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Computer architecture overview

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Computer architecture overview

  1. 1. COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE 1
  2. 2. WHAT IS COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE The internal design operational structure of a computer system The science and art of selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computers that meet functional, performance and cost goals. A set of disciplines that describes a computer system by specifying its parts and their relations. 2
  3. 3. WHAT IS COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE • The conceptual design and fundamental operational structure of a computer system. Computer Architecture = Instruction Set Architecture + Machine Organization + ….. 3
  4. 4. TECHNICAL DEFINITION • A series of abstraction layers that consists of :hardware, firmware, assembler, kernel, operating system and application. • abstraction layer: is a software that translates a high-level request into the low-level commands required to perform the operation 4
  5. 5. FORCES ACTING ON CA 5
  6. 6. SUB-CATEGORIES OF CA • Instruction set architecture • Microarchitecture • System Design 6
  7. 7. SUB-COMPONENTS OF CA • • • • CPU Main Memory I/O Bus Interconnections 7
  8. 8. Why is architecture exciting? • Fast-paced: Technology trends • Important: Prevalence of computers: They’re everywhere! Desktops, laptops, cars, airplanes, ??? 8
  9. 9. Why is architecture challenging? • Difficult to evaluate solutions • Inter-related with other fields 9
  10. 10. Ways to Evaluate New Architectures • Tradeoff between three desired features 10
  11. 11. Inter-related with other fields • Architecture is considered both computer engineering and computer science • Architects interact with other areas • • • • • • • • Circuit design (Electrical Engineering) Transmission lines (EE) Power (EE, Mechanical Engineering) Compilers (Comp Sci) Operating systems (CS) Networking (EE, CS) Databases (CS) Queuing theory (CS, EE, Industrial Engineering) 11
  12. 12. How Architecture Relates to Other Areas Application Software Operating Systems, Compilers, Networking Software Computer Architecture Circuits, Wires, Network Hardware 12
  13. 13. How Architecture Relates to Hardware (EE) Application Software Operating Systems, Compilers, Networking Software Computer Architecture Circuits, Wires, Network Hardware • Architecture should enable efficient hardware design – Avoid huge hardware structures – Avoid cross-chip wires 13
  14. 14. How Architecture Relates to System Software Application Software Operating Systems, Compilers, Networking Software Computer Architecture Circuits, Wires, Network Hardware • Architecture should support system software – Provide good target for compiler (unlike IA-64?) – Support important OS features (such as synchronization) 14
  15. 15. How Architecture Relates to User Software Application Software Operating Systems, Compilers, Networking Software Computer Architecture Circuits, Wires, Network Hardware • Architecture should efficiently run important apps • Intel added MMX hardware to support media apps • Sun & IBM design multiprocessors for commercial apps 15
  16. 16. WHY WE STUDY COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE • • • • • Understand what computer really is What is inside a computer Why a computer is designed Optimize programs written in high level languages Take advantage of the speed offered by the latest advances in supercomputers 16
  17. 17. WHY WE STUDY COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE • The understanding of the components that make up the computer and the way they are interconnected • Be aware of the advancements in computer architecture • You need to understand infrastructure, design and possibly make your programs multi-platform. Then you leave little reason why a client cannot use your program. 17
  18. 18. THANK YOU •?????? 18

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