• Packaging is a process of covering, wrapping of
goods into a package. Packaging involves designing
and producing wrapper for a product.
• Packaging is essential for offering goods in safe and
secured position to consumers.
• Packaging’s role is threefold:
To sell the product
To protect the product
To facilitate the use of the product
ROOTS OF PACKAGING
• Over the past two centuries, burgeoned in response to an
exponential rise in global commercial activity.
• The origin of the modern packaging industry can be
traced back to the late 18th century , when the industrial
revolution heralded widespread changes in
manufacturing. Before, then most manufacturing
processes were dependent on manual labour and small-
• Mechanization not only accelerated the production of all
types of commodities, but also influenced their
• The faster production ,the greater need for packaging
supply could now anticipate and even outstrip demand ,
so packaging needed to attractive as well as functional if
products were to survive market competition .
TYPES OF PACKAGING
• Designed for consumers
convenience and appeal,
marketing consideration and
• The main emphasis is on
• It is designed to focus on the
handling convenience and
• The main focus is on logistic.
The classification of packaging can also be based on level of
packaging done on the product.
• Primary : -Direct contact with product. & Maintain product
• Secondary : -It contains product and primary pack presentation ,
• Tertiary : -Transport shipping , warehouse storage, bulk
REASONS FOR PACKAGING DESIGN
• Product quality must be maintained.
• Customers must be able to easily access and use the
product without harming themselves or contaminating
• All aspects of a pack development that may give rise to
quality problems must be identified and minimized by
• This packing design coordinator must be fully aware of
the involvement required by marketing, quality
assurance and production.
• Once it has fulfilled its role of attracting the consumer’s
attention and setting up the expectations which have
encouraged purchase of the product, packing then has a vital
role to play in assisting the product to meet those
• In addition to containing , protecting and preserving, all of
which will almost certainly be taken for granted.
• Packing works in practical terms by delivering the product
into its intended market and to the end user , in such a way
that it is convenient and safe to use.
FUNCTIONS OF PACKAGING
• Presentation: Presentation of a
product should be attractive and eye
• Protection: Protection increases life
cycle of a product.
• Preservation : It preserves original
colours, quality, flavour, etc.
• Economy : Packaging of a product
should be economically feasible.
• Convenience : Packaging should be
light to handle.
• Containment : Premeasured, pre-weight and then placed in
• Identification: Packaging helps to identify the products
• Labelling : Its helps to promote the sale of goods.
• Handling : When packaging is light in weight it facilitate
easy to handling of cargo.
• Suitability : It should be match with the product.
ROLE OF DESIGN
• Design itself , is a purposeful, conscious effort to establish
order from chaos, replicates almost exactly what evolution
is constantly doing to all matter.
• In seeking evolutionary lasting principles for design it
might be deemed essential to rethink the human purpose.
• This has brought us to a troubling paradox in design. If we
leave things as they are we face certain failure, though
recent history dictates that any change in the way we think.
• The choice of material used for a closure is
determined by the demands of the product,
the expected life of the pack, the need for
reclose ability and the desired product image.
• Performance properties of materials, such as
the barrier offered to the passage of moisture,
oxygen, carbon dioxide and light are known
and are the remit of the packaging
technologist who will have access to the
• This data can be used as first guide to
material selection ,ruling out the unsuitable
and guiding the designer.
• In addition to the efforts of those that seek to reuse
packaging materials in other useful forms, there are
those who seek to minimize waste before it is created.
• This must be considered the most important prerequisite
to any packaging solution.
• This implies that it is vital in a systems perspective that
the total waste produced by a package must be reduced
to a minimum.
• Equally reusing a package might be more detrimental
than utilizing a disposable package in other
• The scale and size of a cooperation like MC
Donald's has unavoidable effects on the
environment. In fact, throughout much of the
past couple of decades, fast food chains has
been pressured into changing their packaging to
become more environmentally responsible.
• First it was the removal of CFCS from the
blown polystyrene burger containers and then it
was the containers themselves that had to be
removed, replaced by an ultra-thin paper
wrapper and a belt of cardboard.
• However, it is not only the burger
packaging that was required to clean
up its act the drinks containers, the
straws, the cutlery and the trays have
all received modification to bring
them into line with what many
consumers saw as minimally
acceptable environmental standings,
especially for packaging such short-
lived products as fast food.
• In all cases of fast food, the
packaging remains long after the food
has been consumed, leaving are
considerable legacy of litter and
• Packaging design by Marianne Rosner Klimchuk and Sandra
• Packaging prototypes 3 by Edward Denison and Guang Yu Ren