significant, so equal variance assumed. Table # 10 shows that there is no significant difference in motivation in public and private sector organizations (t=1.582, significant=.123). Table – 10 Levene's Test for t-test for Equality of Means Equality of Variances F Sig. t df Sig. (2tailed) Mean Std. Error Difference Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Equal Motivation variances .659 .422 assumed 1.582 35 .123 -.46104 .29142 Upper - 1.05266 .13058 Marital Status & Motivation Independent sample T-Test is used to compare the motivation score across the marital status Since the Levene’s Test for Equality of Variance is non-significant, so equal variance assumed. Table # 11 shows that there is no significant difference in motivation score across the marital status of the study respondents (t=-.485, significant=.631). Table – 11 Levene's Test for t-test for Equality of Means Equality of Variances F Sig. t df Sig. (2tailed) Mean Std. Error Difference Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Equal Motivation variances assumed .001 .970 .485 35 .631 -.14570 .30065 Upper -.75606 .46466 Page 6 of 16
  7. 7. Age & Motivation ANOVA statistics is used to find out the difference between age sub-groups and motivation score. This statistics is used because work categories have more than 2 groups. Levene’s Test for Equality of Variance is non-significant (Levene Statistics = .157, p = 0.855) as shown in the table 12. So, equal variance assumed among the groups. Table – 12 Test of Homogeneity of Variances Motivation Levene Statistic df1 df2 .157 Sig. 2 34 .855 When equal variance is assumed than ANOVA table is used to locate the difference instead of Welch Statistics. Table # 13 shows that there is no difference among all sub-groups under the head of age. This means that motivation’s score did not have any significant difference whatsoever the study respondent have age. Table – 13 ANOVA Motivation Sum of Squares Between Groups df Mean Square 2.001 2 1.000 Within Groups 26.922 34 28.923 Sig. .792 Total F 1.263 .296 36 Work Category & Motivation ANOVA statistics is used to find out the difference between work category and motivation score. This statistics is used because work categories have more than 2 groups. Levene’s Test for Equality of Variance is non-significant (Levene Statistics = 3.061, p = 0.061) as shown in the table 14. So, equal variance assumed among the groups. Table – 14 Test of Homogeneity of Variances Motivation Levene Statistic df1 3.061 df2 2 Sig. 32 .061 When equal variance is assumed than ANOVA table is used to locate the difference instead of Welch Statistics. Table # 15 shows that there is no difference among three sub-groups Page 7 of 16
  8. 8. under the head of work category. This means that motivation’s score did not have any significant difference whether the study respondent works as worker, staff or executive. Table – 15 ANOVA Motivation Sum of Squares Between Groups df Mean Square 2.405 2 1.202 Within Groups 25.694 32 28.099 Sig. .803 Total F 1.497 .239 34 Page 8 of 16
  9. 9. Correlation Table – 15 shows the Pearson Correlation between Motivation and current expreince of the study respondents. The results indicates that there is weak but insignificant relationship between experience and motivation (r=0.247, p = .141). Table – 16 Correlations Motivation Pearson Correlation Motivation CurrentExp 1 Sig. (2-tailed) N .247 .141 37 Pearson Correlation CurrentExp 37 .247 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .141 N 37 65 Page 9 of 16
  10. 10. Regression Analysis Table – 17 reflects the regression analsysis in which all independent variable (that are total experience, category of work, organization type, maritual status, gender, current experience and age) regressed on motivation. The results shows that all these variables explain 9% variance in the model. Table – 17 b Model Summary Model Adjusted Std. Error R Square of the R Square F Estimate .304 R Square 1 R Change Change a .092 -.019 .67862 Change Statistics .092 df1 .829 Durbin- df2 Watson Sig. F Change 7 57 .567 1.903 a. Predictors: (Constant), TotalExp, CategoryofWork, Org.Type, Gender, MaritalStatus, CurrentExp, Age b. Dependent Variable: Motivation Table – 18 indicated the significance of the model which includes all independent and dependent variables. F-statistics reveals that the model is insignificant. Table – 18 a ANOVA Model Sum of Squares Regression df Mean Square 7 .382 Residual 26.250 57 28.923 Sig. .829 .567 b .461 Total 1 2.673 F 64 a. Dependent Variable: Motivation b. Predictors: (Constant), TotalExp, CategoryofWork, Org.Type, Gender, MaritalStatus, CurrentExp, Age To find out the positive or negative impact of independent variables on motivation, coefficients statistics are used which is shown in Table – 19. The results indicate that none of the independent variable has significant positive / negative impact on motivation. Page 10 of 16
  11. 11. Table – 19 Coefficients Model a Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized t Sig. Coefficients B (Constant) Std. Error 3.437 .001 .085 .460 .647 .260 -.041 -.290 .773 .184 .156 .155 1.183 .242 -.012 .197 -.009 -.060 .953 .249 .187 .181 1.327 .190 CurrentExp -.090 .078 -.179 -1.164 .249 TotalExp -.005 .015 -.063 -.350 .728 Age Gender CategoryofWork 2.195 .639 .082 .177 -.075 Beta 1 MaritalStatus Org.Type a. Dependent Variable: Motivation Page 11 of 16
  12. 12. Factor Analysis Table – 20 reveals the factor analysis on 22 items of motivation. KMO (KMO - .61, p = 0.001) test indicates that the data is significant for factor analysis which is used to find out the dimensions or reduce the data. Higher the KMO value reflects the more data is reliable for factor analysis. Table – 20 KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .614 Approx. Chi-Square Bartlett's Test of Sphericity 663.403 df 231 Sig. .000 Table – 21 indicates the 6 dimensions that can be drawn from the data. And these dimensions explained 76% variance in the dependent variable. Eigen value is set on standard “1”. Table – 21 Total Variance Explained Component Initial Eigenvalues Total % of Variance Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative % 1 9.045 41.112 41.112 9.045 41.112 41.112 2 2.433 11.059 52.171 2.433 11.059 52.171 3 1.849 8.405 60.575 1.849 8.405 60.575 4 1.257 5.713 66.289 1.257 5.713 66.289 5 1.192 5.420 71.708 1.192 5.420 71.708 6 1.018 4.626 76.334 1.018 4.626 76.334 7 .931 4.234 80.568 8 .845 3.840 84.408 9 .772 3.507 87.915 10 .534 2.428 90.342 11 .459 2.088 92.430 12 .369 1.679 94.109 13 .345 1.570 95.679 14 .295 1.341 97.020 15 .192 .872 97.892 16 .151 .687 98.579 17 .124 .564 99.143 Page 12 of 16
  13. 13. 18 .069 .314 99.457 19 .053 .241 99.698 20 .031 .140 99.839 21 .018 .083 99.922 22 .017 .078 100.000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. For identify the factor loading of each variable, table – 22 is select for this purpose which explicit the rotated component matrix. In table, only highest factor loading is displayed. The summarized results is shown in table – 23. Table – 22 Rotated Component Matrix a Component 1 I am satisfied with the wages I draw at present 2 3 4 5 6 .615 In the organization the bonus scheme is .819 satisfactory The festival advance offered is satisfactory The retirement benefits available are sufficient .844 .686 The leave facility available is .829 sufficient There is no difficulty in .872 getting the leave sanctioned Housing facility provided is .876 satisfactory The rest room facility is .708 satisfactory Canteen facility available is satisfactory .768 The people in the organization are given training on the basis of the .487 needs I feel that the job I do gives me a good status .598 Page 13 of 16
  14. 14. In this organization both praise and appreciation are used to extract work from .671 the employees I find opportunities for advancement in this .745 organization In this organization there is fair amount of team spirit .715 The employees in the organization feel secured in .630 their job I feel that I am always .721 boosted by my superiors I feel that my superior always recognizes the work .806 done by me The superiors in the organization always try to .904 make the job more pleasant and interesting The superiors in the organization provide counseling whenever the .771 sub- ordinates suffer from Emotional disorder Sensible company rules, regulations, procedures, and .567 policies The opportunity to grow through learning new things .585 A superior should give subordinates only the information necessary for .595 them to do their Immediate tasks. Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. a. Rotation converged in 16 iterations. Page 14 of 16
  15. 15. Items I am satisfied with the wages I draw at present In the organization the bonus scheme is satisfactory The festival advance offered is satisfactory The retirement benefits available are sufficient Canteen facility available is satisfactory In this organization both praise and appreciation are used to extract work from the employees I find opportunities for advancement in this organization In this organization there is fair amount of team spirit The opportunity to grow through learning new things A superior should give subordinates only the information necessary for them to do their Immediate tasks. The leave facility available is sufficient There is no difficulty in getting the leave sanctioned Housing facility provided is satisfactory The rest room facility is satisfactory The people in the organization are given training on the basis of the needs I feel that the job I do gives me a good status The employees in the organization feel secured in their job I feel that I am always boosted by my superiors I feel that my superior always recognizes the work done by me Factor Loading Proposed Name .615 .819 .844 .686 .768 .671 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation .745 .715 .585 .595 .829 Availability of Leave .872 .876 Housing Scheme .708 .487 .598 .630 Satisfaction with Style of Supervisory & Company Rules .721 .806 Page 15 of 16
  16. 16. Sensible company rules, regulations, procedures, and policies The superiors in the organization always try to make the job more pleasant and interesting The superiors in the organization provide counseling whenever the subordinates suffer from Emotional disorder .567 .904 Satisfaction with Co-workers .771 Page 16 of 16

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