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Open Educational Resources (OER) - A Quick Introduction


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This guest lecture focuses on providing a quick introduction on OER to PhD students in the education stream at Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU). The topics covered are (i) What are OER?; (ii) What are useful OER?; (iii) OER Search; (iv) Useful OER sources; and (v) OER vs. MOOC.

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Open Educational Resources (OER) - A Quick Introduction

  1. 1. Open Educational Resources (OER) A Quick Introduction Guest Lecture Faculty of Education Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Islamabad, Pakistan 27th August 2014
  2. 2. Ishan Abeywardena MSc, MSc (Brunel), BSc (Bangalore), MIEEE, MBCS, MIET, MTA Deputy Dean and Senior Lecturer School of Science and Technology Wawasan Open University Penang, Malaysia
  3. 3. Outline • What are OER? • What are useful OER? • OER Search • Useful OER Sources • OER vs. MOOC
  4. 4. What are OER?
  5. 5. “web-based materials, offered freely and openly for use and re-use in teaching, learning and research” (Joyce, 2007). Joyce, A. (2007). OECD Study of OER: Forum Report, OECD. Retrieved December 12, 2011 from
  6. 6. “teaching, learning and research materials in any medium, digital or otherwise, that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions” (UNESCO Paris OER Declaration, 2012) UNESCO. (2012, June 22). 2012 PARIS OER DECLARATION. Retrieved June 13, 2013, from
  7. 7. OER: Just another means of getting there…
  8. 8. basis for training the global masses increased access reduced costs increased equity Impact
  9. 9. What are useful OER?
  10. 10. How useful is a resource really?
  11. 11. Measures of usefulness Openness Accessibility Relevance
  12. 12. Less useful resources are less desirable for teaching and learning needs…. What is Desirability? Openness Accessibility Relevance
  13. 13. Openness
  14. 14. four ‘R’s model:  Reuse  Redistribute  Revise  Remix  Retain Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Stein, J., & Johnson, A. (2010). The four R‘s of openness and ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for open educational resources. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 25(1), 37-44. O
  15. 15. Lets watch a video on CC
  16. 16. Unported Ported
  17. 17. Accessibility
  18. 18. Access (ALMS) Hilton, J., Wiley, D., Stein, J., & Johnson, A. (2010). The four R‘s of openness and ALMS Analysis: Frameworks for open educational resources. Open Learning: The Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 25(1), 37-44. • Access to editing tools • Level of expertise required to revise or remix • Meaningfully editable • Source file access
  19. 19. Relevance
  20. 20. Content repositories Portal repositories Content and portal repositories McGreal, R. (2010). Open Educational Resource Repositories: An Analysis. Proceedings: The 3rd Annual Forum on e-Learning Excellence, 1-3 February 2010, Dubai, UAE. Curation
  21. 21. So…how do I find the material I need for my teaching?
  22. 22. Google“AdvancedSearch”resultsforOERonChemistry(24thMay2012)
  23. 23. Native search mechanisms perhaps?
  24. 24. i. Facilitate finding, retrieving and sharing of OER. Encourage the development of user- friendly tools to locate and retrieve OER that are specific and relevant to particular needs. (UNESCO Paris OER Declaration, 2012) The Declaration UNESCO. (2012). Paris OER Declaration, Retrieved September18, 2012 from
  25. 25. Linked Open Data (accessed 23/06/2014)
  26. 26. Lets watch a video on LOD
  27. 27. Useful OER Sources
  28. 28.
  29. 29.
  30. 30. OER vs. MOOC
  31. 31. “The large scale of the community, from several hundred to several thousand participants, maximizes the possibility that the “long tail” effect will enable someone with even the most esoteric interests within the overall focus of the MOOC to find people with whom to share and collaborate” McAuley, Stewart, Siemens, & Cormier (2010) McAuley, A., Stewart, B., Siemens, G., & Cormier, D. (2010). The MOOC Model for Digital Practice. Retrieved 12 15, 2013, from
  32. 32. “...what MOOCs will not do is address the challenge of expanding higher education in the developing world. It may encourage universities there, both public and private, to develop online learning more deliberately, and OER from MOOC courses may find their way, alongside OER from other sources, into the teaching of local institutions”. Daniel (2012) Daniel, J. (2012). Making sense of MOOCs: Musings in a maze of myth, paradox and possibility. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 3.
  33. 33. Sentiment Analysis What does the public think?? Paris OER Declaration 2012
  34. 34. (15/01/2014) • 230+ million monthly active users • 500 million Tweets are sent per day • 76% of Twitter active users are on mobile • 77% of accounts are outside the U.S. • Twitter supports 35+ languages • Vine: More than 40 million users
  35. 35. The Twitter dataset used in the study consisting of tweets which include the terms ‘OER’ and ‘MOOC’. Search Query Tweet History Timespan No. of Distinct Tweets OER 1/11/2012 – 31/10/2013 12 months 1209 MOOC 1/05/2013 – 31/10/2013 6 months 2823
  36. 36. Change in public opinion on ‘OER’ vs. ‘MOOC’ for a 6 month timespan between May to October 2013
  37. 37. • there is an increasing amount of interest on MOOC; • the public still hasn’t formed strong opinions regarding MOOC due to the novelty of the ideology; • the positivity towards OER is growing. Trends
  38. 38. Questions? I will also be happy to answer your queries if you e-mail me via Thanks!
  39. 39. About… Ishan Abeywardena Deputy Dean and Senior Lecturer, School of Science and Technology, Wawasan Open University, Penang, Malaysia • MSc in Wireless Enterprise Business Systems, Brunel University, UK. • MSc in Engineering Management, Brunel University, UK. • BSc in Computer Science, Bangalore University, India. • PhD Candidate in Computer Science, University Malaya, Malaysia. Areas of specialisation: text mining, metadata, faceted search Professional Member of – Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (MIEEE) – British Computer Society (MBCS) – Institution of Engineering and Technology (MIET) – Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP) – Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) Official Profile: Professional Profile: Research Profile: Tech Blog: E-mail:
  40. 40. Media Sources • • • Open_Clip_Art_Library_Piggy_Bank.svg.png • • •,_Cairo_02.JPG • • • •